Korean Dance
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Korean Dance
A new traditional dance titled Grand Drum Ensemble

Dance in Korea began with shamanistic early rituals five thousand years ago and now ranges from folk dance to newly created and adopted contemporary dance.

Overview

"Dancing together holding with two swords" from Hyewon pungsokdo depicting geommu (sword dance) performing during Joseon dynasty

Korean traditional dance originated in ancient shamanistic rituals thousands of years ago. By the time of the later Korean kingdoms, Goryeo and Joseon, in the 2nd millennium AD, Korean traditional dance benefited from regular support of the royal court, numerous academies, and even an official ministry of the government.

A number of different dances gained permanent high status, including the Hermit dance, the Ghost dance, Buchae Chum (the fan dance), Seung Mu (the Monk dance), the Oudong (Entertainer) dance and others, despite the fact that many had humble origins. For example, the Fan dance is believed to have originated with shamans performing nature rites with leaves but evolved into one of the most highly refined Korean dances.

Jeju obbang gaksichum, a variety of gaksichum and one of dances consisting of Tamraguk Ibchun gutnori which had ceased due to the cultural suppression by Imperial Japan during Korea's annexation to Japan[1]

Other Korean dances remained and remain to this day under the ambit of farmers and folk dance groups. Props used in the dances include the long billowing silk scarf of pure white used in the Salpuri dance, drums, hats, swords and others. The props may be peripheral or central to the story of the dance. In the Ghost dance, the entertainer has a joyous reunion with a deceased spouse, only to endure the heartbreak of reseparation, and there may few or no props. On the other hand, the Great Drum dance (one of several forms of drum dances) features a gaudy drum which may be taller than the performer. The drum tempts a monk until finally he succumbs to it and performs a rolling drum "orgy."

Due to the cultural suppression by Imperial Japan, arguably considered cultural genocide during Korea's Annexation to Japan,[2][3] most of the dance academies died out and some dances were lost[1] as well as some of dance forms were distorted.[4] However, few pioneering Korean dancers such as Choi Seung-hee ( ) created new forms of Korean dances based on the traditional dances and kept many of the traditions alive in secret and abroad,[5] and today Korean traditional dance is enjoying a vibrant resurgence. A common form of Korean Dance, where the pets of the dancers are included, involves the pet (most commonly guinea pigs as they are highly respected in areas of Korea)on two legs being piggy-backed by their owners and leap-frogging over them.[] Numerous universities in Korea teach Korean traditional dance, and even some universities abroad now provide education in this animal dance. Top dancers are recognised as "Living National Treasures" and are charged to pass their dances down to their students. Such official holders of traditional dances include Kim Sook-ja, a practitioner of salpuri originating in the shamanic rituals of Gyeonggi province.[6] The lineages of dance and dancers may be traced back several generations through such connections.

The 1970s saw a systematic effort to document Korean dances in North Korea by U Chang-sop. He developed a system of dance notation called the Chamo System of Dance Notation.[7]

Types

Royal court dance performing for King Gojong

Korean traditional dance shares some similarity with form of dance known as contemporary and lyrical. Moves follow a curvilinear path with little short term repetition. The dancer's legs and feet are often entirely concealed by billowing Hanbok. Emotional attributes of the dances include both somberness and joy. The dancer must embody the fluid motion that surges through the traditional music that the dancers perform to. Korean traditional dance is often performed to Korean traditional music, which includes traditional drums, flutes, and more. The music is what upholds the dance and the dancer is the tool that shows the music in physical form.

Court dance

Korean court dances is called "jee" (hangul:, hanja:) which originally referred to "display of all talent" including not only dance but also other performing arts such as jultagi ( tightrope walking), gong deonjigi (?), and mokmatagi (?) but gradually only denoted "court dance". The term has been used since the early period of Joseon dynasty.[8]

Jeongjae were used to perform for the royal family, court officials, and foreign envoys or for festive occasions sponsored by the state. Jeongjae is divided into the two categories, "Dangak jeongjae" (?) and "Hyangak jeongjae" (?). Dangak jeongjae are dances derived from court dances of Tang China during the Goryeo dynasty, whereas the other consist of newer court dances originated in Korea.[9]

