Karlovy Vary
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Karlovy Vary

Karlovy Vary

Karlsbad
October 1997 bird's-eye view of Karlovy Vary
October 1997 bird's-eye view of Karlovy Vary
Flag of Karlovy Vary
Flag
Coat of arms of Karlovy Vary
Coat of arms
Etymology: "Charles' Baths"
Karlovy Vary is located in Czech Republic
Karlovy Vary
Karlovy Vary
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 50°13?50?N 12°52?21?E / 50.23056°N 12.87250°E / 50.23056; 12.87250Coordinates: 50°13?50?N 12°52?21?E / 50.23056°N 12.87250°E / 50.23056; 12.87250
Country Czech Republic
RegionKarlovy Vary
DistrictKarlovy Vary
Founded around1350
Government
 o MayorAndrea Pfeffer Ferklová (ANO)
Area
 o Total59.10 km2 (22.82 sq mi)
Elevation
447 m (1,467 ft)
Population
(2020-01-01[1])
 o Total48,479
 o Density820/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 o Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
360 01
Websitewww.karlovyvary.cz
A geyser in Karlovy Vary

Karlovy Vary (Czech pronunciation: ['karlov? 'var?] ; German: Karlsbad, pronounced ['ka?ls?ba:t] ) is a spa city in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 48,000 inhabitants. It lies on the confluence of the rivers Oh?e and Teplá, approximately 130 km (81 mi) west of Prague. It is named after Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and the King of Bohemia, who founded the city in 1370. It is the site of numerous hot springs (13 main springs, about 300 smaller springs, and the warm-water Teplá River), and is the most visited spa town in the Czech Republic.[2] Until 1945, when the German-speaking inhabitants were expelled, the city was overwhelmingly German-speaking.

History

An ancient late Bronze Age fortified settlement was found in Drahovice. A Slavic settlement on the site of Karlovy Vary is documented by findings in Ta?ovice and Sedlec. People lived in close proximity to the site as far back as the 13th century and they must have been aware of the curative effects of thermal springs.[3]

From the end of the 12th century to the early 13th century, German settlers from nearby German-speaking regions came as settlers, craftsmen and miners to develop the region's economy. Eventually, Karlovy Vary/Karlsbad became a town with a German-speaking population.[4]

Around 1350, Charles IV organized an expedition into the forests surrounding modern-day Karlovy Vary during a stay in Loket. On the site of a spring, he established a spa mentioned as in dem warmen Bade bey dem Elbogen in German, (Hot Spas at the elbow) or Horké Lázn? u Lokte[5] . The location was subsequently named "Karlovy Vary" after the emperor, who extolled the healing powers of the hot springs, at least according to legend. Charles IV granted the town privileges on 14 August 1370. Earlier settlements can also be found on the outskirts of today's city.[]

An important political event took place in the city in 1819, with the issuing of the Carlsbad Decrees following a conference there. Initiated by the Austrian Minister of State Klemens von Metternich, the decrees were intended to implement anti-liberal censorship within the German Confederation.

Due to publications produced by physicians such as David Becher and Josef von Löschner, the city developed into a famous spa resort in the 19th century and was visited by many members of European aristocracy as well as celebrities from many fields of endeavour. It became even more popular after railway lines were completed from Prague to Cheb in 1870.

The number of visitors rose from 134 families in the 1756 season to 26,000 guests annually at the end of the 19th century. By 1911, that figure had reached 71,000, but the outbreak of World War I in 1914 greatly disrupted the tourism on which the city depended.

At the end of World War I in 1918, the large German-speaking population of Bohemia was incorporated into the new state of Czechoslovakia in accordance with the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919). As a result, the German-speaking majority of Karlovy Vary protested. A demonstration on 4 March 1919 passed peacefully, but later that month, six demonstrators were killed by Czech troops after a demonstration became unruly.[6]

According to the 1930 census, the city was home to 23,901 inhabitants - 20,856 were of German ethnicity, 1,446 of Czechoslovak ethnicity (Czech or Slovak), 243 of Jewish ethnicity, 19 of Hungarian ethnicity and 12 of Polish ethnicity.[7]

In 1938, the majority German-speaking areas of Czechoslovakia, known as the Sudetenland, became part of Nazi Germany according to the terms of the Munich Agreement. After World War II, in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement, the vast majority of the people of the city were forcibly expelled because of their German ethnicity. In accordance with the Bene? decrees, their property was confiscated without compensation, and the city was renamed again Karlovy Vary.[]

Since the end of Communist rule in Czechoslovakia in 1989 and the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the presence of Russian businesses in Karlovy Vary has steadily increased.

A panorama showing most of the spa/historic section of Karlovy Vary. Key sites, from left to right, are: the dark grey, socialist-era Thermal Spring Colonnade (also Hot Spring Colonnade or Sprudel) featuring a glass chimney. Directly above is the twin-steeple Church of St. Mary Magdalene. The large, stately building on the central hill is the Hotel Imperial. Below, to the right of the square, is the Opera House. The Grandhotel Pupp is the large white building, far right.

