Kaishu
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Kaishu
Regular script
KaishuOuyangxun.jpg
Type
LanguagesOld Chinese, Middle Chinese, Modern Chinese
Time period
Bronze Age China, Iron Age China, Present day
Parent systems
Child systems
Kanji
Kana
Hanja
Bopomofo
Simplified Chinese
Chu Nom
Khitan script
Jurchen script
Tangut script
Nü Shu
4E00-9FFF, 3400-4DBF, 20000-2A6DF, 2A700-2B734, 2F00-2FDF, F900-FAFF

Regular script (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: k?ish?; Hepburn: kaisho), also called (pinyin: zhèngk?i), (zh?nsh?), (k?it?) and (zhèngsh?), is the newest of the Chinese script styles (appearing by the Cao Wei dynasty ca. 200 CE and maturing stylistically around the 7th century), hence most common in modern writings and publications (after the Ming and gothic styles, used exclusively in print).[clarification needed]

History

Sheng Jiao Xu by Chu Suiliang: calligraphy of the Kaishu style. ?/?/?/?
Regular script
Kaishu.png
Chinese characters of "Regular Script" in traditional characters (left) and in the simplified form (right).
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Literal meaningmodel script
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Literal meaningreal script
Second alternative Chinese name
Chinese
Literal meaningcorrect model
Third alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Literal meaningmodel form
Fourth alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Literal meaningcorrect script

Regular script came into being between the Eastern Hàn and Cáo Wèi dynasties,[1] and its first known master was Zh?ng Yáo (sometimes also read Zh?ng Yóu; ),[2] who lived in the E. Hàn to Cáo Wèi period, ca. 151-230 CE. He is known as the "father of regular script", and his famous works include the Xu?nshì Bi?o (), Jiànjìzhí Bi?o (?), and Lìmìng Bi?o (). Qiu Xigui[1] describes the script in Zhong's Xu?nshì Bi?o as:

...clearly emerging from the womb of early period semi-cursive script. If one were to write the tidily written variety of early period semi-cursive script in a more dignified fashion and were to use consistently the pause technique (dùn ?, used to reinforce the beginning or ending of a stroke) when ending horizontal strokes, a practice which already appears in early period semi-cursive script, and further were to make use of right-falling strokes with thick feet, the result would be a style of calligraphy like that in the "Xu?n shì bi?o".

However, other than a few literati, very few wrote in this script at the time; most continued writing in neo-clerical script, or a hybrid form of semi-cursive and neo-clerical.[1] Regular script did not become dominant until the early Southern and Northern Dynasties, in the 5th century; there was a variety of regular script which emerged from neo-clerical as well as from Zhong Yao's regular script,[3] known as "Wei regular" ( Weikai) or "Wei stele" ( Weibei). Thus, regular script has parentage in early semi-cursive as well as neo-clerical scripts.

The script is considered to have matured stylistically during the Tang Dynasty, with the most famous and oft-imitated regular script calligraphers of that period being:

Characteristics

Regular script characters with width (or length) larger than 5 cm (2 in) is usually considered larger regular script, or dakai (), and those smaller than 2 cm (0.8 in) usually small regular script, or xiaokai (). Those in between are usually called medium regular script, or zhongkai (). What these are relative to other characters. The Eight Principles of Yong are said to contain a variety of most of the strokes found in regular script.

Notable writings in regular script include:

Derivatives

  • Imitation Song typefaces (Chinese: ; pinyin: f?ng Sòngt?) are typefaces based on a printed style which developed in the Song dynasty, from which Ming typefaces developed.
  • The most common printed typeface styles Ming and sans-serif are based on the structure of regular script.
  • The Japanese textbook typefaces (?; Hepburn: ky?kashotai) are based on regular script, but modified so that they appear to be written with a pencil or pen. They also follow the standardized character forms prescribed in the J?y? kanji.
  • Zhuyin Fuhao characters, although not true Chinese characters, are virtually always written with regular script strokes.

In computing

References

  1. ^ a b c Qiú 2000 p. 143
  2. ^ Qiú 2000 p. 142
  3. ^ Qiú 2000 p. 146
  • Qiu Xigui (2000). Chinese Writing. Translation of by Mattos and Norman. Early China Special Monograph Series No. 4. Berkeley: The Society for the Study of Early China and the Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley. ISBN 1-55729-071-7.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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