Latin Conjugation
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Latin Conjugation

Conjugation has two meanings.[1] One meaning is the creation of derived forms of a verb from basic forms, or principal parts. It may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, mood, aspect, voice, or other language-specific factors.

The second meaning of the word conjugation is a group of verbs which all have the same pattern of inflections. Thus all those Latin verbs which have 1st singular -?, 2nd singular -?s, and infinitive -?re are said to belong to the 1st conjugation, those with 1st singular -e?, 2nd singular -?s and infinitive -?re belong to the 2nd conjugation, and so on. The number of conjugations of regular verbs is usually said to be four.

The word "conjugation" comes from the Latin coniug?ti?, a calque of the Greek ? syzygia, literally "yoking together (horses into a team)".

For simple verb paradigms, see the Wiktionary appendix pages for first conjugation, second conjugation, third conjugation, and fourth conjugation.

Number of conjugations

The ancient Romans themselves, beginning with Varro (1st century BC), originally divided their verbs into three conjugations (coniugationes verbis accidunt tres: prima, secunda, tertia "there are three different conjugations for verbs: the first, second, and third" (Donatus), 4th century AD), according to whether the ending of the 2nd person singular had an a, an e or an i in it.[2] However, others, such as Sacerdos (3rd century AD), Dositheus (4th century AD) and Priscian[3] (c. 500 AD), recognised four different groups.[4]

Modern grammarians[5] generally recognise four conjugations, according to whether their active present infinitive has the ending -?re, -?re, -ere, or -?re (or the corresponding passive forms), for example: (1) am?, am?re "to love", (2) vide?, vid?re "to see", (3) reg?, regere "to rule" and (4) audi?, aud?re "to hear". There are also some verbs of mixed conjugation, having some endings like the 3rd and others like the 4th conjugation, for example, capi?, capere "to capture".

In addition to regular verbs, which belong to one or other of the four conjugations, there are also a few irregular verbs, which have a different pattern of endings. The most important of these is the verb sum, esse "to be". There also exist deponent and semi-deponent Latin verbs (verbs with a passive form but active meaning), as well as defective verbs (verbs in which some of the tenses are missing).

Principal parts

The grouping in conjugations is based on the behaviour of the verb in the present system[clarification needed]; the stems for other tenses cannot be inferred from the present stem, so several forms of the verb are necessary to be able to produce the full range of forms for any particular verb.

In a dictionary, Latin verbs are therefore listed with four "principal parts" (or fewer for deponent and defective verbs) which allow the reader to deduce the other conjugated forms of the verbs. These are:

  1. the first person singular of the present indicative active
  2. the present infinitive active
  3. the first person singular of the perfect indicative active
  4. the supine or, in some grammars, the perfect passive participle, which uses the same stem. (Texts that list the perfect passive participle use the future active participle for intransitive verbs.) Some verbs lack this principal part altogether.

The present infinitive active form shows the verb's conjugation.

Regular conjugations

First conjugation

The first conjugation is characterized by the vowel ? and can be recognized by the -?re ending of the present active infinitive form. The non-perfect tenses conjugate as follows:

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I love I will love I was loving I may love I might love
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
am?
am?s
amat
am?mus
am?tis
amant
am?b?
am?bis
am?bit
am?bimus
am?bitis
am?bunt
am?bam
am?b?s
am?bat
am?b?mus
am?b?tis
am?bant
amem
am?s
amet
am?mus
am?tis
ament
am?rem
am?r?s
am?ret
am?r?mus
am?r?tis
am?rent
Passive I am loved I will be loved I was being loved I may be loved I might be loved
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
amor
am?ris
am?tur
am?mur
am?min?
amantur
am?bor
am?beris/e*
am?bitur
am?bimur
am?bimin?
am?buntur
am?bar
am?b?ris/e*
am?b?tur
am?b?mur
am?b?min?
am?bantur
amer
am?ris/e*
am?tur
am?mur
am?min?
amentur
am?rer
am?r?ris/e*
am?r?tur
am?r?mur
am?r?min?
am?rentur

* The 2nd person singular passive am?beris, am?b?ris, am?ris, am?r?ris can be shortened to am?bere, am?b?re, am?re, am?r?re. -re was the regular form in early Latin and (except in the present indicative) in Cicero; -ris was preferred later.[6]

In early Latin (Plautus), the 3rd singular endings -at and -et were pronounced -?t and -?t with a long vowel.[7]

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: am?re "to love"
  • Passive infinitive: am?r? "to be loved" (in early Latin often am?rier)[8]
  • Imperative: am?! (pl. am?te!) "love!"
  • Future imperative: am?t?! (pl. am?t?te!) "love! (at a future time)"
  • Passive imperative: am?re! (pl. am?min?!) "be loved!" (usually only found in deponent verbs)
  • Present participle: am?ns (pl. amant?s) "loving"
  • Future participle: am?t?rus (pl. am?t?r?) "going to love"
  • Gerundive: amandus (pl. amand?) "needing to be loved"
  • Gerund: amand? "of loving", amand? "by/for loving", ad amandum "in order to love"

