Kashmiri Language
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Kashmiri Language

Kashmiri
,,
Koshur.png
Native toIndia, Pakistan
RegionJammu and Kashmir,[1]Azad Kashmir
EthnicityKashmiris
Native speakers
7 million (2011 census)[2]
Dialects
Perso-Arabic script (contemporary, official status),[3]
Devanagari (contemporary),[3]
Sharada script (ancient/liturgical)[3]
Official status
Official language in
 India
Language codes
ks
kas
kas
Glottologkash1277[6]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Kashmiri [7] or Koshur (,, /k?:?ur/)[8] is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages, spoken by around 7 million Kashmiris, primarily in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.

In 2020 the Parliament of India passed a bill to make Kashmiri official language of Jammu and Kashmir along with Dogri, Hindi, English and Urdu. Kashmiri is also among the 22 scheduled languages of India.

Kashmiri has split ergativity and the unusual verb-second word order.

Geographic distribution and status

There are about 6.8 million speakers of Kashmiri and related dialects in Jammu and Kashmir and amongst the Kashmiri diaspora in other states of India.[9] Most Kashmiri speakers are located in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.[10]

Kashmiri is also spoken in Pakistan, primarily in the territory of Azad Kashmir, where the speakers are mostly concentrated in the Neelam and Leepa valleys and in the district of Haveli.[11] Their numbers are not known exactly, but published figures have ranged from 130,000 (according to a 2012 estimate)[12] to 350,000 (as of the 2017 census).[13]

The Kashmiri language is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India.[14] It was a part of the eighth Schedule in the constitution of the Jammu and Kashmir. Along with other regional languages mentioned in the Sixth Schedule, as well as Hindi and Urdu, the Kashmiri language is to be developed in the state.[15]

The majority of sources make mention of three dialects for Kashmiri. Poguli and Rambani predominate in the Ramban valley, while Kishtwari is a highly distinctive variety which is considered by some to be a separate language altogether

Most Kashmiri speakers use Urdu or English as a second language.[1] Since November 2008, the Kashmiri language has been made a compulsory subject in all government schools in the Valley up to secondary level.[16][17]

Phonology

Kashmiri has the following vowel phonemes:[18][19]

Vowels

  Front Central Back
High i i: ? ?: u u:
Mid e e: ? ?: o o:
Low a a: ? ?:

Consonants

Archaisms

Kashmiri, as also the other Dardic languages, shows important divergences from the Indo-Aryan mainstream. One is the partial maintenance of the three sibilant consonants s ? ? of the Old Indo-Aryan period. For another example, the prefixing form of the number 'two', which is found in Sanskrit as dvi-, has developed into ba-/bi- in most other Indo-Aryan languages, but du- in Kashmiri (preserving the original dental stop d). Seventy-two is dusatath in Kashmiri, bahattar in Hindi-Urdu and Punjabi, and dvisaptati in Sanskrit.[20]

Certain features in Kashmiri even appear to stem from Indo-Aryan even predating the Vedic period. For instance, there was an /s/ > /h/ consonant shift in some words that had already occurred with Vedic Sanskrit (this tendency is even stronger in the Iranian branch of Indo-Iranian), yet is lacking in Kashmiri equivalents. The word rahit in Vedic Sanskrit and modern Hindi-Urdu (meaning 'excluding' or 'without') corresponds to rost in Kashmiri. Similarly, sahit (meaning 'including' or 'with') corresponds to sost in Kashmiri.[20]

Writing system

There are three orthographical systems used to write the Kashmiri language: the Sharada script, the Devanagari script and the Perso-Arabic script. The Roman script is also sometimes informally used to write Kashmiri, especially online.[3]

The Kashmiri language is traditionally written in the Sharada script after the 8th Century A.D.[21] This script however, is not in common use today, except for religious ceremonies of the Kashmiri Pandits.[22]

Today it is written in Perso-Arabic and Devanagari scripts (with some modifications).[23] Among languages written in the Perso-Arabic script, Kashmiri is one of the scripts that regularly indicates all vowel sounds.[24]

The Perso-Arabic script is recognised as the official script of Kashmiri language by the Jammu and Kashmir government and the Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages.[25][26][27][28]

Nowadays, Kashmiri Perso-Arabic script has come to be associated with Kashmiri Muslims, while the Kashmiri Devanagari script has come to be associated with the Kashmiri Hindu community.[29][30]

Perso-Arabic script

Consonants

Name Transliteration IPA Isolated glyph
b? b /b/ ?
p? p /p/ ?
t? t /t/ ?
? /?/ ?
s? s /s/ ?
j?m j /d/ ?
ch?m ch /t/ ?
hai h /h/ ?
khai kh /x, k?/ ?
d?l d /d/ ?
l ? /?/ ?
z?l z /z/ ?
r? r /r/ ?
? /?/ ?
z? z /z/ ?
ts? ts /t?s/ ?
s?n s /s/ ?
sh?n ? /?/ ?
sd s /s/ ?
zd z /z/ ?
? t?y t /t/ ?
? z?y z /z/ ?
'?:n ', - /?, ?/ ?
g?:n g /g/ ?
f? f /f, p?/ ?
k?f k /k/ ?
k?f k /k/ ?
g?f g /?/ ?
l?m l /l/ ?
m?m m /m/ ?
n?n n, ? /n, ?/ ?
w?w v /w/ ?
h? h /h/ ?
y? y /j/ ?
cho ye -y- /?/ ?

The digraphs of Aspirated consonant are as follow.

Digraph Transcription IPA
ph [p?]
th [t?]
?h []
?h [t]
ch [t?s?]
kh [k?]

