Kashmiri Language
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Kashmiri Language

Kashmiri
,
Koshur.png
Native toIndia, Pakistan
RegionJammu and Kashmir,[1]Azad Kashmir
EthnicityKashmiris
Native speakers
7 million (2011 census)[2]
Dialects
  • Kashtawari (standard)
  • Poguli
Perso-Arabic script (contemporary),[3]
Devanagari (contemporary),[3]
Sharada script (ancient/liturgical)[3]
Official status
Official language in
 India[4]
Language codes
ks
kas
kas
Glottologkash1277[5]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Kashmiri [6] or Koshur (; , ),[7] is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages, spoken by around 7 million Kashmiris, primarily in the Indian territory of Jammu and Kashmir. There are also speakers in parts of the neighbouring Pakistani territory of Azad Kashmir.

Although the official language of Jammu and Kashmir is Urdu, Kashmiri is recognised as a regional language in the state and is also among the 22 scheduled languages of India.

Kashmiri has split ergativity and the unusual verb-second word order.

Geographic distribution and status

There are about 6.8 million speakers of Kashmiri and related dialects in Jammu and Kashmir and amongst the Kashmiri diaspora in other states of India.[8] Most Kashmiri speakers are located in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.[9] There are also about 130,000 speakers in the Pakistani territory of Azad Kashmir, primary concentrated in the Neelam and Leepa valleys, and in the district of Haveli.[10][11]

The Kashmiri language is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India,[12] and is a part of the eighth Schedule in the constitution of the Jammu and Kashmir. Along with other regional languages mentioned in the Sixth Schedule, as well as Hindi and Urdu, the Kashmiri language is to be developed in the state.[13] Most Kashmiri speakers use Urdu or English as a second language.[1] Since November 2008, the Kashmiri language has been made a compulsory subject in all government schools in the Valley up to secondary level.[14]

Phonology

Kashmiri has the following vowel phonemes:[15][16]

Vowels

  Front Central Back
High i i: ? ?: u u:
Mid e e: ? ?: o o:
Low a a: ? ?:

Consonants

Archaisms

Kashmiri, as also the other Dardic languages, shows important divergences from the Indo-Aryan mainstream. One is the partial maintenance of the three sibilant consonants s ? ? of the Old Indo-Aryan period. For another example, the prefixing form of the number 'two', which is found in Sanskrit as dvi-, has developed into ba-/bi- in most other Indo-Aryan languages, but du- in Kashmiri (preserving the original dental stop d). Seventy-two is dusatath in Kashmiri, bahattar in Hindi-Urdu and Punjabi, and dvisaptati in Sanskrit.[17]

Certain features in Kashmiri even appear to stem from Indo-Aryan even predating the Vedic period. For instance, there was an /s/ > /h/ consonant shift in some words that had already occurred with Vedic Sanskrit (this tendency is even stronger in the Iranian branch of Indo-Iranian), yet is lacking in Kashmiri equivalents. The word rahit in Vedic Sanskrit and modern Hindi-Urdu (meaning 'excluding' or 'without') corresponds to rost in Kashmiri. Similarly, sahit (meaning 'including' or 'with') corresponds to sost in Kashmiri.[17]

Writing system

There are three orthographical systems used to write the Kashmiri language: the Sharada script, the Devanagari script and the Perso-Arabic script. The Roman script is also sometimes informally used to write Kashmiri, especially online.[3]

The Kashmiri language is traditionally written in the Sharada script after the 8th Century A.D.[18] This script however, is not in common use today, except for religious ceremonies of the Kashmiri Pandits.[19]

Today it is written in Perso-Arabic and Devanagari scripts (with some modifications).[20] Among languages written in the Perso-Arabic script, Kashmiri is one of the scripts that regularly indicates all vowel sounds.[21] The Kashmiri Perso-Arabic script has come to be associated with Kashmiri Muslims, while the Kashmiri Devanagari script has come to be associated with the Kashmiri Hindu community.[22][23]