The principal parts usually adhere to one of the following patterns:

  • perfect has the suffix -?v?. The majority of first-conjugation verbs follow this pattern, which is considered to be "regular", for example:
    • am?, am?re, am?v?, am?tum, "to love";
    • imper?, imper?re, imper?v?, imper?tum, "to order";
    • laud?, laud?re, laud?v?, laud?tum, "to praise";
    • neg?, neg?re, neg?v?, neg?tum, "to deny";
    • n?nti?, n?nti?re, n?nti?v?, n?nti?tum, "to announce, report";
    • ?r?, ?r?re, ?r?v?, ?r?tum, "to beg, pray";
    • par?, par?re, par?v?, par?tum, "to prepare";
    • port?, port?re, port?v?, port?tum, "to carry";
    • pugn?, pugn?re, pugn?v?, pugn?tum, "to fight";
    • put?, put?re, put?v?, put?tum, "to think";
    • rog?, rog?re, rog?v?, rog?tum, "to ask";
    • serv?, serv?re, serv?v?, serv?tum, "to save";
    • voc?, voc?re, voc?v?, voc?tum, "to call";
  • perfect has the suffix -u?, for example:
    • fric?, fric?re, fricu?, frictum, "to rub";
    • sec?, sec?re, secu?, sectum, "to cut, to divide";
    • vet?, vet?re, vetu?, vetitum, "to forbid, to prohibit";
  • perfect has the suffix -? and vowel lengthening in the stem, for example:
    • iuv?, iuv?re, i?v?, i?tum, "to help, to assist";
    • lav?, lav?re, l?v?, lautum, "to wash, to bathe";
  • perfect is reduplicated, for example:
    • d?, dare, ded?, datum, "to give"
    • st?, st?re, stet?, statum, "to stand";

The verb d? "I give" is irregular in that except in the 2nd singular d?s and imperative d?, the a is short, e.g. dab? "I will give".

The a is also short in the supine statum and its derivatives, but the other parts of st? "I stand" are regular.

Deponent verbs in this conjugation all follow the pattern below, which is the passive of the first type above:[9]

  • arbitror, arbitr?r?, arbitr?tus sum "to think"
  • c?nor, c?n?r?, c?n?tus sum "to try"
  • c?nctor, c?nct?ri, c?nct?tus sum "to hesitate"
  • hortor, hort?r?, hort?tus sum "to exhort"
  • m?ror, m?r?r?, m?r?tus sum "to be surprised, to be amazed at"

Perfect tenses

The three perfect tenses of the 1st conjugation go as in the following table:

Indicative Subjunctive
Perfect Future perfect Pluperfect Perfect Pluperfect
Active I loved I will have loved I had loved I loved I had loved
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
am?v?
am?vist?
am?vit
am?vimus
am?vistis
am?v?runt/re
*
am?ver?
am?ver?s/is
am?verit
am?ver?mus/imus
am?ver?tis/itis
am?verint
am?veram
am?ver?s
am?verat
am?ver?mus
am?ver?tis
am?verant
am?verim
am?ver?s
am?verit
am?ver?mus
am?ver?tis
am?verint
am?(vi)ssem*
am?viss?s
am?visset
am?viss?mus
am?viss?tis
am?vissent
Passive I was loved I will have been loved I had been loved I was loved I had been loved
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
am?tus sum
am?tus es
am?tus est
am?t? sumus
am?t? estis
am?t? sunt
am?tus er?
am?tus eris
am?tus erit
am?t? erimus
am?t? eritis
am?t? erunt
am?tus eram
am?tus er?s
am?tus erat
am?t? er?mus
am?t? er?tis
am?t? erant
am?tus sim
am?tus s?s
am?tus sit
am?t? s?mus
am?t? s?tis
am?t? sint
am?tus essem
am?tus ess?s
am?tus esset
am?t? ess?mus
am?t? ess?tis
am?t? essent

In poetry (and also sometimes in prose, e.g. Livy), the 3rd person plural of the perfect indicative is often am?v?re instead of am?v?runt. Occasionally the form am?verunt is also found.[10]

In early Latin, the future perfect indicative had a short i in am?v?ris, am?verimus, am?veritis, but by the time of Cicero these forms were usually pronounced with a long i, in the same way as in the perfect subjunctive.[11] Virgil has a short i for both tenses; Horace uses both forms for both tenses; Ovid uses both forms for the future perfect, but a long i in the perfect subjunctive.[12]

The -v- of the perfect active tenses sometimes drops out, especially in the pluperfect subjunctive: am?ssem for am?vissem. Forms such as am?rat and am?st? are also found.

