The family members of the two royal families, that is the Koliyas and Sakyas married only among themselves. Both clans were very proud of the purity of their royal blood and had practised this tradition of inter-marriage since ancient times. For example, Suddhodana's paternal aunt was married to the Koliyan ruler Añjana. Their daughters, Mahamaya and Mahapajapati Gotami, were married to ?uddhodana, the chief of the Sakyans. Similarly, Yashodhara, daughter of Suppabuddha, who was Añjana's son, was married to the Sakyan prince, Gautama Buddha. Thus, the two royal families were related by marriage bonds between maternal and paternal cousins since ancient times. In spite of such close blood-ties, there would be occasional rifts between the two royal families, which sometimes turned into open hostility.
Records of Koli people exist from at least the 15th century, when rulers in the present-day Gujarat region noted their chieftains as being marauding robbers and dacoits. Over a period of several centuries, some of them were able to establish petty chiefdoms throughout the region, mostly comprising just a single village. Although not Rajputs, this relatively small subset of the Kolis claimed the status of the higher-ranked Rajput community, adopting their customs and intermixing with less significant Rajput families through the practice of hypergamous marriage, which was commonly used to enhance or secure social status. There were significant differences in status throughout the Koli community, however, and little cohesion either geographically or in terms of communal norms, such as the establishment of endogamous marriage groups.
Through the colonial British Raj period and into the 20th century, some Kolis remained significant landholders and tenants, although most had never been more than minor landowners and labourers. By this time, however, most Kolis had lost their once-equal standing with the Patidar[a] community due to the land reforms of the Raj period..
During the later period of the Raj, the Gujarati Kolis became involved in the process of what has subsequently been termed sanskritisation. At that time, in the 1930s, they represented around 20 percent of the region's population and members of the local Rajput community were seeking to extend their own influence by co-opting other significant groups as claimants to the ritual title of Kshatriya. The Rajputs were politically, economically and socially marginalised because their own numbers -- around 4 - 5 per cent of the population -- were inferior to the dominant Patidars, with whom the Kolis were also disenchanted. The Kolis were among those whom the Rajputs targeted because, although classified as a criminal tribe by the British administration, they were among the many communities of that period who had made genealogical claims of descent from the Kshatriya. The Rajput leaders preferred to view the Kolis as being Kshatriya by dint of military ethos rather than origin but, in whatever terminology, it was a marriage of political expedience.
In 1947, around the time that India gained independence, the Kutch, Kathiawar, Gujarat Kshatriya Sabha (KKGKS) caste association emerged as an umbrella organisation to continue the work begun during the Raj. Christophe Jaffrelot, a French political scientist, says that this body, which claimed to represent the Rajputs and Kolis, "... is a good example of the way castes, with very different ritual status, join hands to defend their common interests. ... The use of the word Kshatriya was largely tactical and the original caste identity was seriously diluted."
The relevance of the Kshatriya label in terms of ritual was diminished by the practical actions of the KKGKS which, among other things, saw demands for the constituent communities to be classified as Backward Classes in the Indian scheme for positive discrimination. Kshatriyas would not usually wish to be associated with such a category and indeed it runs counter to the theory of Sanskritisation, but in this instance, it suited the socio-economic and political desires. By the 1950s, the KKGKS had established schools, loan systems and other mechanisms of communal self-help and it was demanding reforms to laws relating to land. It was also seeking alliances with political parties at the state level; initially, with the Indian National Congress and then, by the early 1960s, with the Swatantra Party.
By 1967, the KKGKS was once again working with Congress because, despite being a haven for Patidars, the party leadership needed the votes of the KKGKS membership. The Kolis gained more from the actions of the KKGKS in these two decades than did the Rajputs, and Jaffrelot believes that it was around this time that a Koli intelligentsia emerged. Ghanshyam Shah, a professor at Jawaharlal Nehru University, describes the organisation today as covering a broad group of communities, from disadvantaged Rajputs of high prestige to the semi-tribal Bhils, with the Kolis in the middle. He notes that its composition reflects "a common economic interest and a growing secular identity born partly out of folklore but more out of common resentment against the well-to-do castes".
The Kolis of Gujarat remained educationally and occupationally disadvantaged compared to communities such as the Brahmins and Patidars. Their many J?tis include the Bareeya, Khant, Patanwadia, Talpada, Chunvalia and Thakor, and they also use Koli as a suffix, giving rise to groups such as the Gulam Koli and Matia Koli. Some do not refer to themselves as Koli at all.