Perso-Arabic script

Consonants

Name Transliteration IPA Isolated glyph
be b /b/ ?
pe p /p/ ?
te t /t?/ ?
?e ? /?/ ?
se s /s/ ?
j?m j /d/ ?
?e ? /t/ ?
ba he h /h/ ?
khe kh /k?/ ?
d?l d /d?/ ?
l ? /?/ ?
z?l z /z/ ?
re r /r/ ?
?e ? /?/ ?
ze z /z/ ?
ce c /t?s/ ?
s?n s /s/ ?
n ? /?/ ?
? sw?d s /s/ ?
? zw?d z /z/ ?
? to?e t /t?/ ?
? zo?e z /z/ ?
ain ', - /?, ?/ ?
gain g /g/ ?
fe f /f, p?/ ?
ba k?f k /k/ ?
k?f k /k/ ?
g?f g /?/ ?
l?m l /l/ ?
m?m m /m/ ?
n?n n, ? /n, ?/ ?
wo -v /-w/ ?
he h /h/ ?
ba ye y /j/ ?
cho ye -y- /?/ ?

The digraphs of Aspirated consonant are as follow.

Digraph Transcription IPA
ph [p?]
th [t]
?h []
?h [t]
ch [t?s?]
kh [k?]

Vowels

Transliteration IPA Initial & combined glyph
a /a/ ,
? /a:/ ?,
? (ö) /?/ ?,
(?) /?:/ ?,
i /i/ ,
? /i:/ ,
u',ü /?/ ?,
?',? /?:/ ?,
u /u/ ,
? /u:/ ,
o /o/ ,
? /o:/ ,
? /?/ ,
/?:/ ,
e /e/ ,
? /e:/ ,

Devanagari

Consonants

Letter ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
IPA [k] [k?] [g] [t] [t] [d] [t?s] [t?s?] [z] [?] [] [?] [t] [t?] [d] [n] [p] [p?] [b] [m] [j] [l] [w] [?] [s] [h]
Transliteration k kh g ? ?h j c ch z ? ?h ? t th d n p ph b m y l w ? s h

Vowels

Tabulated below is one version of the proposal to spell the Kashmiri vowels with Devanagari:[24][25]

Letter ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
IPA [a] [a:] [?] [?:] [e] [e:] [?] [?:] [i] [i:] [?] [?:] [u] [u:] [o] [o:] []
Transliteration[26] a ? ? e ? ö ? i ? ü ? u ? o ? ?
Vowel mark indicated on consonant k ?

The other version of the proposal is shown below:[27]

Letter ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? -? ?
IPA [a] [a:] [?] [?:] [?] [?:] [i] [i:] [u] [u:] [e] [e:] [?i] [o] [o:] [?u] [?] []
Transliteration a ? ö ? ü ? i ? u ? e ? ai o ? au ? ?
Vowel mark indicated on consonant k ? or

Grammar

Kashmiri is a fusional language[28] with verb-second (V2) word order.[29] Several of Kashmiri's grammatical features distinguish it from other Indo-Aryan languages.[30]

Nouns

Kashmiri nouns are inflected according to gender, number and case. There are no articles, nor is there any grammatical distinction for definiteness, although there is some optional adverbial marking for indefinite or "generic" noun qualities.[28]

Gender

The Kashmiri gender system is divided into masculine and feminine. Feminine forms are typically generated by the addition of a suffix (or in most cases, a morphophonemic change, or both) to a masculine noun.[28] TA relatively small group of feminine nouns have unique suppletion forms that are totally different from the corresponding masculine forms.[31] The following table illustrates the range of possible gender forms:[32]

Process Masculine Feminine Meaning
vowel change sur su?r child
consonant change hokh hoch dry
vowel/consonant change tot t?ts hot
suppletive form mar?d zan?n man/woman
masculine only k?v --- crow
feminine only --- m?ch fly

Some nouns borrowed from other languages, such as Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit, Urdu or English, follow a slightly different gender system. Notably, many words borrowed from Urdu have different genders in Kashmiri.[31]

Case

There are five cases in Kashmiri: nominative, dative, ergative, ablative and vocative.[33] Case is expressed via suffixation of the noun.

