Karachay-Balkar Language
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Karachay-Balkar Language

Karachay-Balkar
-?
Native toRussia
RegionKabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, Afyonkarahisar Province
EthnicityKarachays, Balkars
Native speakers
310,000 (2010 census)[1]
Dialects
  • Karachay
  • Balkar
Cyrillic
Latin
Official status
Official language in
 Russia
Language codes
krc
krc
Glottologkara1465[2]
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Koran Karachay-Balkar language version

The Karachay-Balkar language (-? , Qaraçay-Malqar til or , Tawlu til, Kabardian?) is a Turkic language spoken by the Karachays and Balkars in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia, European Russia, as well as by an immigrant population in Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey. It is divided into two dialects: Karachay-Baksan-Chegem, which pronounces two phonemes as /t?/ and /d?/, and Malkar, which pronounces the corresponding phonemes as /ts/ and /z/. The modern Karachay-Balkar written language is based on the Karachay-Baksan-Chegem dialect. The language is closely related to Kumyk.[3]

Writing

Historically the Arabic Alphabet had been used by first writers until 1924. Handwritten manuscripts of the Balkar poet Kazim Mechiev and other examples of literature have preserved to this day. First printed books in Karachay-Balkar language were published In the beginning of 20th century.

After the October Revolution as part of a state campaign of Latinisation Karachay and Balkar educators developed a new alphabet based on latin letters. In 1930s the official Soviet policy was revised and the process of Cyrillization the languages of USSR peoples was started. In 1937-38 the new alphabet based on Cyrillic letters was officially adopted.

Alphabet

Modern Karachay-Balkar Cyrillic alphabet:

? ?
/a/
? ?
/b/
? ?
/v/
? ?
/g/

? ?
/d/

/d?/
? ?
/je/
? ?
/ø, jo/
? ?*
/?/
? ?
/z/
? ?
/i/
? ?
/j/
? ?
/k/

/q/
? ?
/l/
? ?
/m/
? ?
/n/

/?/
? ?
/o/
? ?
/p/
? ?
/r/
? ?
/s/
? ?
/t/
? ?
/u, w/
? ?*
/f/
? ?
/x/
? ?
/ts/
? ?
/t?/
? ?
/?/
? ?
?
? ?
/?/
?
? ?
/e/
? ?
/y, ju/
? ?
/ja/
* Not found in native vocabulary

Karachay-Balkar Latin alphabet:

A a B ? C c Ç ç D d E e F f G g
? ? I i J j K k Q q L l M m N n
N? n? O o ? ? P p R r S s ? ? T t
? ? U u V v Y y X x Z z ? ?

Phonology

Vowels[4]
Front Back
Close i y ? u
Mid e ø o
Open a
Consonants[4]
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive p b t d k ? (q) (?)
Fricative [f] s z ? x (?) h
Affricate [ts] t? d?
Nasal m n ?
Liquid l r
Approximant w j

Parentheses indicate allophones.

Grammar

Nominals

Cases

Case Suffix
Nominative
Accusative -NI
Genitive -NI
Dative -GA
Locative -DA
Ablative -DA?

Possessive suffixes

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Singular -I? -I -(s)I(n)
Plural -I?I? -I?I? -(s)I(n)

Language example

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Karachay-Balkar:

In Cyrillic Transliteration Translation
? ? ? . ? ? - . Bütew adamla erkin bolub emda s?ylar? bla haqlar? teñ bolub tuwad?la. Ala?a aq?l bla nam?s berilgendi emda bir-birlerine qarna?l?q halda qarar?a kerekdile. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Numerals

Numeral Karachay-Balkar Kumyk Nogay
0 ? ? ?
1
2
3
4 ? ?
5
6 ? ? ?
7 ? ?
8
9
10

Loanwords

Loanwords from Ossetian, Kabardian, Russian, Arabic, and Persian are fairly numerous.[3]

Bibliography

  • Chodiyor Doniyorov and Saodat Doniyorova. Parlons Karatchay-Balkar. Paris: Harmattan, 2005. ISBN 2-7475-9577-3.
  • Steve Seegmiller (1996) Karachay (LINCOM)

References

  1. ^ Row 102 in ? 6: ? ? [Appendix 6: Population of the Russian Federation by languages used] (XLS) (in Russian). ? [Federal State Statistics Service].CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Karachay-Balkar". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b George L. Campbell and Gareth King (2013). Compendium of the World Languages. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-1362-5846-6. Retrieved 2014.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  4. ^ a b Seegmiller, Steve. Phonological and Orthographical Information in Dictionaries: The Case of Pröhle's Karachay Glossary and its Successors.

External links


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Karachay-Balkar_language
 



 



 
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