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Keich%C5%8D

Keich? () was a Japanese era name (, neng?, "year name") after Bunroku and before Genna. This period spanned from October 1596 to July 1615.[1][2] The reigning emperors were Go-Y?zei-tenn? () and Go-Mizunoo-tenn? ().[3]

Change of era

  • 1596 Keich? gannen (?): The era name was changed to Keich? to mark the passing of various natural disasters. The preceding era ended and a new one commenced on October 27 of the 5th Bunroku.

Events of the Keich? era

Trading pass issued in the name of Ieyasu Tokugawa, dated August 24, 1609 (Keich? 14, 25th day of the 6th month).
Temple bell at H?k?-ji.
Inscription on bell at Hokoji in Kyoto
  • 1596 (Keich? 1): Keich? Invasion (invasion of Korea).
  • September 18, 1598 (Keich? 3, 18th day of the 8th month): Toyotomi Hideyoshi died in his Fushimi Castle at the age of 63.[4]
  • October 21, 1600 (Keich? 5, 15th day of the 9th month): Battle of Sekigahara. The Tokugawa clan and its allies decisively vanquish all opposition.[4]
  • January 15, 1602 (Keich? 7, 24th day of the 11th month): A fire at the H?k?-ji temple complex in Kyoto was caused by careless workmen; and the great image of the buddha and the structure housing the statue (the Daibutsu-den) were consumed by the flames.[5]
  • 1603 (Keich? 8): Tokugawa Ieyasu became sh?gun, which effectively becomes the beginning of what will become the Edo bakufu. Toyotomi Hideyori was elevated to Naidaijin in Miyako Daij?-kan.[6]
  • 1604-1606 (Keich? 9-11): Tokugawa Ieyasu undertook the rebuilding of Asama Shrine at the base of Mount Fuji in Suruga Province in fulfillment of a vow and in gratitude for the help of the kami during the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600.[7]
  • 1605 (Keich? 10): Tokugawa Hidetada was named successor sh?gun after his father "retires" from the position of sh?gun.
  • 1605 (Keich? 10): The first official map of Japan was ordered in this year and completed in 1639 at a scale of 1:280,000.[8]
  • January 23, 1605 (Keich? 10, 15th day of the 12th month): A new volcanic island, Hachij?ko-jima, arose from the sea at the side of Hachij? Island (,, Hachij?-jima) in the Izu Islands (?,, Izu-shot?) which stretch south and east from the Izu Peninsula.[6]
  • 1606 (Keich? 11): Construction began on Edo Castle.[6]
  • 1607 (Keich? 12): Construction began on Sunpu Castle in Suruga; and an ambassador from China arrived with greetings for the emperor of Japan.[6]
  • 1609 (Keich? 14): Invasion of Ryukyu by Shimazu daimy? of Satsuma.[6]
  • August 24, 1609 (Keich? 14, 25th day of the 6th month): Trading pass (handelpas) issued to Dutch East Indies Company in the name of Ieyasu Tokugawa.
  • November 15, 1610 (Keich? 15, 30th day of the 9th month): Toyotomi Hideyori sponsors work which is begun to rebuild the H?k?-ji in line with the plans which his father had supported; and this will include recreating the Daibutsu of Kyoto in bronze to replace the wooden image which had been burned. At this time, Hideyori also decides to order a great bell cast in bronze.[9]
  • May 20, 1610 (Keich? 15, 27th day of the 3rd month): Hideyori came to Kyoto to visit the former-sh?gun Tokugawa Ieyasu; and the same day, the emperor resigns in favor of his son Masahito.[6]Emperor Go-Y?zei abdicates; and his son receives the succession (senso).
  • 1611 (Keich? 16): Emperor Go-Mizunoo formally accedes to the throne (sokui).
  • 1613 (Keich? 18): In the years 1613 through 1620, Hasekura Tsunenaga headed a diplomatic mission to the Vatican in Rome, traveling through New Spain (arriving in Acapulco and departing from Veracruz) and visiting various ports-of-call in Europe. This historic mission is called the Keich? Embassy, (?).[10] On the return trip, Hasekura and his companions re-traced their route across Mexico in 1619, sailing from Acapulco for Manilla, and then sailing north to Japan in 1620.[11] This is conventionally considered the first Japanese ambassador in the Americas and in Europe.[12]
  • 1614 (Keich? 19): Siege of Osaka. The sh?gun vanquished Hideyori and set fire to Osaka Castle, and then he returned for the winter to Edo.[13]
  • August 24, 1614 (Keich? 19, 19th day of the 7th month): A new bronze bell for the H?k?-ji was cast successfully - see 19th century photo of H?k?-ji belland see old photo of bell; but despite dedication ceremony planning, Ieyasu forbade any further actions concerning the great bell:
"[T]he tablet over the Daibatsu-den and the bell bore the inscription "Kokka ank?" (meaning "the country and the house, peace and tranquility"), and at this Tokugawa Ieyasu affected to take umbrage, alleging that it was intended as a curse on him for the character ? (an, "peace") was placed between the two characters composing his own name ("ka-k?", "house tranquility") [suggesting subtly perhaps that peace could only be attained by Ieyasu's dismemberment?] ... This incident of the inscription was, of course, a mere pretext, but Ieyasu realized that he could not enjoy the power he had usurped as long as Hideyori lived, and consequently, although the latter more than once dispatched his kerei Katagiri Kastumoto to Sunpu Castle with profuse apologies, Ieyasu refused to be placated."[14]
  • October 18, 1614 (Keich? 19, 25th day of the 10th month): A strong earthquake shook Kyoto.[13]
  • 1615 (Keich? 20): Osaka Summer Battle begins.