Vowels

Transliteration IPA Vowel combined with consonant ? (be) Final vowel glyph Medial vowel glyph Initial vowel glyph Isolated vowel glyph Unicode diacritic glyph details
a /a/ -? -? U+064E ARABIC FATHA
? /a:/ ? ? ? ? (?) U+0622 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH MADDA ABOV (Initial & Isolate)

(?) U+0627 ARABIC LETTER ALEF (Medial & Final)

? (ö) /?/ -? -? ? ? U+0654 ARABIC HAMZA ABOVE
(?) /?:/ ? ? ? ? (?) U+0672 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH WAVY HAMZA ABOVE
i /i/ -? -? U+0650 ARABIC KASRA
? /i:/ ? ? ? () U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH & U+0656 ARABIC SUBSCRIPT ALEF (Initial & Medial)

U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH (Final & Isolate)

u',ü /?/ -? -? ? ? U+0655 ARABIC HAMZA BELOW
?',? /?:/ -? -? ? ? (?) U+0673 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH WAVY HAMZA BELOW
u /u/ -? -? U+064F ARABIC DAMMA
? /u:/ () U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW & U+0657 ARABIC INVERTED DAMMA
o /o/ (?) U+06C6 ARABIC LETTER OE
? /o:/ (?) U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW
? /?/ ? (?) U+06C4 ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH RING
/?:/ - - (? + ?) U+06C4 ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH RING & U+0627 ARABIC LETTER ALEF
e /e/ ?

( ?) U+065A ARABIC VOWEL SIGN SMALL V ABOVE combined with (?) U+06D2 ARABIC LETTER YEH BARREE

? /e:/ ? (?) U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH

Devanagari

Consonants

Letter ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
IPA [k] [k?] [g] [t] [t] [d] [t?s] [t?s?] [z] [?] [] [?] [t] [t?] [d] [n] [p] [p?] [b] [m] [j] [r] [l] [w] [?] [s] [h]
Transliteration k kh g ? ?h j c ch z ? ?h ? t th d n p ph b m y r l w ? s h

Vowels

There have been a few versions of the devanagari script for Kashmiri.[31] The 2002 version of the proposal is shown below.[32] This version has readers & more content available on the Internet, even though this is an older proposal.[33][34] This version makes use of the vowels ?/? & vowel signs / for the schwa-like vowel [?] & elongated schwa-like vowel [?:] that also exist in other Devanagari based scripts such as Marathi & Hindi but are used for the sound of other vowels.

Letter ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? -? ?
IPA [a] [a:] [?] [?:] [i] [i:] [?] [?:] [u] [u:] [e] [e:] [?i] [o] [o:] [?u] [?] []
Transliteration a ? ö ? i ? ü ? u ? e ? ai o ? au ? ?
Vowel mark indicated on consonant k ? or

Tabulated below is the latest (2009) version of the proposal to spell the Kashmiri vowels with Devanagari. [35][36] The primary change in this version is the changed stand alone characters ? / ? & vowel signs / for the schwa-like vowel [?] & elongated schwa-like vowel [?:] and a new stand alone vowel ? & vowel sign for the open-mid back rounded vowel [?] which can be used instead of the consonant ? standing-in for this vowel.

Letter ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
IPA [a] [a:] [?] [?:] [i] [i:] [?] [?:] [u] [u:] [e] [e:] [?i] [o] [o:] [?u] [?] []
Transliteration[37] a ? ö ? i ? ü ? u ? e ? ai o ? au ? ?
Vowel mark indicated on consonant k ?

Grammar

Kashmiri is a fusional language[38] with verb-second (V2) word order.[39] Several of Kashmiri's grammatical features distinguish it from other Indo-Aryan languages.[40]

Nouns

Kashmiri nouns are inflected according to gender, number and case. There are no articles, nor is there any grammatical distinction for definiteness, although there is some optional adverbial marking for indefinite or "generic" noun qualities.[38]

Gender

The Kashmiri gender system is divided into masculine and feminine. Feminine forms are typically generated by the addition of a suffix (or in most cases, a morphophonemic change, or both) to a masculine noun.[38] TA relatively small group of feminine nouns have unique suppletion forms that are totally different from the corresponding masculine forms.[41] The following table illustrates the range of possible gender forms:[42]

Process Masculine Feminine Meaning
Adding of affixe /?ur/

/?ur?/

?

child
vowel change /gagur/

/gag?r/

Rat
consonant change /hok?/

?

/hot/

?

dry
vowel/consonant change /tot/

/t?t?s/

hot
suppletive form /mar?d/

/zana:n/

man/woman
masculine only /ka:w/

--- crow
feminine only --- /m?t/

?

fly

Some nouns borrowed from other languages, such as Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit, Urdu or English, follow a slightly different gender system. Notably, many words borrowed from Urdu have different genders in Kashmiri.[41]

Case

There are five cases in Kashmiri: nominative, dative, ergative, ablative and vocative.[43] Case is expressed via suffixation of the noun.

Kashmiri utilizes an ergative-absolutive case structure when the verb is in simple past tense.[43] Thus, in these sentences, the subject of a transitive verb is marked in the ergative case and the object in nominative, which is identical to how the subject of an intransitive verb is marked.[43][44][45] However, in sentences constructed in any other tense, or in past tense sentences with intransitive verbs, a nominative-dative paradigm is adopted, with objects (whether direct or indirect) generally marked in dative case.[46]

Other case distinctions, such as locative, instrumental, genitive, comitative and allative, are marked by postpositions rather than suffixation.[47]

Noun morphology

The following table illustrates Kashmiri noun declension according to gender, number and case.[46][48]

Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
Nom.
Erg. -/an/

-/aw/

-/i/

-/aw/

Dat. -/as/ - /is/

or

-/an/

-/i/

-/an/

Abl. -/i/ -/?/

or ?

-/aw/

-/i/

-/aw/

Voc. -/a:/

?

-/aw/

-/ij/

-/aw/

Verbs

Kashmiri verbs are declined according to tense and person, and to a lesser extent, gender. Tense, along with certain distinctions of aspect, is formed by the addition of suffixes to the verb stem (minus the infinitive ending - /un/), and in many cases by the addition of various modal auxiliaries.[49] Postpositions fulfill numerous adverbial and semantic roles.[50]

Tense

Present tense in Kashmiri is an auxiliary construction formed by a combination of the copula and the imperfective suffix -/a:n/ added to the verb stem. The various copula forms agree with their subject according to gender and number, and are provided below with the verb /jun/ (to come):[51]

Present
Masculine Feminine
1st Person Sing. /tus jiwa:n/

?

/tas jiwa:n/

?

