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A khanate or khaganate is a political entity ruled by a khan or khagan. This political entity is typical for people from the Eurasian Steppe and it can be equivalent to tribal chiefdom, principality, kingdom or empire.
Mongol khanates (or khaganates)
After Genghis Khan established appanages for his family in the Mongol Empire during his rule (1206-1227), his sons, daughters, and grandsons inherited separate sections of the empire. The Mongol Empire and Mongolian khanates that emerged from those appanages are listed below. Furthermore, the proto-Mongols also established some khanates (or khaganates) such as the Rouran Khaganate.
The Oirats established the following khanates in the 17th century:
Central Asian Turkic khanates
residual states and domains by the 15th century
- Kazakh khanate
- Senior Juz
- Middle Juz
- Junior Juz
- Khanate of Kazan - The Mongol term khan became active when the Genghizide dynasty was settled in Kazan Duchy in the 1430s; imperial Russia added to its titles the former Kazan khanate with the royal style tsar.
- Sibirean Khanate - source of the name Siberia, as the first significant conquest during Russia's great eastern expansion across the Urals
- Astrakhan Khanate
- Crimean Khanate
- Qasim Khanate (hence modern Kasimov) - named after its founder, a vassal of Moscovia/Russia
- Bukey Horde, Bokei or Buqei; also known as the Inner or Interior Horde - This state founded in 1801 by Sultan Bukey under Russian suzerainty, and restyled as the khanate of the Inner Horde in 1812. 5,000-7,500 families of Kazakhs from the Younger Kazakh Zhuz tribe settled between the Volga and Yaik (Ural) rivers. In 1845 the post of khan was abolished, and Russia took over the region.
- Nogai Khanate
- The khanate of Tuva near Outer Mongolia.
- Besh Tau El
- Khanate of Kashgaria - Kashgaria was founded in 1514 as part of Djagataide Khanate; in the 17th century it was divided into several minor khanates without importance, with real power going to the so-called Khwaja, Arabic Islamic religious leaders. It became the Yarkent Khanate which was annexed by the Dzungar Khanate in the Dzungar conquest of Altishahr in 1680.
- Kumul Khanate - a vassal state to Qing dynasty and Republic of China, abolished in 1930
- Kimek Khanate
- Khanate of Bukhara
- Khanate of Kokand
- Karluk Khanate
- White Horde
- Oghuz Yabgu State
- West Turkic Khaganate
18th- to early-19th-century Khanates of the Caucasus in the Qajar Empire
- ^ Peter Jackson 2000, p. 12
- ^ Jack Weatherford, The Secret History of the Mongol Queens: How the Daughters of Genghis Khan Rescued His Empire, Crown Publishing Group, 2011
Thomas T. Allsen, "Sharing Out the Empire: Apportioned Lands under the Mongols", in Nomads in the Sedentary World, ed. Anatoly M. Khuzanov and André Wink (Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 2001): 172-190