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Kei? (, historically ) was a Japanese era name (,, neng?, literally "year name") after Genji and before Meiji. The period spanned the years from May 1865 to October 1868.[1] The reigning emperors were K?mei-tenn? (?) and Meiji-tenn? (?).

Change of era

  • May 1, 1865 (Genji 2/Kei? 1, 7th day of the 4th month) Kei? gannen (?): The new era name of Kei? (meaning "Jubilant Answer") was created to mark the Kinmon Incident. The previous era ended and a new one commenced in Genji 2.

Events of the Kei? era

  • 1866 (Kei? 2): Gory?kaku completed
  • September 28, 1866 (Kei? 2, 20th day of the 8th month): Sh?gun Iemochi died at Osaka; and the bakufu petitioned that Hitotsubashi Yoshinobu should be appointed as his successor.[2]
  • January 10, 1867 (Kei? 2, 5th day of the 12th month): Yoshinobu was appointed sh?gun.[2]
  • January 30, 1867 (Kei? 2, 25th day of the 12th month): Emperor Komei died.[2]
  • February 13, 1867 (Kei? 3, 9th day of the 1st month): Mutsuhito ascended to the throne as Emperor Meiji.[3]
  • November 10, 1867 (Kei? 3, 15th day of the 10th month): An Imperial edict was issued sanctioning the restoration of Imperial government.[2]
  • January 6, 1868 (Kei? 3, 10th day of the 12th month):[4] The restoration of the Imperial government was announced to the kuge. The year 1868 began as Keio 3, and did not become Meiji 1 until the 8th day of the 9th month of Keio 4, i.e., October 23; although retrospectively, it was quoted as the first year of the new era from 25 January onwards.[2]
  • January 27, 1868 (Kei? 4, 3rd of the 1st month): The Boshin War begins with the Battle of Toba-Fushimi.
  • September 3, 1868 (Kei? 4, 17th day of the 7th month): Edo was renamed "Tokyo", i.e. meaning "Eastern Capital".[5]
  • October 8, 1868 (Kei? 4, 23rd of the 8th month): Battle of Aizu begins.
  • October 12, 1868 (Kei? 4, 27th day of the 8th month): Emperor Meiji is crowned in the Shishin-den in Kyoto.[6]
  • October 23, 1868 (Kei? 4/Meiji 1, 8th day of the 9th month): The neng? is formally changed from Kei? to Meiji; and a general amnesty is granted.[6] The adoption of the Meiji neng? was done retroactively to January 25, 1868 (Kei? 4/Meiji 1, 1st day of the 1st month).

Keio University

Keio University, which was initially established in 1858 (Ansei 5), seven years before the beginning of the Kei? era, is named after this era. This is the oldest existing institution of higher learning in Japan.[7]

See also


  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Kei?" Japan Encyclopedia, p. 505, p. 505, at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File Archived 2012-05-24 at
  2. ^ a b c d e Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1956). Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869, p. 326.
  3. ^ Keene 2002, p. 98.
  4. ^ Ponsonby-Fane's published neng? would have this be 4 January rather than 6 January.
  5. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 327.
  6. ^ a b Ponsonby-Fane, p. 328.
  7. ^ Ozaki, Yukio. (2001). The Autobiography of Ozaki Yukio, p. 21.


  • Ozaki, Yukio. (2001). The Autobiography of Ozaki Yukio: The Struggle for Constitutional Government in Japan. [Translated by Fujiko Hara]. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691050959; OCLC 45363447
  • Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 48943301
  • Ponsonby-Fane, Richard A. B. (1956). Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869. Kyoto: The Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 559477127

External links

Preceded by
Genji ()
Era of Japan
Kei? ()

Succeeded by
Meiji ()

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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