2nd Person Sing. /tuk? jiwa:n/

/tak? jiwa:n/

3rd Person Sing. /tu jiwa:n/

/te jiwa:n/

?

1st Person Pl. /ti jiwa:n/

/ta jiwa:n/

2nd Person Pl. /tiw jiwa:n/

?

/taw jiwa:n/

?

3rd Person Pl. /ti jiwa:n/

/te jiwa:n/

?

Past tense in Kashmiri is significantly more complex than the other tenses, and is subdivided into three past tense distinctions.[52] The simple (sometimes called proximate) past refers to completed past actions. Remote past refers to actions that lack this in-built perfective aspect. Indefinite past refers to actions performed a long time ago, and is often used in historical narrative or storytelling contexts.[53]

As described above, Kashmiri is a split-ergative language; in all three of these past tense forms, the subjects of transitive verbs are marked in the ergative case and direct objects in the nominative. Intransitive subjects are marked in the nominative.[53] Nominative arguments, whether subjects or objects, dictate gender, number and person marking on the verb.[53][54]

Verbs of the simple past tense are formed via the addition of a suffix to the verb stem, which usually undergoes certain uniform morphophonemic changes. First and third person verbs of this type do not take suffixes and agree with the nominative object in gender and number, but there are second person verb endings. The entire simple past tense paradigm of transitive verbs is illustrated below using the verb /parun/ ("to read"):[55]

Simple Past (Transitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person /por/
/p?r?/

?

/p?r/

/pari/

?

2nd Person

(Non-honorific)

/porut?/

/p?rit?/

/p?r?t?/

/par?at?/

2nd Person (Honorific) /porw?/

/p?riw?/

/p?rw?/

/pariw?/

3rd Person /por/

/p?r?/

?

/p?r/

/pari/

?

A group of irregular intransitive verbs (special intransitives), take a different set of endings in addition to the morphophonemic changes that affect most past tense verbs.[56]

Simple Past (Special Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -/us/

-/?/

?

-/as/

-/i/

2nd Person -/k?/

-/w?/

-/k?/

-/w?/

3rd Person -/t/

-/i/

Intransitive verbs in the simple past are conjugated the same as intransitives in the indefinite past tense form.[57]

Simple Past (Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -/jas/

-/je:ji/

-/je:jas/

-/je:ji/

2nd Person -/ja:k?/

?

-/je:jiw?/

?

-/je:jak?/

?

-/je:jiw?/

?

3rd Person -/jo:w/

-/je:ji/

-/je:ji/

-je:ji

In contrast to the simple past, verb stems are unchanged in the indefinite and remote past, although the addition of the tense suffixes does cause some morphophonetic change.[58] Transitive verbs are declined according to the following paradigm:[59]

Indefinite Past (Transitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st/3rd Person -/jo:w/

-/e:ji/

?

-/e:ji/

?

-/e:ji/

?

2nd Person -/jo:t?/

?

-/e:jat?/

? ?

-/e:jat?/

? ?

-/e:jat?/

? ?

Remote Past (Transitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st/3rd Person -/e:jo:w/

?

-/e:ja:ji/

?

-/e:ja:ji/

?

-/e:ja:ji/

?

2nd Person -/e:jo:t?/

? ?

-/e:je:jat?/

? ?

-/e:je:jat?/

? ?

-/e:je:jat?/

? ?

As in the simple past, "special intransitive" verbs take a different set of endings in the indefinite and remote past:[60]

Indefinite Past (Special Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -/a:s/

-/a:jas/

?

-/a:jas/

?

-/a:ji/

?

2nd Person -/k?/

-/k?/

-/a:jak?/

-/a:jiw?/

3rd Person -/aw/

-/a:ji/

?

-/a:ji/

?

-a:ji

?

Remote Past (Special Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -/a:ja:s/

?

-/e:ja:ji/

?

-/e:je:jas/

?

-/e:je:ji/

?

2nd Person -/a:k?/

-/e:jiw?/

? ?

-/a:jak?/

-/a:jiw?/

3rd Person -/e:jo:w/

?

-/e:je:ji/

?

-/e:ja:j?/

?

-/e:ja:j?/

?

Regular intransitive verbs also take a different set of endings in the indefinite and remote past, subject to some morphophonetic variation:[61]

Indefinite Past (Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -/jas/

-/je:ji/

-/je:jas/

-/je:ji/

2nd Person -/ja:k?/

?

-/je:jiw?/

?

-/je:jak?/

?

-/je:jiw?/

?

3rd Person -/jo:w/

-/je:ji/

-/je:ji/

-/je:ji/

Remote Past (Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -/je:ja:s/

-/je:ji/

-/je:ja:s/

-/je:ji/

2nd Person -/je:jak?/

?

-/je:jiw?/

?

-/je:jak?/

?

-/je:jiw?/

?

3rd Person -/je:jo:w/

-/je:ji/

-/je:ja:j?/

-/je:j?/

Future tense intransitive verbs are formed by the addition of suffixes to the verb stem:[62]

Future (Intransitive)
Singular Plural
1st Person -/m?/

-/maw/

2nd Person -/ak?/

?

-/jiw/

3rd Person -/ji/

-/an/

The future tense of transitive verbs, however, is formed by adding suffixes that agree with both the subject and direct object according to number, in a complex fashion:[63]

Future (Transitive)
Singular Object Plural Object
1st Person Sing. -/an/

-/ak?/

?

1st Person Pl. -/?ho:n/

?

-/?ho:k?/

2nd Person Sing. -/?h?n/

-/?h?k?/

?

2nd Person Pl. -/?hu:n/

-/?hu:k?/

3rd Person Sing. -/jas/

-/jak?/

?

3rd Person Pl. -/?nas/

?

-/?nak?/

Aspect

There are two main aspectual distinctions in Kashmiri, perfective and imperfective. Both employ a participle formed by the addition of a suffix to the verb stem, as well as the fully conjugated auxiliary /a:sun/ ("to be")--which agrees according to gender, number and person with the object (for transitive verbs) or the subject (for intransitive verbs).[64]

Like the auxiliary, the participle suffix used with the perfective aspect (expressing completed or concluded action) agrees in gender and number with the object (for transitive verbs) or subject (for intransitives) as illustrated below:[64]

Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
-/mut/

-/m?t?/

?

