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Keio University (, Kei? Gijuku Daigaku), abbreviated as Keio () or Keidai (), is a private university located in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It is known as the oldest institute of modern higher education in Japan. Founder Fukuzawa Yukichi originally established it as a school for Western studies in 1858 in Edo (now Tokyo). It has eleven campuses in Tokyo and Kanagawa. It has ten faculties: Letters, Economics, Law, Business and Commerce, Medicine, Science and Technology, Policy Management, Environment and Information Studies, Nursing and Medical Care, and Pharmacy.
Keio traces its history to 1858 when Fukuzawa Yukichi, who had studied the Western educational system at Brown University in the United States, started to teach Dutch while he was a guest of the Okudaira family. In 1868 he changed the name of the school to Keio Gijuku and devoted all his time to education. While Kei?'s initial identity was that of a private school of Western studies, it expanded and established its first university faculty in 1890, and became known as a leading institute in Japanese higher education. It was the first Japanese university to reach its 150th anniversary, celebrating this anniversary in 2008.
Keio has leading research centers. It has approximately 30 Research Centers located on its five main campuses and at other facilities for advanced research in Japan. Keio University Research Institute at SFC (KRIS) has joined the MIT and the French INRIA in hosting the international W3C.
Fukuzawa stated the mission of Keio shown below, which is based on his speech at the alumni party on November 1, 1896.
Keio Gijuku shouldn't be satisfied with being just one educational institution. Its mission is expected to be a model of the nobility of intelligence and virtue, to make clear how it can be applied to its family, society, and nation, and to take an actual action of this statement. It expects all students being leaders in society by the practice of this mission.
Those sentences were given to students as his will, and considered as the simple expression of Keio's actual mission.
Contributor to Japanese modern education systems
Keio is known for being the first institution to introduce many modern education systems in Japan. The following are the examples:
Keio is the earliest Japanese school that introduced an annual fixed course fee, designed by Fukuzawa.
It initially introduced the culture of speech to Japan, which Japan had never had before. It built Japan's earliest speech house Mita Speech House in 1875 as well.
It is regarded as Japan's first university to accept international students. Keio accepted 2 Korean students in 1881 as its (and also Japan's) first international students. 60 Korean students entered in 1883 and 130 Korean students in 1895.
Keio put "Independence and self-respect (?, Dokuritsu Jison)" as a foundation of its education. This is meant to be physically and mentally independent, and respect yourself for keeping your virtue. Independence and self-respect are also regarded as Fukuzawa's nature and essence of his education.
Learning half and teaching half (?, Hangaku Hankyo) is the other unique culture in Keio. During the late Edo period and the early Meiji period, several private prep schools often used students as assistant teachers and it was called "Learning half and teaching half". Keio also had initially used this system. In the early period of such schools of Western studies, there had been many things to learn not only for students but also professors themselves. Hence there had been sometimes the occasions that students who had learned in advance had taught other students and even professors. After the proper legal systems for education had been set up, those situations have disappeared. However, Fukuzawa thought the essence of academia was and is a continuous learning, and knowing more things provides more learning opportunities. Keio respects his thought and put the rule in "Rules in Keio Gijuku (, Keio Gijuku Shachu no Yakusoku)" that there shouldn't be any hierarchy between teachers and learners, and all of the people in Keio Gijuku are in the same company. For this reason, there is still a culture in this university that all professors and lecturers are officially called with the honorific of "Kun" but never "Teacher" or "Professor".
Shachu no Kyoryoku
Collaboration in a company (, Shachu no Kyoryoku) is also a uniqueness of Keio. Fukuzawa stated in 1879 that the Keio's success today is because of the collaboration in its company, and "Collaboration in a company" originally came from this article. People in Keio often think that all of the people related to Keio (e.g. professors, students, alumni and their family members) are the part of their company, thus they should try to help each other like brothers and sisters. This culture has been often seen especially in the alumni organization called Mita-Kai.
There have been several notable things in Keio's over 150-year history as shown below.
Keio launched Hiromoto Watanabe as a first chancellor of the Imperial University (University of Tokyo) in 1886. He is the first chancellor of the officially authorized university in Japan.
Keio sent 6 students to study abroad in 1899. In the same year, it accepted three international students from India, Qing-dynasty China, and Thailand. Eight international students entered from Taiwan (which had technically been a territory of the Japanese Empire since 1895) in the next year.