Khant are a Subcaste of Koli community found in the state of Gujarat in India. The Khant subcaste of kolis was founded by koli chief Sonang Mer who came from Sindh to Gujarat. He have twelve sons and one of the them was dhan mer who founded the Dhandhuka and Dhandhalpur. Other sons named patal khant conquered Petlad and mer rana conquered mahiyar in junagadh. The most famous koli chief was jesa khant who defeated the Rao Khengarji I of Junagadh in the help to Muhammad bin Tughluq. Khant kolis is a branch of Mer Kolis. The rebellion was raised by Mansa Khant against first Nawab of Junagadh State because nawab was Viceroy of Gujarat Sultanate under Mughals. Khant kolis captured the Uparkot Fort and plundered the surrounding villages. Nawab was unable to prevent kolis so he sought for help from a arab jamadar sheikh abdullah zubaidi and Thakur of Gondal State. The combined forces attacked at fort. Troops captured the fort and put down the rebellion. The Princely state of Ambliara was ruled by Hindus khant kolis of Chauhan dynasty. It was a petty and fourth class state. The rulers was famous for resistance against troops of GaekwadBaroda State. The Khant Kolis saved the Sant State from Rajputs of Banswara State. In 1753, Ratanasingh of sant state was died and Sisodia rajput ruler of Banswara attacked at sant. He killed three princes but fourth prince named Badansingh was escaped by Khant Kolis. The Banswara troops were established in Sant and annexed in Banswara. The prince Badansingh fed by Khant Kolis and when he came to be mature, Kolis attacked at Banswara troops and drove them out of Sant. After that Kolis established Badansingh as Rana at throne of sant. The Khants have clans called 56 ataks, like the Dabhi, Baria, Parmar, Kandoliya, Zala, Gohil, Bheda, Sarvaiya, Deavla, Patriya, Bataviya, etc. There claim to Kshatriya status is generally acknowledged, and they are referred to as pallavi darbars. The khant are agriculturalist, but being small and marginal farmers, many are involved with agriculture wage labour.
Baria or Baraiya is a subcaste of KshatriyaKoli community of Gujarat in India. They are also known as Koli Patel. They were Daring pirates of Talaja. Baria kolis claim to be koli Thakor. They get their name from the town of Devgadh Baria, which was a stronghold of koli tribe. The Kolis of Gujarat have two sub-divisions, the Patanwadias and Talpadas. Among the Talpadas, there are several sub-divisions, the main ones being the Baria, Khant, Pateliya, Kotwal and Pagi. As Barias have the high status, the entire Talpada Koli community have adopted the name Baria. They speak Gujarati. The Baria kolis consist of a number of clans, the main ones being the Baria koli proper, the Patel, Pagi, Damor, Khant, Parmar, Pandor, Sangada, Chauhan, Jhala, Makwana and Maliwad. All these clans intermarry, although the community as a whole is endogamous. The Baria kolis are Hindus, and their tribal deities are Sikodar Mata, and Khodiyar. Their customs are similar to other Gujarati communities of similar status such as the Khant kolis. The traditional occupation of the Baria kolis is agriculture, and they include both landowners and sharecroppers.
Patanwadia or Patanwaria are a subgroup of the KshatriyaKoli community found in the state of Gujarat in India. They are also known as Thakore, Dharala and Baria. They get their name from the city of Patan, in Mehsana District. Patan was the historic capital of Gujarat. The Patanwadia are found mainly in Kheda, Vadodara, Mehsana, Bharuch and Surat districts of Gujarat. They speak Gujarati and have backward caste status. The Patanwadia have a number of clans which are not strictly exogamous in nature. Their main clans are the Solanki, Jhala, Chavda, Gohil, Chauhan, Vaghela and Rathod, all of whom are also pre-existing Rajput clans. Recently (British Raj) due to the process of sanskritzation, they consider themselves to be of Kshatriya status. The Patanwadia are traditionally agriculturist and also act as village guards. They are mainly small and medium-sized farmers, with many also keep buffaloes. As a result of urbanization, many are involved in the cutting and polishing of diamonds, especially those who have settled in the city of Surat. They are Hindu by religion.
