Kengtung State
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Kengtung State
Kengtung
? / LN-King Chiang Tung.png
State of the Shan States
c. 1243-1959
Shan States-Map.png
Kengtung State in blue in a map of the Shan States
Area 
o 1901
31,079 km2 (12,000 sq mi)
Population 
o 1901
190698
History 
o Dynasty established by a delegate of King Mangrai
c. 1243
o Abdication of the last Saopha
1959
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kengtung (Cheing Toong) on a 19th century map of the Shan States.
Princess Tip Htila of the Kengtung royal house, photographed by J. G. Scott in 1910 or earlier
The Palace of the Saophas of Kengtung, a historic landmark with intricate interiors of carved and lacquered teak. It was destroyed in 1991 by the Burmese military regime despite local protests.[1]
Sao Saimong and his wife, Mi Mi Khaing.
Territories annexed by Thailand in the Shan and Karenni States.

Kengtung (Burmese: ?; Shan: Chiang Tung), known as Menggen Prefecture (Chinese: ) or Möng Khün Chiefdom or Mueng Khuen Fu (Tai Khün: ?) from 1405[2] to 1895, was a Shan state in what is today Burma. The capital and the residence of the ruler was Kengtung (then known as "Tai Khuen City" ) in the centre of the state. It was the only urban area in this mountainous state whose landscape is dominated by the Daen Lao Range.

Kengtung was the largest of the states in present-day Shan State and ranked first in the order of precedence at the time of the invasion of the Shan States by the British Empire. It was also the easternmost of the Southern Shan States, lying almost entirely east of the Salween and stretching eastwards to the Mekong. It was separated from the northern Shan state of Manglon by the Hka River.

Most of the early history of Kengtung is made up of myths and legends. At the time of British rule in Burma the Tai Yai people were the majority of the population in Kengtung state with other groups such as Akha and Lahu, forming sizeable communities. According to Wa tradition, in the distant past the territory had belonged to the Wa people who were displaced around 1229 and were later defeated by King Mangrai. The Wa now form a minority of only about 10% in Kengtung State despite having been --according to their myths-- the original inhabitants.[3]

History

Early kingdoms

According to local tradition, Khem?raha[4] (), the predecessor state, was founded in an unknown date in the distant past. It was ruled by the Tai Khün of the Tai Yai (Shan) ethnic background. The current dynasty has its origins in the kingdom that was founded around 1243 by a prince named Mang Kun, said to be a delegate of King Mangrai.[5][6] Despite the ethnic affinity of the ruling Tai with the Siamese to the south,[7] Kengtung was led by Saopha princes who historically preferred to pay tribute to the Burmese kings to the west. The King of Mandalay restricted himself to exacting a yearly tribute, often in the form of offerings of ritual gold flowers, leaving the Kengtung rulers largely alone. The Salween river also acted as a protective natural border in the West hampering communication with Upper Burma. On the other hand, the kingdoms of Lanna and Ayutthaya, as well as the Chinese to the northeast, were closer, more bellicose and had easier access to the territory.

Modern history

In 1760, following conflicting claims of political influence over Kengtung State, there was a war between the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing Dynasty and the King of Burma, Hsinbyushin. In 1802 Kengtung came under the rule of Chiang Mai, but with the help of the Burmese the former ruling dynasty was reinstated in 1814 and Mongyawng (Möngyawng) state was annexed.[8]

Kengtung was historically located at the crossroads of the trade between China and Siam and 19th century sources talk about caravans crossing Kengtung on their way to Chiang Mai totaling yearly 8,000 mules loaded with goods from China.[3] During British rule in Burma the eastern border was demarcated by the colonial powers and the western part of Kengcheng was merged with Kengtung.[9] Historically Kengtung also included the substates of Hsenyawt, Hsenmawng, Monghsat and Mongpu.[8][10]

On 27 May 1942, during World War II, Kengtung State was invaded and its capital captured by the Thai Phayap Army.[11] Following a previous agreement between Thai Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram and the Japanese Empire, in December the same year the Thai administration occupied Kengtung and four districts of Möngpan. The annexation of the trans-Salween territories historically claimed by Thailand was formalised on 1 August 1943 and the northern province of Saharat Thai Doem was established.[12] Thailand left the territory in 1945, but officially relinquished its claim over Kengtung State only in 1946 as part of the condition for admission to the United Nations and the withdrawal of all wartime sanctions for having sided with the Axis powers.[13]

The last ruler of Kengtung abdicated in 1959. The state became then part of Shan State and, despite the independence struggle of the latter, eventually part of Burma. After the 1962 military coup by General Ne Win all the privileges of the saophas were abolished.[14]

Rulers

The rulers of Kengtung bore the title of Saopha; their ritual style was Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja.[15]

The Kengtung Yazawin, also known as 'Padaeng Chronicle' and 'Jengtung State Chronicle', is a history of the rulers of Kengtung written in the 19th century in Burmese language. It was translated into English by Sao Saimong Mangrai.

Saophas

Chinese records

Mang Kun and Mang Kyin were Yonnaka governors sent by Mang Lai. Marquess of Kengtung refers to a son of Mang Lai.