In 2011, there are 33,825 students in Keio University, with 28,931 undergraduate students and 4,894 graduate students. Although two third of student body are male students, this ratio highly depends on the major (63% of students are female in the Faculty of letters, for instance).
There are 1072 international students in May 2011, with 438 undergraduate students (1.5% of total undergraduate students), 480 graduate students (9.8% of total graduate students) and 90 students in the exchange program. Korea is the country which provides the most number of international students with 381 students, followed by China (300), Taiwan (57), France (42), Indonesia (27), USA (27) and Germany (22).
In Japanese universities, there are student societies called "circles". Although the exact number is not clear, there are over 410 circles in Keio.
Keio holds school festivals every year in each campus. The main festival is called "Mita Sai" on Mita campus, which is usually held in late November. Mita Sai includes various activities for not only entertainment but also academic purposes. It is also a research workshop for students on Mita campus. Approximately 200,000 people visit Mita Sai every year.
The interest of Keio's students in baseball stretches back to the early years of the 20th century; and the history of exhibition games was reported internationally. In 1913, an American professional team made of players from the New York Giants and the Chicago White Sox played the Keio team in an exhibition game. In a 1932 exhibition game, the Keio team beat the University of Michigan team which was then touring Japan.
Keio's baseball team plays in the Tokyo Big6 Baseball League (six prominent universities in the Tokyo area).
Keio University association football (soccer) team is currently the most successful team in the Emperor's Cup, despite their last triumph was in 1956. They have won nine times, a number no professional team had ever achieved in the tournament.
The Kei-So baseball game is especially famous because of its over 100-year history and importance in Japanese baseball history. The most famous Kei-So baseball match was held on 1943/10/16, and it was made into a movie titled "The Last Game - the Final So-Kei Sen -" in 2008.
There are 2 Kei-So baseball game seasons every year and they are usually broadcast by NHK. There is no lecture on all campuses in Keio on the game day because of the students who want to watch this match. Japanese emperors visited Kei-So baseball games 3 times in 1929,1950 and 1994.
Keio and Waseda have been often compared to each other in other general topics, such as their popularity and alumni's successes. In fact, there are many books and magazine articles which compared with these universities.
Keio University is one of the most prestigious universities in Japan. In World rankings, Times Higher Education estimates that Keio is 351-400th place in general academic rankings.
Keio ranks 9th in the world in the Times Higher Education's Alma Mater Index. It ranks 34th globally in the Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) and 3rd in Asia. Keio is ranked at 58th of the Reuters Top 100 innovative universities worldwide. British Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) company estimates that Keio is ranked the 192nd in QS World University Rankings 2017/18. It is ranked the 45th in QS World University Ranking 2017/18 for Graduate Employability Ranking. In the Asian University Ranking (2015), Quacquarelli Symonds also ranked Keio as 37th in Asia. The Academic Ranking of World Universities (2015), which is compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, ranks Keio 301-400 in the world and 37 in Asia. Keio, with Waseda University, is one of the prominent private universities within Japan.
According to Thomson Reuters, Keio is the 10th best research university in Japan, and it's the only private university within Top 15. In addition, Weekly Diamond reported that Keio has the 8th highest research standard in Japan in terms of research fundings per researchers in COE Program, and it's also the only private university within Top 10.Asahi Shimbun summarized the amount of academic papers in Japanese major legal journals by university, and Keio was ranked 2nd during 2005-2009. Accordingly, Keio is a prominent research university within Japan.
In Economics, According to Asahi Shimbun, Keio's been ranked 7th in Japan in the economic research ranking during 2005-2009. More recently, Repec in January 2011 ranked Keio's Economic department as Japan's 6th best economic research university. Keio has provided 3 presidents of Japanese Economic Association in its 42-year history, and this number is 5th largest.
Keio ranks second in Japan, for the number of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies, according to Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities. Keio is also ranked 1st in Japan for the number of alumni generally holding executive positions (when positions like COO, CFO, CIO etc. are included along with the CEO position) in listed companies of Japan, and this number per student (probability of becoming an executive) is also top.
According to the Weekly Economist's 2010 rankings and the PRESIDENT's article on 16 October 2006, graduates from Keio University have the 3rd best employment rate in 400 major companies, and the alumni's average salary is the 3rd best in Japan.