-/m?t?s/

-/mat?s?/

?

The imperfective (expressing habitual or progressive action) is simpler, taking the participle suffix -/a:n/ in all forms, with only the auxiliary showing agreement.[65] A type of iterative aspect can be expressed by reduplicating the imperfective participle.[66]

Pronouns

Pronouns are declined according to person, gender, number and case, although only third person pronouns are overtly gendered. Also in third person, a distinction is made between three degrees of proximity, called proximate, remote I and remote II.[67]

Nominative
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st /b?/

/?s?/

/b?/

/?s?/

2nd t?s?

/t?h?/

?

/t?s?/

/t?h?/

?

3rd prox. /ji/

/jim/

/ji/

/jim?/

3rd R I /hu/

/hum/

/h?/

/hum?/

3rd R II /su/

/tim/

/s?/

/tim?/

Ergative
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st /me/

/asi/

/me/

/asi/

2nd /t?se/

/t?hi/

/t?se/

/t?hi/

3rd prox. /jem?/

?

/jimaw/

/jemi/

/jimaw/

3rd R I /hum?/

?

/humaw/

/humi/

/humaw/

3rd R II /t?m?/

?

/timaw/

/tami/

/timaw/

Dative
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st /me/

/asi/

/me/

/asi/

2nd /t?se/

/t?hi/

/t?se/

/t?hi/

3rd prox. /jemis/

/jiman/

?

/jemis/

/jiman/

?

3rd R I /humis/

/human/

?

/humis/

/human/

?

3rd R II /t?mis/

/timan/

?

/t?mis/

/timan/

?

Ablative
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st /me/

/asi/

/me/

/asi/

2nd /t?se/

/t?hi/

/t?se/

/t?hi/

3rd prox. /jemi/

/jimaw/

/jemi/

/jimaw/

3rd R I /humi/

/humaw/

/humi/

/humaw/

3rd R II /t?mi/

/timaw/

/t?mi/

/timaw/

There is also a dedicated genitive pronoun set, in contrast to the way that the genitive is constructed adverbially elsewhere. As with future tense, these forms agree with both the subject and direct object in person and number.[68]

Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Sing. /mjo:n/

?

/mj?:n?/

/mj?:n?/

/mja:ni/

1st Pl. /so:n/

/s?:n?/

?

/s?:n?/

?

/sa:ni/

2nd Sing. /to:n/

/t:n?/

?

/t:n?/

?

/ta:ni/

2nd Pl. /tuhund/

?

/tuh?nd?/

/tuh?nz/

?

/tuh?nz?/

3rd Sing. Prox. /jem? sund/

?

/jem? s?nd?/

?

/jem? s?nz/

?

/jem? s?nz?/

?

3rd Pl. Prox. /jihund/

?

/jih?nd?/

/jih?nz/

?

/jih?nz?/

3rd Sing. R I /hum? sund/

?

/hum? s?nd?/

?

/hum? s?nz/

?

/hum? s?nz?/

?

3rd Pl. R I /huhund/

?

/huh?nd?/

/huh?nz/

?

/huh?nz?/

3rd Sing. R II /t?m? sund/

?

/t?m? s?nd?/

?

/t?m? s?nz/

?

/t?m? s?nz?/

?

3rd Pl. R II /tih?nd/

?

/tih?nd?/

/tih?nz /

?

/tih?nz?/

Adjectives

There are two kinds of adjectives in Kashmiri, those that agree with their referent noun (according to case, gender and number) and those that are not declined at all.[69] Most adjectives are declined, and generally take the same endings and gender-specific stem changes as nouns.[70] The declinable adjective endings are provided in the table below, using the adjective /w?zul/ ("red"):[71][72]

Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
Nom. /w?zul/

/w?z?l?/

/w?z?d/

/w?z?di/

?

Erg. /w?z?l?/

?

/w?z?l?aw/

?

/w?z?di/

?

/w?z?daw/

?

Dat. /w?z?lis/

?

/w?z?l?an/

?

/w?z?di/

?

/w?z?dan/

?

Abl. /w?z?li/

?

/w?z?l?aw/

?

/w?z?di/

?

/w?z?daw/

?

Among those adjectives not declined are adjectives that end in -lad or -a, adjectives borrowed from other languages, and a few isolated irregulars.[71]

The comparative and superlative forms of adjectives are formed with the words tsor ("more") and sitha ("most"), respectively.[73]

Numerals

Within the Kashmir language, numerals are separated into cardinal numbers and ordinal numbers.[74] These numeral forms, as well as their aggregative (both, all the five, etc.), multiplicative (two times, four times, etc.), and emphatic forms (only one, only three, etc.) are provided by the table below.[74]

Cardinal Ordinal Aggregative Multiplicative Emphatic
Suffix   -/jum/ for masculine

-/im/ for feminine

-/vaj/ -/gun/ or /gon/ for masculine

-/g?n/ for feminine

-/j/
0. /sifar/ or /not?/

or ?

1. /ak?/

?

/?kjum/ or /?kim/

or ?

   /ogun/ or /og?n/

or

/akuj/

2. /z?/

/dojum/ or /dojim/

or

/dvaj/

/dogun/ or /dog?n/

or

/z?j/

3. /tre/

/trejum/ or /trejim/

? or ?

/tre?vaj/

/trogun/ or /trog?n/

? or ?

/trej/

4. /t?so:r/

/t?su:rjum/ or /t?su:rim/

or

/t?svaj/

/t?sogun/ or /t?sog?n/

or

/t?so:raj/

5. /pã:t?s?/ or /p:t?s?/

or

/p?:t?sjum/ or /p?:t?sim/

or

/pã:t?s?vaj/

/pã:t?s?gun/ or /pã:t?s?g?n/

or

/pã:t?saj/

?

6. /?e/

/?ejum/ or /?ejim/

or

/?en?vaj/

/?ugun/ or /?ug?n/

or

/?ej/

7. /sat?/

?

/s?tjum/ or /s?tim/

? or

/sat?vaj/

/sat?gun/ or /sat?g?n/

or

/sataj/

8. /?:/

/?:jum/ or /u:jum/

or

/?:im/ or /u:im/

or ?