Ghadasi (also spelled Ghadsi, Gadashi and Gadhshi) is a subgroup of the Koli tribe of Maharashtra, India lives in hilly areas. They traditionally belong to the Hunting and Agriculture. Bapujiboa is Their main tribal deity. They always involve in conflict with Marathas. They mostly found in the Maharshtra and some in Gujarat and Karnataka.
Mahadeo Koli or Mahadev Koli also known as Dongar Koli and Raj Koli is a Sub-caste of the Kolis of the Maharashtra, India. They drived their name from the god Mahadev. Their main occupation is agriculture, cattle herding and trading in milk and milk products. According to Michael Kennedy, the Mahaedo Kolis were the only criminal caste in Sahyadri rang. The rulers of the Jawhar State belong to this tribe of kolis. According to G. S. Ghurye, The Mahadeo Kolis served in the British Indian Army during the conflicts between British and the Maratha Empire in Konkan. In 1830, they revolted against British Raj in the India and also fought against Peshwa rulers. They were notified as Criminal Tribe by Criminal Tribes Act 1940. In 1761, The Mahadeo Kolis of Bhangre, Khade and Pattikar Clans captured the Trimbak Fort from the Nizam of Hyderabad and gave it to peshwa Madhavrao and were awarded with lots of money and grant of villages. The Mahadeo Kolis served in the British Army. The British Colonel Nuttal raised a Koli Corps to subdue the rebellions of Bhils. The Javji Bamble and the brother of Raghoji Bhangre were appointed as heads of Koli Corps containing six hundred koli soldiers. They proved themselves and crushed the rebellions. The Koli Corps was disbanded in 1861. The Mahadeo Kolis revolted against Mughals under their leader 'Khemi Sarnaik' in 1657. Kolis were in alliance with ChhatrapatiShivaji of Maratha Empire and tried to shake the Muslim rule. The Mughal Army were sent and overpowered the Mahadeo Kolis. The Khemi Sarnaik, his relatives and whole linage was killed by mughal ruler Aurangzeb. Kolis were taken to Junnar and their heads cut off and piled in a pyramid called Kala Chabutra. In 1741-42 there was a similar occurrence at the fort of Coorg. Coorg fort was under control of the Mahadeo Kolis but it was captured by Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao in 1742. Kolis fought against peshwa bravely and a large number of Mahadeo Kolis were killed by the Maratha Army. The second occurrence was in Vadali Village. In 1750-51, The Peshwa captured the fourteen forts from Mahadeo Kolis in Surgana prant of the Nashik district. Kolis rebelled frequently and thousand of kolis were exhausted by peshwa. Mr. G S Ghurey States that, from 1760 to 1799 most of the forts were captured by peshwa continuesly and there were criminal activities and rebellions by Mahadeo Kolis. According to British Captain Mackintosh, here are some of clans;Gaekwad, Mukne, Bhonsle, Patil, Chavan, Dalvi, Gavli, Jagtap, Kadam, Waghmare, Namdev, Pawar, Suryavanshi, Shinde, Hazare, Jadhav, Chaudhary, Joshi, Mali, Pattikar, Vanakpal, Bhangre, Bokad, Sable, Kengle, Sonwane, Bomble, More, Kokate, Valkoli, Bide, Wagh, Thokal, Tambekar, Shelke, Mavale, Kambale, Karavande, Kawale, Kedari, Bhandkule, Babale, Mondhe, Korade, Kachare, Malekar, Pedekar, Muthe, Moje, Dharade, Bharmal, Bhande, Kunde, Lohokare, Talpade, Borhade, Rongate, Dhadawad, Gondke, Khade, Pichad, Aghashi, Bhagivant (Fortunate), Budivant (Intelligent), Dagai, Kedar, Kharad, Khirsagar, Polewas, Shaikhacha, Shesh, Shiva, Sirkhi, Uterecha.
The Son Kolis is one of the chief group of the kolis mostly lives in Mumbai. They drived their name from 'Gold' Sona. Their main occupation is fishing but some of them are landlords. They have their separate Koli Dances for men and women. Some of the son kolis were converted to Christianity during Portuguese rule in the india and started worshiping the Our Lady of Mount Carmel. they served in the Portuguese Navy, Royal Indian Navy and the Maratha Navy under Kanhoji Angria. Son Kolis always constituted the bulk of the Naval Forces of the Maratha Rulers. The Lai Patil who had charge of the Maratha Fleet and a descendant of Kanhoji Angre was son koli and Sar-Patil of the son kolis.
