Kenneth Claiborne Royall
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Kenneth Claiborne Royall

Kenneth Royall
KCR portrait.jpg
1st United States Secretary of the Army

September 18, 1947 - April 27, 1949
PresidentHarry S. Truman
Position established
Gordon Gray
56th United States Secretary of War

July 19, 1947 - September 18, 1947
PresidentHarry S. Truman
Robert P. Patterson
Position abolished
United States Under Secretary of War

November 9, 1945 - July 18, 1947
PresidentHarry S. Truman
Robert P. Patterson
William Henry Draper Jr.
Personal details
Born(1894-07-24)July 24, 1894
Goldsboro, North Carolina, U.S.
DiedMay 25, 1971(1971-05-25) (aged 76)
Durham, North Carolina, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Margaret Pierce Best
Children3, including Kenneth
EducationUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (BA)
Harvard University (LLB)
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Army
Years of service1917-1921
1942-1945
RankUS-O7 insignia.svg Brigadier General
Battles/warsWorld War I
World War II

Kenneth Claiborne Royall, Sr. (July 24, 1894 – May 25, 1971) was a United States Army general and the last person to hold the office of Secretary of War, as that position was abolished in 1947. Royall served as the first Secretary of the Army (the successor position) from 1947 to 1949, until he was forced into retirement for refusing to follow President Harry Truman's order to desegregate the United States military.

Early life and career

Royall was born on July 24, 1894, in Goldsboro, North Carolina, the son of Clara Howard Jones and George Pender Royall. He graduated from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he was a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, and Harvard Law School before serving in World War I. He then practiced law and was elected to the North Carolina Senate as a Democrat. At the beginning of World War II, he became a colonel in the US Army.

On August 18, 1917, Royall was married to the former Margaret Pierce Best, with whom he had two sons and one daughter, Kenneth Claiborne, Jr., Margaret, and George Pender Royall.

According to a 2006 newspaper column by Jack Betts, eight Nazis bent on mayhem came ashore on Long Island in 1942 but were soon caught and ordered to stand trial in a secret military tribunal. US President Franklin Roosevelt appointed Royall to defend them, but Roosevelt wanted no foolishness. He wanted the Nazis executed as soon as possible. Royall's orders were to stay away from civilian courts. Royall wrote to Roosevelt that he thought that the president had no authority to convene a secret court to try his clients, and Royall asked Roosevelt to change his order. The president refused, and Royall appealed to the US District Court and argued that the secret tribunal was unconstitutional.

The court rejected that argument and so Royall and other lawyers in his office appealed to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court rejected Royall's argument in a brief announcement in July 1942 and upheld the right of the president to appoint a secret tribunal. However, Royall had succeeded in getting civilian court review of the tribunals' constitutionality despite the president's preference to hush things up.

The Supreme Court published a more detailed opinion in October, saying, "Constitutional safeguards for the protection of all who are charged with offense are not to be disregarded." By then, six of Royall's clients were dead. They were tried, convicted, and executed in August 1942, only days after the Supreme Court's brief announcement upholding Roosevelt's tribunals. Two were sent to prison. Royall later said he believed his defense of the Nazis was his most important work in a long and illustrious career. He was promoted to brigadier general.

Truman administration

Royall served as Undersecretary of War from November 9, 1945 until July 18, 1947.[1] President Truman named him Secretary of War in 1947. He became the first Secretary of the Army two months later.

Royall was forced into retirement in April 1949 for continuing to refuse to desegregate the Army, nearly a year after President Truman promulgated Executive Order 9981.[2]

Later life and death

In December 1949, Royall became a partner at the prestigious New York City law firm of Dwight, Harris, Koegel and Caskey, becoming the firm's head in 1958. The firm was later renamed Rogers & Wells, and it was subsequently known as Clifford Chance Rogers & Wells after its merger with British firm Clifford Chance.

Royall died in Durham, North Carolina, on May 25, 1971, aged 76. He was buried at Willow Dale Cemetery in Goldsboro, North Carolina.

His son, Kenneth C. Royall, Jr. (1918-1999) served in the North Carolina House of Representatives from 1967 to 1972, and the North Carolina Senate from 1973 to 1992.

References

  1. ^ Kenneth Claiborne Royall, United States Secretary of Army
  2. ^ Robert B. Edgerton, Hidden Heroism: Black Soldiers in America's Wars, at 165 (Barnes & Noble 2009).

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Himself
as United States Secretary of War
United States Secretary of the Army
September 18, 1947 - April 27, 1949
Succeeded by
Gordon Gray
Preceded by
Robert P. Patterson
U.S. Secretary of War
Served under: Harry S. Truman

July 19, 1947 - September 18, 1947
Succeeded by
Himself
as United States Secretary of the Army
Preceded by
Robert P. Patterson
United States Under Secretary of War
November 9, 1945 - July 18, 1947
Succeeded by
William Henry Draper Jr.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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