Era developments

  • Copper, silver and gold coins called Keich?-ts?h? were issued in the Keich? era helping to unify the currency system.[15]
  • Keich?-chokuhan, also called Keich? shinkoku-bon, were Imperial publications, produced during the Keich? era at the command of Emperor Go-Y?zei and printed using moveable type which had been imported from the Joseon Kingdom on the Korean peninsula.[16]
  • Keich? no katsuji-ban was the general name for the first works printed with moveable typ during the Keich? era.[17]
  • Things Heard and Seen During the Keich? Era (Keich? kemmon-sh?) also called the Kembun-sh? was a book, a collection of tales and anecdotes compiled by Miura J?shin (1565-1644).[18]

Notes

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Keich?" in Japan encyclopedia, p. 504; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File Archived 2012-05-24 at Archive.today.
  2. ^ Hinago, Motoo (1986). Japanese Castles. Kodansha International Ltd. and Shibundo. p. 45. ISBN 0870117661.
  3. ^ Tittsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 402-409.
  4. ^ a b Titsingh, p. 405.
  5. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, R. (1956). Kyoto, the Old Capital of Japan, p. 290; Titsingh, p. 409.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Titisngh, p. 409.
  7. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1962). Studies in Shinto and Shrines, p.462.
  8. ^ Traganeou, Jilly. (2004). The Tokaido Road: Traveling and Representation in Edo and Meiji Japan, p. 230.
  9. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Kyoto, p. 292; Titsingh, p. 409.
  10. ^ In the name "Keich? Embassy", the noun "Keich?" refers to the neng? (Japanese era name) after "Bunroku" and before "Genna." In other words, the Keich? Embassy commenced during Keich?, which was a time period spanning the years from 1596 through 1615.
  11. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Japan-Mexico Relations.
  12. ^ The Keich? Embassy was, in fact, preceded by a Sengoku period mission headed by Mancio It? with Alessandro Valignano in 1582-1590. Although less well-known and less well-documented, this historic mission is sometimes referred to as the "Tensh? Embassy" because it was initiated in the Tensh? era. This venture was organized by three daimy?s of Western Japan - ?mura Sumitada, ?tomo S?rin and Arima Harunobu.
  13. ^ a b Titsingh, p. 410.
  14. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Kyoto, p. 292; Titsingh, p. 410.
  15. ^ Nussbaum, "Keich?-ts?h?" in Japan encyclopedia, p. 504.
  16. ^ Nussbaum, "Keich?-chokuhan" in Japan encyclopedia, p. 504.
  17. ^ Nussbaum, "Keich? no katsuji-ban" in Japan encyclopedia, p. 504.
  18. ^ Nussbaum, "Keich? kemmon-sh?" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 504.

References

External links

Preceded by
Bunroku ()
Era or neng?
Keich? ()

1596-1615
Succeeded by
Genna ()

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