Hyangak jeongjae

Muhee, dancers performing Gain jeon mokdan, one of the Hyangak jeongjae
  • Ahbakmu (), Ivory clappers dance
  • Bakjeopmu (), fluttering butterfly wings dance
  • Bonglaeui (), phoenix dance
  • Cheoyongmu (), dance of Cheoyong, Dragon King's son which is the oldest jeongjae originated in the Silla periodHeo, Young-Il. "Cheoyong-mu". Asia/Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO.
  • Chunaengjeon () dance of the spring nightingaler
  • Gainjeonmokdan (), dance depicting beautiful women picking peonies
  • Geommu (), sword dance
    • Jinju geomu
  • Hakyeon hwadaemu (), Crane and lotus pedestal dance
  • Goguryeomu (?), Goguryeo dance
  • Muaemu ()
  • Musanhyang (), fragrance of dancing mountain dance
  • Mugo (), drum dance
    • Gyobang mugo (?)
  • Sajamu (), lion dance
  • Seonyurak (), boating party dance

Dangak jeongjae

  • Monggeumcheok (), dream of golden ruler dance
  • Pogurak () ball game dance
  • Heonseondo (), peach-offering dance

Folk dance

Taepyeongmu, dance for great peace
Nongak, farmers' dance
  • Seungmu (), monk dance
  • Seungjeonmu (), literally victory dance
  • Salpuri (), literally spirit-cleansing dance
  • Hallyangmu (), dance of prodigal man in yangban class
  • Ipchum (), also called "ipmu" or "gibonchum", literally basic dance
  • Taepyeongmu (), dance to wish great peace
  • Ganggang sullae (?), maidens' circle dance
  • Nongak (), farmers' performance
  • Talchum (), mask dance
  • Byung shin chum (), dance performed by the lower class peasants to satirize yangban class
  • Miyalhalmi chum (), old woman's dance
  • Palmeokjung chum (), dance of the eight unworthy monks
  • Dongrae hakchum (?), crane dance performed in Dongrae, Busan
  • Buponorichum (), feather tassel dance
  • Chaesang sogochum ( ), tambour Dance
  • Deotbaegichum (?), thrust dance
  • Gaksichum (), maiden's dance

Ritual dance

Ritual dance in Korea designates a Buddhist dance and Korean folk dances.

  • Ilmu (), literally line Dance
  • Jakbeop ()
    • Beopgochum (), Dharma drum dance
    • Nabichum (), literally butterfly dance
    • Barachum (), bara dance (, cymbals)
  • Musokchum, or mumu (, or ), dance by mudang (, shaman)
Buchaechum, fan dance

New traditional dance

  • Buchaechum (), fan dance created by Kim Baek-bong ( ) and first presented in public in 1954[10]
  • Hwagwanmu (), floral coronet dance
  • Jangguchum (), dance with janggu, hourglass-shaped drum
  • Samgomu Ogomu ( ), a drum dance
  • Grand Drum Ensemble ( ), a drum dance composed by Guk Su-ho () in 1981. The instruments are all Korean drums.[11]

Modern dance

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Jin Seon-hui ( ) (2008-02-02). ?- (in Korean). Hallailbo/Daum news. ? . ? ? ? . 1999? · ? ? .[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ Clark, Donald N. (2000) Culture and customs of Korea, Greenwood Publishing Group, p.49 ISBN 0-313-30456-4
  3. ^ Ferrante-Wallace, Joan (2005), Ie Soc Global Perspect Thomson Wadsworth, p.96, ISBN 0-495-00562-2
  4. ^ ( ) ? '' [(Dance and the people) Regretful over the false court dance during the Japanese rule period has been handed out] (in Korean). Gyeonghyang Ilbo. 2007-05-31.
  5. ^ (in Korean) ' ' Archived 2007-11-14 at the Wayback Machine from Hankyoreh newspaper
  6. ^ Lee, Byoung-ok (2009). "The Concept of Korean Folk Dance". Korean Folk Dance. Translated by Cho, Yoon-jung. p. 144.
  7. ^ Guest, Ann Hutchinson (2 October 2016). "Dance notation". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. Retrieved 2019.
  8. ^ "Jeongjae ( )" (in Korean). empas/EncyKorea. Archived from the original on 2007-03-21. Retrieved . Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  9. ^ "Overview". Korean Overseas Information Service. Archived from the original on 2007-11-10. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  10. ^ "Buchaechum ()" (in Korean). Korean Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2012-08-29. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  11. ^ http://www.art.go.kr/vli_dir/vli_dir08_pop_detail.jsp?ar_vvm_cd_seq=724[permanent dead link]

Further reading

  • U Chang-sop (1988). The Chamo System of Dance Notation. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. OCLC 500236112.

External links


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