/?:vaj/

?

/?:gun/ or /?:g?n/

? or ?

/?:aj/

9. /naw/

/n?wjum/ or /n?wim/

? or

/naw?waj/

?

/naw?gun/ or /naw?g?n/

? or ?

/nawaj/

10. /d?h/ or /da:h/

or

/d?hjum/ or /d?him/

? or

/d?h?waj/

/d?h?gon/ or /d?h?g?n/

or

/d?haj/

11. /kah/ or /ka:h/

? or

/k?hjum/ or /k?him/

? or

12. /bah/ or /ba:h/

? or

/b?hjum/ or /b?him/

? or

13. /truwa:h/

?

/truw?:hjum/ or /truw?:him/

or

14. /t?s?da:h/

/t?s?d?:hjum/ or /t?s?d?:him/

or ?

15. /panda:h/

?

/pand?:hjum/ or /pand?:him/

or

16. /?ura:h/

/?ur?:hjum/ or /?ur?:him/

or ?

17. /sada:h/

/sad?:hjum/ or /sad?:him/

or ?

18. /ar?da:h/

?

/ar?d?:hjum/ or /ar?d?:him/

or

19. /kun?wuh/

/kun?wuhjum/ or /kun?wuhim/

? or

20. /wuh/

/wuhjum/ or /wuhim/

? or

21. /ak?wuh/

/ak?wuhjum/ or /ak?wuhim/

? or

22. /z?to:wuh/

?

/z?to:wuhjum/ or /z?to:wuhim/

or

23. /trowuh/

?

/trowuhjum/ or /trowuhim/

or

24. /t?sowuh/

/t?sowuhjum/ or /t?sowuhim/

or ?

25. /p?nt?s?h/

?

/p?nt?s?hjum/ or /p?nt?s?him/

or

26. /?at?wuh/

/?at?wuhjum/ or /?at?wuhim/

? or

27. /sato:wuh/

?

/sato:wuhjum/ or /sato:wuhim/

or

28. /ao:wuh/

/ao:wuhjum/ or /ao:wuhim/

or ?

29. /kun?tr?h/

/kun?tr?hjum/ or /kun?tr?him/

or ?

30. /tr?h/

/tr?hjum/ or /tr?him/

or ?

31. /ak?tr?h/

/ak?tr?hjum/ or /ak?tr?him/

or ?

32. /d?jitr?h/

/d?jitr?hjum/ or /d?jitr?hjim/

or ?

33. /tejitr?h/

/tejitr?hjum/ or /tejitr?him/

or ?

34. /t?s?jitr?h/

/t?s?jitr?hjum/ or /t?s?jitr?him/

or ?

35. /p:t?s?tr?h/ or /pã:t?s?tr?h/

or

/p:t?s?tr?hjum/ or /pã:t?s?tr?hjum/

or ?

/p:t?s?tr?him/ or /pã:t?s?tr?him/

or ?

36. /?ejitr?h/

/?ejitr?hjum/ or /?ejitr?him/

or ?

37. /sat?tr?h/

/sat?tr?hjum/ or /sat?tr?him/

or ?

38. /ar?tr?h/

/ar?tr?hjum/ or /ar?tr?him/

? or ? ?

39. /kun?t?:dih/ or /kun?t?:di:/

or ?

/kun?t?:dihjum/ or /kun?t?:dihim/

or ?

40. /t?satdih/ or /t?satdi:/

? or

/t?satdihjum/ or /t?satdihim/

? or

41. /ak?t?:dih/ or /ak?t?:di:/

or ?

/ak?t?:dihjum/ or /ak?t?:dihim/

or ?

42. /d?jit?:dih/ or /d?jit?:di:/

or ?

/d?jit?:dihjum/ or /d?jit?:dihim/

or ?

43. /tejit?:dih/ or /tejit?:di:/

or ?

/tejit?:dihjum/ or /tejit?:dihim/

or ?

44. /t?s?jit?:dih/ or /t?s?jit?:di:/

or ?

/t?s?jit?:dihjum/ or /t?s?jit?:dihim/

or ?

45. /p:t?s?t?:dih/ or /pã:t?s?t?:dih/ or /p:t?s?t?:di:/ or /pã:t?s?t?:di:/

or or ? or ?

/p:t?s?t?:dihjum/ or /pã:t?s?t?:dihim/

or

/p:t?s?t?:dihim/ or /pã:t?s?t?:dihim/

? or ?

46. /?ejit?:dih/ or /?ejit?:di:/

or ?

/?ejit?:dihjum/ or /?ejit?:dihim/

or ?

47. /sat?t?:dih/ or /sat?t?:di:/

or ?

/sat?t?:dihjum/ or /sat?t?:dihim/

or ?

48. /ar?t?:dih/ or /ar?t?:di:/

? or

/ar?t?:dihjum/ or /ar?t?:dihim/

? or ? ?

49. /kun?wanza:h/

/kun?wanz?:hjum/ or /kun?wanz?:him/

? or

50. /pant?sa:h/

?

/pant?s?:hjum/ or /pant?s?:him/

or

51. /ak?wanza:h/

?

/ak?wanz?:hjum/ or /ak?wanz?:him/

or

52. /duwanza:h/

/duwanz?:hjum/ or /duwanz?:him/

? or

53. /truwanza:h/ or /tr?wanza:h/

or

/truwanz?:hjum/ or /truwanz?:him/

or ?

/tr?wanz?:hjum/ or /tr?wanz?:him/

or ?

54. /t?suwanza:h/

/t?suwanz?:hjum/ or /t?suwanz?:him/

? or

55. /p:t?s?wanza:h/ or /pã:t?s?wanza:h/

? or ?

/p:t?s?wanz?:hjum/ or /pã:t?s?wanz?:hjum/

or

/p:t?s?wanz?:him/ or /pã:t?s?wanz?:him/

or

56. /?uwanza:h/

/?uwanz?:hjum/ or /?uwanz?:him/

? or

57. /sat?wanza:h/

?