Kashmiri utilizes an ergative-absolutive case structure when the verb is in simple past tense.[33] Thus, in these sentences, the subject of a transitive verb is marked in the ergative case and the object in nominative, which is identical to how the subject of an intransitive verb is marked.[33][34][35] However, in sentences constructed in any other tense, or in past tense sentences with intransitive verbs, a nominative-dative paradigm is adopted, with objects (whether direct or indirect) generally marked in dative case.[36]

Other case distinctions, such as locative, instrumental, genitive, comitative and allative, are marked by postpositions rather than suffixation.[37]

Noun morphology

The following table illustrates Kashmiri noun declension according to gender, number and case.[36][38]

Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
Nom.
Erg. -an -av -i -av
Dat. -as -an -i -an
Abl. -i/? -av -i -av
Voc. -? -av -iy -av

Verbs

Kashmiri verbs are declined according to tense and person, and to a lesser extent, gender. Tense, along with certain distinctions of aspect, is formed by the addition of suffixes to the verb stem (minus the infinitive ending -un), and in many cases by the addition of various modal auxiliaries.[39] Postpositions fulfill numerous adverbial and semantic roles.[40]

Tense

Present tense in Kashmiri is an auxiliary construction formed by a combination of the copula and the imperfective suffix -?n added to the verb stem. The various copula forms agree with their subject according to gender and number, and are provided below with the verb yun (to come):[41]

Present
Masculine Feminine
1st Person Sing. chus yiv?n chas yiv?n
2nd Person Sing. chukh yiv?n chakh yiv?n
3rd Person Sing. chu yiv?n cha yiv?n
1st Person Pl. chi yiv?n cha yiv?n
2nd Person Pl. chiv yiv?n chav? yiv?n
3rd Person Pl. chi yiv?n cha yiv?n

Past tense in Kashmiri is significantly more complex than the other tenses, and is subdivided into three past tense distinctions.[42] The simple (sometimes called proximate) past refers to completed past actions. Remote past refers to actions that lack this in-built perfective aspect. Indefinite past refers to actions performed a long time ago, and is often used in historical narrative or storytelling contexts.[43]

As described above, Kashmiri is a split-ergative language; in all three of these past tense forms, the subjects of transitive verbs are marked in the ergative case and direct objects in the nominative. Intransitive subjects are marked in the nominative.[43] Nominative arguments, whether subjects or objects, dictate gender, number and person marking on the verb.[43][44]

Verbs of the simple past tense are formed via the addition of a suffix to the verb stem, which usually undergoes certain uniform morphophonemic changes. First and third person verbs of this type do not take suffixes and agree with the nominative object in gender and number, but there are second person verb endings. The entire simple past tense paradigm of transitive verbs is illustrated below using the verb parun ("to read"):[45]

Simple Past (Transitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person por p?r' p?r pari
2nd Person poruth p?rith p?r?th par'ath
3rd Person por p?r' p?r pari

A group of irregular intransitive verbs (special intransitives), take a different set of endings in addition to the morphophonemic changes that affect most past tense verbs.[46]

Simple Past (Special Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -us -' -as -i
2nd Person -kh -v? -kh -v?
3rd Person -ch -i

Intransitive verbs in the simple past are conjugated the same as intransitives in the indefinite past tense form.[47]

Simple Past (Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -yas -y?yi -y?yas -y?yi
2nd Person -y?kh -y?yv? -y?yakh -y?yv?
3rd Person -y?v -y?yi -y?yi -y?yi

In contrast to the simple past, verb stems are unchanged in the indefinite and remote past, although the addition of the tense suffixes does cause some morphophonetic change.[48] Transitive verbs are declined according to the following paradigm:[49]

Indefinite Past (Transitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st/3rd Person -y?v -?yi -?yi -?yi
2nd Person -y?th -?yath -?yath -?yath
Remote Past (Transitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st/3rd Person -?y?v -?y?yi -?y?yi -?y?yi
2nd Person -?y?th -?y?yath -?y?yath -?y?yath

As in the simple past, "special intransitive" verbs take a different set of endings in the indefinite and remote past:[50]

Indefinite Past (Special Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -?s -?yas -?yas -?yi
2nd Person -kh -kh -?yakh -?yiv?
3rd Person -av -?yi -?yi -?yi
Remote Past (Special Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -?y?s -?y?yi -?y?yas -?y?yi
2nd Person -?kh -?yv? -?yakh -?yiv?
3rd Person -?y?v -?y?yi -?y?y? -?y?y?