Demographics

In 2012, non-Czech residents were around 7% of the population of the Karlovy Vary region. After Prague, this is the highest proportion in the Czech Republic. The largest group of foreigners were Vietnamese, followed by Germans, Russians, and Ukrainians.[9]

Transport

Local buses (Dopravní podnik Karlovy Vary) and cable cars take passengers to most areas of the city. The Imperial funicular is the oldest tunnel funicular in Europe and the steepest in the Czech Republic, the Diana funicular was at the time of commissioning the longest funicular in Austria-Hungary.[10][11]

The city is accessible via the D6 motorway and inter-city public transport options include inter-city buses, Czech Railways, and Deutsche Bahn via the Karlovy Vary-Johanngeorgenstadt railway. Karlovy Vary Airport is an international airport located 4.5 kilometres (2.8 mi) south-east from the city, at the nearby village of Ol?ová Vrata. In winter 2020, the airport is only serviced by scheduled flights to Moscow.

Churches

Church of St. Mary Magdalene
Orthodox Church of Saints Peter and Paul
Entry to 47th Karlovy Vary International Film Festival in Hotel Thermal

Economy

It is also known for the popular Czech liqueur Becherovka and the production of the famous glass manufacturer Moser Glass, which is considered as the most luxurious Czech brand.[12] The famous Karlovarské oplatky (Carlsbad wafers) originated in the city in 1867. It has also lent its name to "Carlsbad plums", candied stuffed zwetschgen.

Culture

In the 19th century, Karlovy Vary became a popular tourist destination, especially known for international celebrities who visited for spa treatment. The city is also known for the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival, which is one of the oldest in the world and one of Europe's major film events.

The city has been used as the location for a number of film-shoots, including the 2006 films Last Holiday and box-office hit Casino Royale, both of which used the city's Grandhotel Pupp in different guises. Moreover, the Palace Bristol Hotel in Karlovy Vary had been used as a model for The Grand Budapest Hotel movie.

Sport

Karlovy Vary is also home to ice hockey club HC Karlovy Vary and football club FC Slavia Karlovy Vary.

Notable people

Residents

People associated with the city

Commemorative plaque for Peter I of Russia in Karlovy Vary

International relations

Carlsbad, New Mexico, United States[17] (after which Carlsbad Caverns National Park is named), Carlsbad, California, USA[18]Carlsbad Springs, Ontario, Canada, and Carlsbad, Texas, USA, take their names from Karlovy Vary's English name, Carlsbad. All of these places were so named because they were the sites of mineral springs or natural sources of mineral water.

Twin towns - sister cities

Karlovy Vary is twinned with:[19]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "Population of Municipalities - 1 January 2020". Czech Statistical Office. 30 April 2020.
  2. ^ Vývoj náv?t?vnosti lázní v letech 2000-2011
  3. ^ "Karlovy Vary - Urban Monument Zone".
  4. ^ Walter Koschmal, Marek Nekula, Joachim Rogall (2001). Deutsche und Tschechen: Geschichte, Kultur, Politik. C.H.Beck. pp. 338-39.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  5. ^ Ivan Lutterer, Milan Majtán, Rudolf ?rámek (1982). Zem?pisná jména ?eskoslovenska: slovník vybraných zem?pisných jmen s výkladem jejich p?vodu a historického vývoje.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ "Zden?k Vali?: 4. b?ezen 1919 v Kadani". Virtually.cz. Retrieved 2013.
  7. ^ Fidler, Sluka (2006). Encyklopedie branné moci Republiky ?eskoslovenské (in Czech). Libra.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  8. ^ Historický lexikon obcí ?R 1869-2005
  9. ^ Rozhlas.cz, Po?et obyvatel Karlovarského kraje
  10. ^ "Nejstar?í tunelová lanovka v Evrop? slaví 100 let". iDNES.cz. 28 May 2007.
  11. ^ "Karlovy Vary - Unikátní lázn?, do kterých se sjí?dí celý sv?t". Stream.cz (in Czech).
  12. ^ "Studie: Nejluxusn?j?í ?eskou zna?kou je Moser". MediaGuru.cz (in Czech).
  13. ^ hu:Pulváry Károly
  14. ^ http://www.hiddeneurope.co.uk/escape-from-carlsbad
  15. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/40411/Kemal-Ataturk/24780/Military-career
  16. ^ Johannes Baier: Goethe und die Thermalquellen von Karlovy Vary (Karlsbad, Tschechische Republik). In: Jahresberichte und Mitteilungen des Oberrheinischen Geologischen Vereins. N. F. Bd. 94, 2012, ISSN 0078-2947, S. 87-103.
  17. ^ About Carlsbad, NM Archived 17 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 2012-03-23
  18. ^ City of Carlsbad - History of Carlsbad Archived 23 November 2012 at WebCite, retrieved 2012-03-23.
  19. ^ "Zahrani?ní vztahy" (in Czech). Statutární m?sto Karlovy Vary. Retrieved 2020.

Further reading

External links


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