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An unfurling silver fern frond

The koru (M?ori for "loop or coil"[1]) is a spiral shape based on the appearance of a new unfurling silver fern frond. It is an integral symbol in M?ori art, carving and tattooing, where it symbolises new life, growth, strength and peace.[2] Its shape "conveys the idea of perpetual movement," while the inner coil "suggests returning to the point of origin".[2]

Use in design

The koru is the integral motif of the symbolic and seemingly abstract kowhaiwhai designs traditionally used to decorate wharenui (meeting houses). There are numerous semi-formal designs, representing different features of the natural world.[3]

The logo of Air New Zealand, the national carrier, incorporates a koru design--based on the Ngaru (Ng?ti Kahungunu)[4] kowhaiwhai pattern--as a symbol of New Zealand flora. The logo was introduced in 1973 to coincide with the arrival of the airline's first McDonnell Douglas DC-10 wide-body jet.

In 1983, Friedensreich Hundertwasser based his proposed design for a secondary New Zealand flag on the symbol. It also formed the basis for a notable series of artworks by Gordon Walters. Koru swirls are also reminiscent of the Tomoe symbol in Japan.[5]

The New Zealand national korfball team is nicknamed The Korus, although the plural for koru is koru.[6]


  1. ^ Moorfield, John C. (2010). "M?ori dictionary". Te Aka M?ori-English, English-M?ori Dictionary and Index. Te Whanake. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 2010.
  2. ^ a b Royal, Te Ahukaram? Charles (March 4, 2009). "M?ori creation traditions". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage / Te Manat? Taonga. Retrieved 2010.
  3. ^ Wison, Kemera "Whakairo" Maori Carving - Reading Kowhaiwhai," maori.org.nz. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  4. ^ "Maori Carving: Reading Kowhaiwhai". www.maori.org.nz. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "Koru Cross".
  6. ^ "M?ori Culture - New Zealand Trade Manual". www.newzealandtrademanual.com. Retrieved 2019.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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