As an extension of Keio's strong business focus, for over 30 years, Keio graduates have been ranked first in Japan in the number of successful national CPA exam applicants.
Keio has been influential in Japanese medical societies as well. In fact, there have been 4 presidents of Japan Medical Association related to this university (2 Alumni and 2 professors). This number is the 2nd largest among Japanese medical schools. Keio is one of 2 Japanese universities which provided a president of World Medical Association.
Keio's law faculty is typically ranked among the best in all of Japan along with the University of Tokyo, University of Kyoto, Chuo University, and Hitotsubashi University. In 2010 and 2015, Keio University Law School ranked highest among all Japanese universities for Bar Exam passage rate. Furthermore, the number of Members of Parliament who graduated Keio has been 3rd in Japan.
Popularity and selectivity
Keio is a popular university in Japan, often considered one of Japan's top two private university alongside Waseda University, their eternal equal and rival. The number of applicants per place was 11.7 (48260/4098) in the 2011 undergraduate admissions. Its entrance difficulty is usually considered as top with Waseda among 730 private universities.
Nikkei BP has been publishing a ranking system called "Brand rankings of Japanese universities" every year, composed by the various indications related to the power of brand, in which Keio was top in 2014, and ranked second in 2015 and 2016 in Greater Tokyo Area.Webometrics (2008) also ranks Keio University as 3rd in Japan, 11th in Asia, and 208th in the world for quantity and quality of web presence and link visibility.
In a unique ranking, TBS ranked Japanese universities by the questionnaire of "Which university student do you want to have as your boyfriend?" to 300 girls in Shibuya, and Keio was ranked 1st in this ranking .
According to Keio's financial report, there was operating revenue of 197 billion yen in 2010. The top 3 largest incomes were from "Tuition and fees", "Medical care" and "Capital gain", with 49 billion yen, 48 billion yen and 21 billion yen respectively. The amount of endowments in 2010 was about 5 billion yen. Keio is known as having one of the largest financial endowments of any Japanese university.
On the other hand, the top 3 largest expenses in 2010 were "Compensation and benefits", "Education & Research" and "Investment", with 65 billion yen, 52 billion yen and 33 billion yen respectively. The total asset value in 2010 was about 364 billion yen with increase of 5 billion yen. In addition, the total amount of assets under management was approximately 109 billion yen in 2010, composed by mainly cash, deposit with banks and marketable securities.
The university tuition fee system in Japan is different from other countries and very complicated. In most Japanese universities, there are more payment requirements in the first year such as "entrance fees", and less in the rest of the years. There are several types of fees (some require to pay only once and some require to pay once or twice every year) and so-called "course fee" is officially only one of those fees.
In Keio University, Tuition fees vary and depend on the course. Social Science & Humanity studies require the least fees with approximately 1,110,000 yen per year, and School of Medicine requires the most expensive fees with about 3,610,000 yen per year. The tuition fees in graduate school are much less than those for undergraduate studies, as 690,000 yen per year for Social Science & Humanities and 1,313,000 yen per year for School of Medicine.
Although it is acceptable to pay twice with half in spring and half in autumn, the "entrance fee" is necessary to be paid before enrollment. The entrance fee for undergraduate study is 200,000 yen and the one for graduate study is 310,000 yen.
There are many students who receive additional financial support. For example, in 2008, there were 9,764 students (about 30% of all students) who used either scholarships or loans. Additionally, Keio funds over 3,000 students who receive, on average, scholarships of 300,000 yen.
New South building on Mita Campus
Jukukankyoku on Mita Campus
Mita speech house on Mita Campus
Kitasato Memorial Medical Library on Shinanomachi campus
3rd Building on Shiba Kyoritsu campus
Keio has ten undergraduate faculties, which cover a wide range of academic fields, with each operating independently and offering broad educational and research activities. The faculties are:
Keio University Hospital is one of the largest and most well-known general hospitals in Japan, the number of surgeries for carcinoma uteri in 2007 was top and the one for lung cancer was third among all university hospitals. and is also a famous teaching hospital. The number of trainee doctors who selected Keio as their first choice training hospital was 30 (33rd) among all Japanese teaching hospitals in 2010. Established in 1920, it has over 1,000 beds, a leading laboratory, and research and medical information divisions.