Statue of Maharaja Yashwantrao Martandrao Mukne of Jawhar State
Sord Dynasty of Idar, the dynasty was founded by koli Thakor Hathi Soard in 1193 and till his death. He was succeeded by his son samalio sord. He ruled till 1300. It was short lived dynasty of kolis.
Virangna Jhalkari Bai Koli's Statue, Agra, Uttar Pradesh
The Kolis of the Maharashtra and the Gujarat uprised severally during British rule in the India and kingdoms. here are some of rebellions including;
Against Aurangzeb, according to Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, in 1650, the kolis of Poona rose in a rebellion against MughalSultanAurangzeb under their chief Kheni Naik or Sarnaik. But the crush of rebellion was very dreedful. Sultan killed the sarnaik with his family, siblings and far relatives. Hundreds of koli rebels were taken to Junnar and killed at a place called 'Koli Chabutra'. After this rebellion, kolis were treated with kindness by Sultan.
Against Jahangir, in 1613, the Kolis of the Gujarat raised against Mughal ruler Jahangir. Sultan sent his commander Nurulla Khan who killed the one hundred sixty nine koli chiefs in the battle.
In Junagadh State, Koli revolt in junagadh raised by Mansa Khant during time of Nawab Sher Khan the first ruler of junagadh. He was against Mughal Rule, Made Uparkot Fort his centre. He made a series of raids in surrounding villages and cities. Nawab was unsuccessful to control the rebellion. Mansa khant occupied the uparkot for thirteen months and make numerous raids mostly in countryside. Nawab started compaign against khant. Nawab was assisted by king of Gondal State thakur haloji Jadeja and arab jamadar sheikh abdullah zubeidi. The combined forces defeated the khant and captured uparkot and burnt down the rebellion.
Here are some of the clans adopted by kolis. according to Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency Captain Macintosh Mentioned the Mahadev Kolis of maharashtra belong to twenty four clan some of them are
Vanakpal or Wanakpal, Banakpal is a Clan of the Koli Caste of Maharashtra. Vanakpal clan mostly found in Mahadev Kolis. Vanakpal clan have seventeen sub-clans. Kolis of Vanakpal clan held good positions in Bahmani Sultanate and Ahmednagar Sultanate among the nobles as Sardars and Mansabdars of kingdom. For example Sabaji Koli was commander of Ahmednagar Sultanate's army. The social and religious head of Vanakpal kolis was known as Sarnaik who was president of caste council which settled civil and religious disputes.
Babaria (alternate spellings of which include Babria, Babariya, Bawaria) are a clan of Kolis found mainly in the Gujarat. The Babariawad of the Gujarat named after the Babaria Kolis. They were living by robberies was latter involved in agriculture. The name of Dhang was given to the Babaria koli robbers and murderers of Kathiawar.
Makwana is a clan of the KshatriyaKoli community. According to their traditions, their ancestor Bapuji, the son of Harpal Makwana, converted to Islam but later some converted to Hindu again. The Makwana Kolis ruled several Princely states such as Ramas, Prempur, Kadoli, Khervada, Derol, Tajpuri, Vakhtapur, Hapa, Dedhrota, Likhi, Gabat, Maguna, Tejpura, Memadpur, Deloli, Kasalpura, Virsoda, Palej, Rampura, Ijpura, Ranipura. The Makwana Kolis are now mainly small peasant proprietors found in north Gujarat.
Bohada Dance, the Bohada dance is a tribal dance of the Maharashtra. It is perforned by the Malhar Kolis and Mahadeo Kolis. In this dance, kolis use the Wooden Masks so it called as 'Dance of Masks'.
^David Hardiman (2007). Histories for the Subordinated. Seagull Books. p. 103. ISBN9781905422388. When Shivaji began his revolt in the following decade, the Kolis were amongst the first to join him under the leadership of the Sirnayak Khemi and they played a leading role in helping shivaji to consolidate his power. The Koli Tanaji Malusare...
^Irawati Karmarkar Karve (1965). Kinship organization in India. Asia Pub. House. p. 252. Retrieved 2012. I found in the Satara district in the village of Godavali that all Maratha houses belonged to the Malusare clan only. There was no possibility of finding a spouse for a boy in the village.