/sat?wanz?:hjum/ or /sat?wanz?:him/

or

58. /ar?wanza:h/

/ar?wanz?:hjum/ or /ar?wanz?:him/

or ?

59. /kun?h?:/

?

/kun?h?:jum/ or /kun?h?:im/

or

60. /?e:/

?

/?e:jum/ or /?e:im/

or

61. /ak?h?:/

?

/ak?h?:jum/ or /ak?h?:im/

or

62. /duh?:/

?

/duh?:jum/ or /duh?:im/

or

63. /truh?:/ or /tr?h?:/

or

/truh?:jum/ or /truh?:im/

or ?

/tr?h?:jum/ or /tr?h?:im/

or ?

64. /t?suh?:/

/t?suh?:jum/ or /t?suh?:im/

? or

65. /p:t?s?h?:/ or /pã:t?s?h?:/

? or ?

/p:t?s?h?:jum/ or /pã:t?s?h?:jum/

or

/p:t?s?h?:im/ or /pã:t?s?h?:im/

or

66. /?uh?:/

/?uh?:jum/ or /?uh?:im/

? or

67. /sat?h?:/

?

/sat?h?:jum/ or /sat?h?:im/

or

68. /ar?h?:/

/ar?h?:jum/ or /ar?h?:im/

or ?

69. /kun?satat?/

/kun?satatyum/ or /kun?satatim/

or ?

70. /satat?/

/satatjum/ or /satatim/

or ?

71. /ak?satat?/

/ak?satatjum/ or /ak?satatim/

or ?

72. /dusatat?/

/dusatatjum/ or /dusatatim/

or

73. /trusatat?/ or /tr?satat?/

? or ?

/trusatatjum/ or /trusatatim/

? or

/tr?satatjum/ or /tr?satatim/

? or

74. /t?susatat?/

/t?susatatjum/ or /t?susatatim/

or

75. /p:t?s?satat?/ or /pã:t?s?satat?/

or

/p:t?s?satatjum/ or /pã:t?s?satatjum/

or

/p:t?s?satatim/ or /pã:t?s?satatim/

? or ?

76. /?usatat?/

/?usatatjum/ or /?usatatim/

or

77. /sat?satat?/

/sat?satatjum/ or /sat?satatim/

or ?

78. /ar?satat?/

?

/ar?satatjum/ or /ar?satatim/

? or

79. /kuni:t?/

/kuni:tjum/ or /kuni:tim/

or

80. /?i:t?/

/?i:tjum/ or /?i:tjim/

or

81. /aki:t?/

/aki:tjum/ or /aki:tim/

or

82. /d?ji?i:t?/

/d?ji?i:tjum/ or /d?ji?i:tjum/

or

83. /treji?i:t?/

?

/treji?i:tjum/ or /treji?i:tim/

? or ?

84. /t?s?ji?i:t?/

/t?s?ji?i:tjum/ or /t?s?ji?i:tim/

or

85. /p:t?si:t?/ or /pã:t?si:t?/

or

/p:t?si:tjum/ or /pã:t?si:tjum/

or

/p:t?si:tim/ or /pã:t?si:tim/

or

86. /?eji?i:t?/

/?eji?i:tjum/ or /?eji?i:tim/

or

87. /sati:t?/

/sati:tjum/ or /sati:tim/

or

88. /ari:t?/

/ari:tjum/ or /ari:tim/

or ?

89. /kun?namat?/

/kun?namatjum/ or /kun?namatim/

or ?

90. /namat?/

/namatjum/ or /namatim/

or ?

91. /ak?namat?/

/ak?namatjum/ or /ak?namatim/

or ?

92. /dunamat?/

/dunamatjum/ or /dunamatim/

or

93. /trunamat?/ or /tr?namat?/

? or ?

/trunamatjum/ or /trunamatim/

? or

/tr?namatjum/ or /tr?namatim/

? or

94. /t?sunamat?/

/t?sunamatjum/ or /t?sunamatim/

or

95. /p:t?s?namat?/ or /pã:t?s?namat?/

or

/p:t?s?namatjum/ or /pã:t?s?namatjum/

or

/p:t?s?namatim/ or /pã:t?s?namatim/

? or ?

96. /?unamat?/

/?unamatjum/ or /?unamatim/

or

97. /sat?namat?/

/sat?namatjum/ or /sat?namatim/

or ?

98. /ar?namat?/

?

/ar?namatjum/ or /ar?namatjim/

? or

99. /nam?namat?/

/nam?namatjum/ or /nam?namatim/

or ?

100. /hat?/

?

/hatyum/ or /hatim/

? or

101. /ak? hat? t? ak?/

? ? ?

/ak? hat? t? ?kjum/ or /ak? hat? t? ?kim/

? ? or ? ? ?

102. /ak? hat? t? z?/

? ?

/ak? hat? t? dojum/ or /ak? hat? t? dojim/

? ? or ? ?

200. /z? hat?/

?

/du hatyum/ or /duhatim/

or ?

300. /tre hat?/

?

/tr? hatyum/ or /tr? hatim/

or

400. /t?so:r hat?/

?

/t?su hatyum/ or /t?su hatim/

or ?

500. /pã:t?s? hat?/

?

/p:t?s hatyum/ or /p:t?s hatim/

or ?

600. /?e hat?/

?

/?e hatyum/ or /?e hatim/

? or

700. /sat? hat?/

? ?

/?at hatyum/ or /?at hatim/

? or

800. /?: ?at?/

?

/?: ?atjum/ or /?: ?atim/

? or

900. /naw ?at?/

?

/naw ?atjum/ or /naw ?atim/

? or

1000. /sa:s/

/s?:sjum/ or /s?:sim/

? or

1001. /ak? sa:s ak?/

? ?

/ak? sa:s ?kjum/ or /ak? sa:s ?kim/

? or ? ?

1002. /ak? sa:s z?/

?

/ak? sa:s dojum/ or /ak? sa:s dojim/

? or ?

1100. /ak? sa:s hat?/

? ?

or

/kah ?at?/ or /ka:h ?at?/

? ? or ?

/ak? sa:s hatjum/ or /ak? sa:s hatim/

? ? or ?

or

/kah ?atjum/ or /ka:h ?atjum/

? ? or ?