Regular intransitive verbs also take a different set of endings in the indefinite and remote past, subject to some morphophonetic variation:[51]

Indefinite Past (Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -yas -y?yi -y?yas -y?yi
2nd Person -y?kh -y?yv? -y?yakh -y?yv?
3rd Person -y?v -y?yi -y?yi -y?yi
Remote Past (Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -y?y?s -y?yi -y?y?s -y?yi
2nd Person -y?yakh -y?yv? -y?yakh -y?yv?
3rd Person -y?y?v -y?yi -y?y?y? -y?y?

Future tense intransitive verbs are formed by the addition of suffixes to the verb stem:[52]

Future (Intransitive)
Singular Plural
1st Person -m? -mav
2nd Person -akh -yi
3rd Person -yi -an

The future tense of transitive verbs, however, is formed by adding suffixes that agree with both the subject and direct object according to number, in a complex fashion:[53]

Future (Transitive)
Singular Object Plural Object
1st Person Sing. -an -akh
1st Person Pl. -?h?n -?h?kh
2nd Person Sing. -?h?n -?h?kh
2nd Person Pl. -?h?n -?h?kh
3rd Person Sing. -yas -yakh
3rd Person Pl. -?nas -?nakh

Aspect

There are two main aspectual distinctions in Kashmiri, perfective and imperfective. Both employ a participle formed by the addition of a suffix to the verb stem, as well as the fully conjugated auxiliary ?sun ("to be")--which agrees according to gender, number and person with the object (for transitive verbs) or the subject (for intransitive verbs).[54]

Like the auxiliary, the participle suffix used with the perfective aspect (expressing completed or concluded action) agrees in gender and number with the object (for transitive verbs) or subject (for intransitives) as illustrated below:[54]

Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
mut -m?t' -m?ts -mats?

The imperfective (expressing habitual or progressive action) is simpler, taking the participle suffix -?n in all forms, with only the auxiliary showing agreement.[55] A type of iterative aspect can be expressed by reduplicating the imperfective participle.[56]

Pronouns

Pronouns are declined according to person, gender, number and case, although only third person pronouns are overtly gendered. Also in third person, a distinction is made between three degrees of proximity, called proximate, remote I and remote II.[57]

Nominative
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st b? ?s' b? ?s'
2nd ts? toh' ts? toh'
3rd prox. yi yim yi yim
3rd R I hu hum h? hum?
3rd R II su tim s? tim?
Ergative
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st me asi me asi
2nd tse t?hi tse t?hi
3rd prox. yem' yimav yemi yimav
3rd R I hom' humav homi humav
3rd R II t?m' timav tami timav
Dative
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st me asi me asi
2nd tse t?hi tse t?hi
3rd prox. yemis yiman yemis yiman
3rd R I homis human homis human
3rd R II t?mis timan t?mis timan
Ablative
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st me asi me asi
2nd tse t?hi tse t?hi
3rd prox. yemi yimav yemi yimav
3rd R I homi humav homi humav
3rd R II tami timav tami timav

There is also a dedicated genitive pronoun set, in contrast to the way that the genitive is constructed adverbially elsewhere. As with future tense, these forms agree with both the subject and direct object in person and number.[58]

Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Sing. m'?n m?n' m?n' m'?ni
1st Pl. s?n s?n' s?n' s?ni
2nd Sing. c?n c?n' c?n' c?ni
2nd Pl. tuhund tuh?nd' tuh?nz tuh?nz?
3rd Sing. Prox. yem'sund yem's?nd' yem's?nz yems's?nzi
3rd Pl. Prox. yihund yih?nd' yih?nz yihanz?
3rd Sing. R I hom'sund hom's?nd' hom's?nz hom's?nz?
3rd Pl. R I huhund huh?nd' huh?nz huh?nz?
3rd Sing. R II t?m'sund t?m's?nd' t?m's?nz t?m's?nz?
3rd Pl. R II tihund tih?nd' tih?nz tih?nz?