Some of the prominent Keio alumni include: Japanese Prime Ministers Junichiro Koizumi (2001-2006), Ryutaro Hashimoto (1996-1998), and Tsuyoshi Inukai (1931-1932). Dozens of other alumni have been cabinet members and governors in the post-war period. Its alumni include 230 CEOs of major companies and 97 CEOs of foreign affiliated companies (both highest in Japan). Keio has over 320,000 alumni in 866 alumni associations.
Shinzo Koizumi(politics,1910), Member of Japan Academy,best known as the educator of His Majesty the Emperor Emeritus at the age of the prince. Received an honorary doctorate from Columbia University
Hideyuki Okano(medicine,1983), the first in the world to produce transgenic marmosets(Callithrix jacchus) with germline transmission. Besides, he is to conduct the world's first clinical test in which artificially derived stem cells will be used to treat patients with spinal cord injuries.
Masayoshi Tomizuka, professor in Control Theory in Department of Mechanical Engineering, and director of Mechanical Systems Control Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley. He holds the Cheryl and John Neerhout, Jr., Distinguished Professorship Chair, and has supervised more than 90 Ph. D. students to completion, many of which have become professors in universities in USA, Taiwan, etc., prestigious for the research in the field of Mechanical Engineering. (B.S. and M.S. degrees, Mechanical Engineering, 1968 and 1970)
Tatsuji Nomura(medicine, 1945) , a pioneer in the development of laboratory animals with the aim of assuring reproducibility of experimental results in medical research. Medal of Honor With Purple Ribbon from Japanese Government(1984).
Kohei Itoh, Successfully generated and detected quantum entanglement between electron spin and nuclear spin in phosphorus impurities added to silicon with Dr. John Morton at Oxford University. This is the world's first successful generation.(Science and Technology)
Yasuhiro Koike, Developed the High-bandwidth graded-index plastic optical fiber. He is thought as one of the Nobel Prize candidates in Physics in terms of the achievement of plastic optical fiber.(Sci. and Tech)
Masaru Tomita, Established the metabolomics analysis by using the CE-MS.(Environment and Information Studies)
Eitaro Noro, Researcher in the field of Marxian Economics. Author of "History of the Development of Japanese Capitalism"(1930) (Native:?), Iwanami Shoten,Tokyo.
The only copy held outside Europe or North America is a first volume facsimile of the Gutenberg Bible (Hubay 45) at Keio University. Purchased by the university in 1996, from Maruzen booksellers who originally purchased the copy at auction in 1987 for US$5.4 million.
The Humanities Media Interface Project (HUMI) at Keio University is known for its high-quality digital images of Gutenberg Bibles and other rare books. Under the direction of Professor Toshiyuki Takamiya, the HUMI team has made digital reproductions of eleven sets of the bible in nine institutions, including in 2000, both full-text facsimiles held in the collection of the British Library.
^In the Edo period, private schools normally collected money or properties with Noshi irregularly from students, but those fees highly depended on each student's economic circumstances. Fukuzawa thought such an unstable financial system prevented the modernization of educational institutions as well as professors' professionalism. Then he designed a rudimentary management system for the school's finances.
^Before the Meiji Period, Japanese people had thought the oral statement is not reliable enough for decision making, thus every time people had needed to state their opinions on paper when they had needed to decide something. Fukuzawa thought this culture would seriously prevent to introduce the modern parliamentary regime and the fair court system. Then he developed the art of speech by the arrangement of Western speech. 
^Although Shinshu Kan didn't have a direct relation to Keio, Many people who studied or managed there were involved with Keio later. In fact, all students from Nakatsu Domain moved to Keio when it was closed.
^In the beginning of Meiji period, there was an ethical sense that Samurai should not work for more than one master. Keio was established by the fund of Tokugawa shogunate, so it was hard to work for the new government in this sense. Fukuzawa in fact criticized severely Kaish? Katsu and Takeaki Enomoto who worked for both Tokugawa and the new government (see Fukuzawa Yukichi). His such strict viewpoint had prevented Keio to set up a political department, and kept many Keio graduate away from politics for a long time. It is also one of the clear difference from Waseda which has been positively involved to politics for a long time.
^Pearson, David (2006). Bowman, J (ed.). British Librarianship and Information Work 1991-2000: Rare book librarianship and historical bibliography. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. p. 178. ISBN978-0-7546-4779-9.