/kah ?atim/ or /ka:h ?atim/

? or

1500. /ak? sa:s pã:t?s? hat?/

? ?

or

/panda:h ?at?/

? ?

/ak? sa:s pã:t?s hatjum/ or /ak? sa:s pã:t?s hatim/

? ? or ?

or

/panda:h ?atjum/ or /panda:h ?atim/

? ? or ?

10,000. /d?h sa:s/ or /da:h sa:s/

or

/d?h s?:sjum/ or /da:h s?:sjum/

? or ?

/d?h s?:sim/ or /da:h s?:sim/

or

Hundred thousand /lat/

?

/latjum/ or /latim/

? or

Million /d?h lat/ or /da:h lat/

? or ?

/d?h latjum/ or /da:h latjum/

? or ?

/d?h latim/ or /da:h latim/

or

Ten million /k?ro:r/ or /karo:r/

or

/k?ro:rjum/ or /k?ro:rim/

or ?

Billion /Arab/

/arabjum/ or /arabim/

or ?

Hundred billion /k?arab/

/k?arabjum/ or /k?arabim/

? or

The ordinal number "1st" which is /?kjum/ for its masculine genre and /?kim/ ? for its feminine genre is also known as /gnjuk/ and /gnit/ respectively.[75]

Vocabulary

Kashmiri is an Indo-Aryan language and was heavily influenced by Sanskrit, especially early on.[76][77] After the arrival of Islamic administrative rule in India, Kashmiri acquired many Persian loanwords.[77] In modern times, Kashmiri vocabulary has been imported from Hindustani and Punjabi.[78]

Preservation of old Indo-Aryan vocabulary

Kashmiri retains several features of Old Indo-Aryan that have been lost in other modern Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi and Sindhi.[20] Some vocabulary features that Kashmiri preserves clearly date from the Vedic Sanskrit era and had already been lost even in Classical Sanskrit. This includes the word-form yodvai (meaning if), which is mainly found in Vedic Sanskrit texts. Classical Sanskrit and modern Indo-Aryan use instead the word yadi.[20]

First person pronoun

Both the Indo-Aryan and Iranian branches of the Indo-Iranian family have demonstrated a strong tendency to eliminate the distinctive first person pronoun ("I") used in the nominative (subject) case. The Indo-European root for this is reconstructed as *e?Hom, which is preserved in Sanskrit as aham and in Avestan Persian as azam. This contrasts with the m- form ("me", "my") that is used for the accusative, genitive, dative, ablative cases. Sanskrit and Avestan both used forms such as ma(-m). However, in languages such as Modern Persian, Baluchi, Hindi and Punjabi, the distinct nominative form has been entirely lost and replaced with m- in words such as ma-n and mai. However, Kashmiri belongs to a relatively small set that preserves the distinction. 'I' is b?/bi/bo in various Kashmiri dialects, distinct from the other me terms. 'Mine' is myon in Kashmiri. Other Indo-Aryan languages that preserve this feature include Dogri (aun vs me-), Gujarati (hu-n vs ma-ri), Konkani (hv vs mhazo), and Braj (hau-M vs mai-M). The Iranian Pashto preserves it too (za vs. maa).[79]

Variations

There are minor differences between the Kashmiri spoken by Hindus and Muslims.[80] For 'fire', a traditional Hindu uses the word /ogun/ while a Muslim more often uses the Arabic word /na:r/.[81]

Sample Text

Article 1 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights:- ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? [82]


IPA : / s?:ri: insa:n ti a:za:d za:m?t? . w?aka:r t? hoku:k ti hiwi: . timan tu so:t samad ata: karn? a:mut t? timan pazi b?:j bara:d?ri: h?ndis dazba:tas tahat ak? ?kis aka:r baka:r jun /