Saopha Khuen name Enthrone Dethrone Chinese name
Mang Kun 1263? 1267?
Mang Kyin 1267? 1273?
Marquess of Kengtung -- 1273? 1284?
Sao Nannan 1284? 1317?
Sao Shanmuwei 1317? 1324?
Sao Lai 1324? 1342?
Sao Sainan 1342? 1360?
Sao Yu 1360? 1370?
Sao Xipantu 1379? 1387?
Sao Ai'ao 1387? 1390?
1390? 1403?
1403? 1416? Dao Ai[16]
Sao Shan 1416? 1441? Dao Jiao[17];

Dao GUang[18]

Sao Shan Sili (Sri?) 1441? 1456? [19]
1456? 1474?
1474? 1501? [20]
Sao Naojiang 1501? 1503? ?[21]
1503? ?
? ?
? ?
? 1523?
1523? 1560?
1560? 1598?
1598? 1600?
1620? 1637?
1637? 1650?
1650? 1659?
Sao Ao 1659? ?
Sao Mengsai ? 1682?
Sao Shanpi 1682? 1721?
Sao Mangxin 1721? 1739?
Sao Maung Nyo 1739? 1749?
Sao Mangshan 1750? 1787?
Sao Kaotai 1787? 1813?
1813? 1857?
? 1857? 1876?
1876? 1881?
1881? 1886?
1886? 1897?
1895? 1935?
1935? 1937?
1937? 1959?
Burmese records
  • 1243 - 1247 Man Kun (1st Saopha) (b. .... - d.1247)
  • .... - .... Sao Awk (28th Saopha)
  • .... - 1730 Sao Möng Lek (b. 1646 - d. 1730)
  • 1730 - c.1735 Sao Maung Hkawn (1st time) (b. 1706 - d.17..)
  • c.1735 - 1739 Vacant
  • 1739 - 1742 Sao Maung Hkawn (2nd time) (s.a.)
  • 1742 - 1786 Sao Möng Hsam (b. 1744 - d. 1786)
  • 1787 - 1802 Sao Kawng Tai I (1st time) (b. 1769 - d. 1813)
  • 1814 - 1815 Sao Kawng Tai I (2nd time) (s.a.)
  • 1815 - 1857 Sao Maha Hkanan (b. 1781 - d. 1857)
  • 1857 - 1876 Sao Maha Pawn (b. 1814 - d. 1876)
  • 1877 - 1881 Sao Hseng (b. 1818 - d. 1881)
  • 1881 - 1885 Sao Kawng Tai II (b. 1829 - d. 1885)
  • 1886 - 1895 Sao Kawn Kham Hpu (b. 1874 - d. 1895)
  • 7 May 1895 - 21 Jul 1935 Sao Kawng Kiao Intaleng (b. 1874 - d. 1935) (administrator to 9 Feb 1897)
  • 21 Jul 1935 - Aug 1935 Sao Kaung Tai (b. 1899 - d. 1935)
  • 1935 - 1942 British administration
  • 1942 - 1945 annexed by Thailand
  • 1945 - 1962 Sao Sai Long (b. 1927 - d. 1997)

Thai Military governor

Following the Thai occupation, a military governor was appointed for the administration of the annexed territories of Kengtung and Möngpan by Thailand.

  • Dec 1942 - 1945 Phin Choonhavan (b. 1891 - d. 1973)

See also

Bibliography

  • G. J. Younghusband, The Trans-Salween Shan State of Kiang Tung, ISBN 9789749575789

References

  1. ^ Mi Mi Khaing, Kanbawsa - A Modern Review
  2. ^ The seventh month of 1405 (Datong calendar). Chapter 313: Liezhuan CCI - Tusi of Yunnan I § Menghen of History of Ming
  3. ^ a b Donald M. Seekins, Historical Dictionary of Burma (Myanmar), p. 251
  4. ^ Society, Royal Geographical (1857). The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society: JRGS. Murray.
  5. ^ Keng Tung Royal
  6. ^ Kengtung (Kyaington) (Shan State)
  7. ^ "The Migration and History of Tai Yai". Archived from the original on 2015-03-24. Retrieved .
  8. ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 200.
  9. ^ "The Tai Of The Shan State". Archived from the original on 2013-11-27. Retrieved .
  10. ^ Sir Charles Crosthwaite "The pacification of Burma"
  11. ^ "Thailand and the Second World War". Archived from the original on October 27, 2009. Retrieved .
  12. ^ Shan and Karenni States of Burma
  13. ^ David Porter Chandler & David Joel Steinberg eds. In Search of Southeast Asia: A Modern History. p. 388
  14. ^ "WHKMLA : History of the Shan States". 18 May 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  15. ^ Ben Cahoon (2000). "World Statesmen.org: Shan and Karenni States of Burma". Retrieved 2014.
  16. ^ ?Ming Shilu·Taizong Shilu?Chapter 44:(?),?,,?,,?,
  17. ^ ?Ming Shilu·Taizong Shilu?Chapter 182:(),,
  18. ^ ?Ming Shilu·Xuanzong Shilu?Chapter 77:(),?
  19. ^ ?··:(?),
  20. ^ ?·:(),?
  21. ^ ?·:()?......,?

External links

Coordinates: 21°17?N 99°36?E / 21.283°N 99.600°E / 21.283; 99.600


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