Adjectives

There are two kinds of adjectives in Kashmiri, those that agree with their referent noun (according to case, gender and number) and those that are not declined at all.[59] Most adjectives are declined, and generally take the same endings and gender-specific stem changes as nouns.[60] The declinable adjective endings are provided in the table below, using the adjective wozul ("red"):[61][62]

Masc. Sing. Fem. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Pl.
Nom. wozul wozaj wozal wozaji
Erg. wozal wozaji wozalav wozalan
Dat. wozalis wozaji wozalan wozalan
Abl. wozalis wozaji wozalav wozalav
Voc. wozali? wozaj wozalav wozalav

Among those adjectives not declined are adjectives that end in -lad or -a, adjectives borrowed from other languages, and a few isolated irregulars.[61]

The comparative and superlative forms of adjectives are formed with the words tsor ("more") and sitha ("most"), respectively.[63]

Vocabulary

There are minor differences between the Kashmiri spoken by Hindus and Muslims.[64] For 'fire', a traditional Hindu uses the word agun while a Muslim more often uses the Arabic word nar.[65]

Preservation of old Indo-Aryan vocabulary

Kashmiri retains several features of Old Indo-Aryan that have been lost in other modern Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi and Sindhi.[17] Some vocabulary features that Kashmiri preserves clearly date from the Vedic Sanskrit era and had already been lost even in Classical Sanskrit. This includes the word-form yodvai (meaning if), which is mainly found in Vedic Sanskrit texts. Classical Sanskrit and modern Indo-Aryan use instead the word yadi.[17]

First person pronoun

Both the Indo-Aryan and Iranian branches of the Indo-Iranian family have demonstrated a strong tendency to eliminate the distinctive first person pronoun ("I") used in the nominative (subject) case. The Indo-European root for this is reconstructed as *e?Hom, which is preserved in Sanskrit as aham and in Avestan Persian as azam. This contrasts with the m- form ("me", "my") that is used for the accusative, genitive, dative, ablative cases. Sanskrit and Avestan both used forms such as ma(-m). However, in languages such as Modern Persian, Baluchi, Hindi and Punjabi, the distinct nominative form has been entirely lost and replaced with m- in words such as ma-n and mai. However, Kashmiri belongs to a relatively small set that preserves the distinction. 'I' is ba/bi/bo in various Kashmiri dialects, distinct from the other me terms. 'Mine' is myoon in Kashmiri. Other Indo-Aryan languages that preserve this feature include Dogri (aun vs me-), Gujarati (hu-n vs ma-ri), Konkani (hv vs mhazo), and Braj (hau-M vs mai-M). The Iranian Pashto preserves it too (za vs. maa).[66]