Meaning:- All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Kashmiri: A language of India". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2007.
  2. ^ Kashmiri at Ethnologue (22nd ed., 2019)
  3. ^ a b c d Sociolinguistics. Mouton de Gruyter. 1977. Retrieved 2009.
  4. ^ "Jammu, Kashmir & Ladakh: Ethno-linguistic areas". koshur.org. Retrieved 2007.
  5. ^ "The Jammu and Kashmir Official Languages Bill, 2020". prsindia. 23 September 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  6. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kashmiri". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  7. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  8. ^ Kashmiri at Ethnologue (20th ed., 2017)
  9. ^ "Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 2018. The precise figures from the 2011 census are 6,554,36 for Kashmiri as a "mother tongue" and 6,797,587 for Kashmiri as a "language" (which includes closely related smaller dialects/languages).
  10. ^ "Koshur: An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri". Kashmir News Network: Language Section (koshur.org). Retrieved 2007.
  11. ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-84904-622-0.
  12. ^ Shakil, Mohsin (2012). "Languages of Erstwhile State of Jammu Kashmir (A Preliminary Study)".
  13. ^ Kiani, Khaleeq (28 May 2018). "CCI defers approval of census results until elections". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2020.
  14. ^ "Scheduled Languages of India". Central Institute of Indian Languages. Retrieved 2007.
  15. ^ "The Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir (India)" (PDF). General Administrative Department of the Government of Jammu & Kashmir (India). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 2007.
  16. ^ "Kashmiri made compulsory subject in schools". One India. Retrieved 2016.
  17. ^ "Jammu And Kashmir State Board Of School Education". jkbose.ac.in. Retrieved 2020.
  18. ^ "Koshur: Spoken Kashmiri: A Language Course: Transcription". Retrieved 2014.
  19. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 9-16.
  20. ^ a b c d K.L. Kalla (1985), The Literary Heritage of Kashmir, Mittal Publications, ... Kashmiri alone of all the modern Indian languages preserves the dvi (Kashmiri du) of Sanskrit, in numbers such as dusatath (Sanskrit dvisaptati), dunamat (Sanskrit dvanavatih) ... the latter (Yodvai) is archaic and is to be come across mainly in the Vedas ...
  21. ^ "Sarada". Lawrence. Archived from the original on 24 February 2008. Retrieved 2007.
  22. ^ "The Sharada Script: Origin and Development". Kashmiri Overseas Association. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved 2009.
  23. ^ "Kashmiri ( / )". Omniglot. Retrieved 2009.
  24. ^ Daniels & Bright (1996). The World's Writing Systems. pp. 753-754.
  25. ^ Kaw, M.K (2004). Kashmir and It's [sic] People: Studies in the Evolution of Kashmiri Society. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. pp. 303-304. ISBN 9788176485371.
  26. ^ Mahapatra, B.P (1989). The Written Languages of the World: A Survey of the Degree and Modes of Use : India : Book 1 Constitutional Languages. Presses Université Laval. p. 270. ISBN 9782763771861.
  27. ^ "Braj B. Kachru: An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri". www.koshur.org. Retrieved 2020.
  28. ^ "Spoken Kashmiri: A Language Course". www.koshur.org. Retrieved 2020.
  29. ^ "Valley divide impacts Kashmiri, Pandit youth switch to Devnagari". Indian Express. Retrieved 2009.
  30. ^ "Devnagari Script for Kashmiri: A Study in its Necessity, Feasibility and Practicality". Kashmiri Overseas Association. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 2009.
  31. ^ "Kashmiri (deva)". r12a.github.io. Retrieved 2020.
  32. ^ Everson, Michael & Pravin Satpute. (2006). Proposal to add four characters for Kashmiri to the BMP of the UCS.
  33. ^ "Project ZAAN: Basic Reader for Kashmiri Language". www.koausa.org. Retrieved 2020.
  34. ^ Raina, Author M. K. (4 May 2020). "One Page Primer on Kashmiri Language". M K Raina. Retrieved 2020.
  35. ^ Government of India. (2009). Proposal to add six characters in the Devanagari block for representation of Kashmiri language in Devanagari script.
  36. ^ Pandey, Anshuman. (2009). Comments on India's Proposal to Add Devanagari Characters for Kashmiri.
  37. ^ The central vowels are typically transcribed ⟨?⟩ and ⟨u'⟩ when transliterating Arabic script, ⟨ö⟩ and ⟨ü⟩ when transliterating Nagari.
  38. ^ a b c Koul & Wali 2006, p. 25.
  39. ^ Koshur: An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri (2002). Kashmir News Network, pp.80.
  40. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. ii.
  41. ^ a b Koul & Wali 2006, p. 28.
  42. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 26-28.
  43. ^ a b c Koul & Wali 2006, p. 31.
  44. ^ Wade 1888, p. 16.
  45. ^ Bhatt, Rajesh (2007)."Ergativity in Indo-Aryan Languages", MIT Ergativity Seminar, pp.6.
  46. ^ a b Koul & Wali 2006, p. 32.
  47. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 39.
  48. ^ Wade 1888, pp. 10-15.
  49. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 83-84.
  50. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 119.
  51. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 84.
  52. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 86.
  53. ^ a b c Koul & Wali 2006, p. 87.
  54. ^ Zakharyin, Boris (2015). "Indo-Aryan Ergativity and its Analogues in Languages of Central and Western Eurasia", The Pozna? Society for the Advancement of Arts and Sciences, PL ISSN 0079-4740, pp.66.
  55. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 89-90.
  56. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 91-92.
  57. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 93.
  58. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 94.
  59. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 94-95.
  60. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 96-97.
  61. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 96-99.
  62. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 100-101.
  63. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 103.
  64. ^ a b Koul & Wali 2006, p. 105.
  65. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 107.
  66. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 108.
  67. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 53.
  68. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 52.
  69. ^ Koshur 2002, pp.79.
  70. ^ Wade 1888, p. 19.
  71. ^ a b Wade 1888, p. 20.
  72. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 59.
  73. ^ Wade 1888, p. 21.
  74. ^ a b Koul & Wali 2006, p. 64.
  75. ^ Toushikhani S. k, Koul J. lal. Kashir Dictionary Vol 1.
  76. ^ The Encyclopedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, Volumes 15-16. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. p. 690. Sanskrit has been actively studied for many centuries, and the Kashmiri vocabulary, and even its grammar, are now largely Indian. So much is this the case that, for convenience' sake, it is now frequently classed as belonging to the north-western group of Indo-Aryan languages, instead of as belonging to the Pisaca family as its origin demands. It cannot be said that either classification is wrong.
  77. ^ a b Gorekar, Nimudd?n Es (2002). Indo-Islamic Relations. KnowledgeCity Books. p. 67. The Kashmiri language was in the beginning greatly influenced by the Sanskrit language, but with the coming of the Muslims and monarchs like Zainu'l-Abedin it began to accept the influence of Persian which was the language of the rulers.
  78. ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Elsevier. 6 April 2010. p. 582. ISBN 978-0-08-087775-4. Kashmiri vocabulary can be broadly categorized into Kashmiri/Dardic, Sanskrit, Punjabi, Hindi/Urdu, Persian, and Arabic origins.
  79. ^ John D. Bengtson, Harold Crane Fleming (2008), In hot pursuit of language in prehistory: essays in the four fields of anthropology, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2008, ISBN 978-90-272-3252-6, ... However, Gujarati as well as a Dardic language like Kashmiri still preserve the root alternation between subject and non-subject forms (but they replaced the derivative of the Sanskrit subject form ahám by new forms) ...
  80. ^ Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie (6 April 2010), Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Elsevier, 2008, ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7, ... Kashmiri occupies a special position in the Dardic group, being probably the only dardic language that has a written literature dating back to the early 13th century ...
  81. ^ Krishna, Gopi (1967). Kundalini: The Evolutionary Energy in Man. Boston: Shambhala. p. 212. ISBN 978-1-57062-280-9.
  82. ^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Kashmiri Language" (PDF).

Bibliography

  • Chopra, R. M (2013). "Indo-Persian Literature in Kashmir". The rise, growth, and decline of Indo-Persian literature (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Iran Culture House. OCLC 909254259.
  • Koul, Omkar N; Wali, Kashi (2006). Modern Kashmiri Grammar (PDF). Springfield: Dunwoody Press. ISBN 1-931546-07-X.
  • Wade, TR (1888). A Grammar of the Kashmiri Language. SPCK.

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