Literature

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Kashmiri: A language of India". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2007.
  2. ^ Kashmiri at Ethnologue (22nd ed., 2019)
  3. ^ a b c d Sociolinguistics. Mouton de Gruyter. Retrieved 2009.
  4. ^ "Jammu, Kashmir & Ladakh: Ethno-linguistic areas". koshur.org. Retrieved 2007.
  5. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kashmiri". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  6. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  7. ^ Kashmiri at Ethnologue (20th ed., 2017)
  8. ^ "Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 2018. The precise figures from the 2011 census are 6,554,36 for Kashmiri as a "mother tongue" and 6,797,587 for Kashmiri as a "language" (which includes closely related smaller dialects/languages).
  9. ^ "Koshur: An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri". Kashmir News Network: Language Section (koshur.org). Retrieved 2007.
  10. ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-84904-622-0.
  11. ^ Shakil, Mohsin (2012). "Languages of Erstwhile State of Jammu Kashmir (A Preliminary Study)".
  12. ^ "Scheduled Languages of India". Central Institute of Indian Languages. Retrieved 2007.
  13. ^ "The Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir (India)" (PDF). General Administrative Department of the Government of Jammu & Kashmir (India). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 2007.
  14. ^ "Kashmiri made compulsory subject in schools". One India. Retrieved 2016.
  15. ^ "Koshur: Spoken Kashmiri: A Language Course: Transcription". Retrieved 2014.
  16. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 9-16.
  17. ^ a b c d K.L. Kalla, The Literary Heritage of Kashmir, Mittal Publications, ... Kashmiri alone of all the modern Indian languages preserves the dvi (Kashmiri du) of Sanskrit, in numbers such as dusatath (Sanskrit dvisaptati), dunamat (Sanskrit dvanavatih) ... the latter (Yodvai) is archaic and is to be come across mainly in the Vedas ...
  18. ^ "Sarada". Lawrence. Retrieved 2007.
  19. ^ "The Sharada Script: Origin and Development". Kashmiri Overseas Association. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved 2009.
  20. ^ "Kashmiri ( / )". Omniglot. Retrieved 2009.
  21. ^ Daniels & Bright (1996). The World's Writing Systems. pp. 753-754.
  22. ^ "Valley divide impacts Kashmiri, Pandit youth switch to Devnagari". Indian Express. Retrieved 2009.
  23. ^ "Devnagari Script for Kashmiri: A Study in its Necessity, Feasibility and Practicality". Kashmiri Overseas Association. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 2009.
  24. ^ Government of India. (2009). Proposal to add six characters in the Devanagari block for representation of Kashmiri language in Devanagari script.
  25. ^ Pandey, Anshuman. (2009). Comments on India's Proposal to Add Devanagari Characters for Kashmiri.
  26. ^ The central vowels are typically transcribed ⟨?⟩ and ⟨u'⟩ when transliterating Arabic script, ⟨ö⟩ and ⟨ü⟩ when transliterating Nagari.
  27. ^ Everson, Michael & Pravin Satpute. (2006). Proposal to add four characters for Kashmiri to the BMP of the UCS.
  28. ^ a b c Koul & Wali 2006, p. 25.
  29. ^ Koshur: An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri (2002). Kashmir News Network, pp.80.
  30. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. ii.
  31. ^ a b Koul & Wali 2006, p. 28.
  32. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 26-28.
  33. ^ a b c Koul & Wali 2006, p. 31.
  34. ^ Wade 1888, p. 16.
  35. ^ Bhatt, Rajesh (2007)."Ergativity in Indo-Aryan Languages", MIT Ergativity Seminar, pp.6.
  36. ^ a b Koul & Wali 2006, p. 32.
  37. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 39.
  38. ^ Wade 1888, pp. 10-15.
  39. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 83-84.
  40. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 119.
  41. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 84.
  42. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 86.
  43. ^ a b c Koul & Wali 2006, p. 87.
  44. ^ Zakharyin, Boris (2015). "Indo-Aryan Ergativity and its Analogues in Languages of Central and Western Eurasia", The Pozna? Society for the Advancement of Arts and Sciences, PL ISSN 0079-4740, pp.66.
  45. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 89-90.
  46. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 91-92.
  47. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 93.
  48. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 94.
  49. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 94-95.
  50. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 96-97.
  51. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 96-99.
  52. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 100-101.
  53. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 103.
  54. ^ a b Koul & Wali 2006, p. 105.
  55. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 107.
  56. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 108.
  57. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 53.
  58. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 52.
  59. ^ Koshur 2002, pp.79.
  60. ^ Wade 1888, p. 19.
  61. ^ a b Wade 1888, p. 20.
  62. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 59.
  63. ^ Wade 1888, p. 21.
  64. ^ Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Elsevier, 2008, ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7, ... Kashmiri occupies a special position in the Dardic group, being probably the only dardic language that has a written literature dating back to the early 13th century ...
  65. ^ Krishna, Gopi (1967). Kundalini: The Evolutionary Energy in Man. Boston: Shambhala. p. 212. ISBN 978-1-57062-280-9.
  66. ^ John D. Bengtson, Harold Crane Fleming, In hot pursuit of language in prehistory: essays in the four fields of anthropology, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2008, ISBN 978-90-272-3252-6, ... However, Gujarati as well as a Dardic language like Kashmiri still preserve the root alternation between subject and non-subject forms (but they replaced the derivative of the Sanskrit subject form ahám by new forms) ...

Bibliography

  • Chapter on Indo-Persian Literature in Kashmir in "The Rise, Growth And Decline Of Indo-Persian Literature" by R. M. Chopra, 2012, published by Iran Culture House, New Delhi. 2nd Edition 2013.
  • Koul, Omkar N.; Wali, Kashi (2006). Modern Kashmiri Grammar (PDF). Dunwoody Press.
  • Wade, TR (1888). A Grammar of the Kashmiri Language. SPCK.

External links


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