The passive tenses also have feminine and neuter forms, e.g. am?ta est "she was loved", n?nti?tum est "it was announced".

Forms made with fu? instead of sum and forem instead of essem are also found. See Latin tenses.

For other meanings of the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive, see Latin tenses#Perfect subjunctive.

Other forms:

  • Perfect infinitive active: am?visse (am?sse) "to have loved"
  • Perfect infinitive passive: am?tus esse (am?tum esse) "to have been loved"
  • Perfect participle passive: am?tus, -a, -um "loved (by someone)"

Second conjugation

The second conjugation is characterized by the vowel ?, and can be recognized by the -e? ending of the first person present indicative and the -?re ending of the present active infinitive form:

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I see I will see I was seeing I may see I might see
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
vide?
vid?s
videt
vid?mus
vid?tis
vident
vid?b?
vid?bis
vid?bit
vid?bimus
vid?bitis
vid?bunt
vid?bam
vid?b?s
vid?bat
vid?b?mus
vid?b?tis
vid?bant
videam
vide?s
videat
vide?mus
vide?tis
videant
vid?rem
vid?r?s
vid?ret
vid?r?mus
vid?r?tis
vid?rent
Passive I am seen I will be seen I was being seen I may be seen I might be seen
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
videor
vid?ris
vid?tur
vid?mur
vid?min?
videntur
vid?bor
vid?beris/e
vid?bitur
vid?bimur
vid?bimin?
vid?buntur
vid?bar
vid?b?ris/e
vid?b?tur
vid?b?mur
vid?b?min?
vid?bantur
videar
vide?ris/e
vide?tur
vide?mur
vide?min?
videantur
vid?rer
vid?r?ris/e
vid?r?tur
vid?r?mur
vid?r?min?
vid?rentur

The passive vid?or also often means "I seem".

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: vid?re "to see"
  • Passive infinitive: vid?r? "to be seen"
  • Imperative: vid?! (pl. vid?te!) "see!"
  • Future imperative: vid?t?! (pl. vid?t?te!) "see! (at a future time)"
  • Passive imperative: vid?re! (pl. vid?min?!) "be seen!" (usually only found in deponent verbs)
  • Present participle: vid?ns (pl. vident?s) "seeing"
  • Future participle: v?s?rus (pl. v?s?r?) "going to see"
  • Gerundive: videndus (pl. vidend?) "needing to be seen"
  • Gerund: vidend? "of seeing", vidend? "by /for seeing", ad videndum "in order to see"

The principal parts usually adhere to one of the following patterns:

  • perfect has the suffix -u?. Verbs which follow this pattern are considered to be "regular". Examples:
    • d?be?, d?b?re, d?bu?, d?bitum "to owe, be obliged"
    • doce?, doc?re, docu?, doctum "to teach, to instruct"
    • iace?, iac?re, iacu?, iacitum "to lie (on the ground/bed)"
    • mere?, mer?re, meru?, meritum "to deserve"
    • misce?, misc?re, miscu?, mixtum "to mix"
    • mone?, mon?re, monu?, monitum "to warn, advise"
    • noce?, noc?re, nocu?, nocitum "to be harmful"
    • praebe?, praeb?re, praebu?, praebitum "to provide, show"
    • tene?, ten?re, tenu?, tentum "to hold, to keep"
    • terre?, terr?re, terru?, territum "to frighten, to deter"
    • time?, tim?re, timu?, - "to fear"
    • vale?, val?re, valu?, (valitum) "to be strong"
  • perfect has the suffix -?v?. Example:
    • d?le?, d?l?re, d?l?v?, d?l?tum "to destroy"
    • fle?, fl?re, fl?v?, fl?tum "to weep"

In verbs with perfect in -v?, syncopated (i.e. abbreviated) forms are common, such as d?l?ram, d?l?ssem, d?l?st? for d?l?veram, d?l?vissem, d?l?vist?.[13]

  • perfect has the suffix -?v?. Example:
    • cie?, ci?re, c?v?, citum "to arouse, to stir"
  • perfect has the suffix -s? (which combines with a preceding c or g to -x?). Examples:
    • ?rde?, ?rd?re, ?rs?, ?rsum "to burn"
    • auge?, aug?re, aux?, auctum "to increase, to enlarge"
    • haere?, haer?re, haes?, haesum "to stick, to adhere, to get stuck"
    • iube?, iub?re, iuss?, iussum "to order"
    • mane?, man?re, m?ns?, m?nsum "to remain"
    • persu?de?, persu?d?re, persu?s?, persu?sum "to persuade"
    • r?de?, r?d?re, r?s?, r?sum "to laugh"
  • perfect is reduplicated with -?. Examples:
    • morde?, mord?re, momord?, morsum "to bite"
    • sponde?, spond?re, spopond?, sp?nsum "to vow, to promise"
  • perfect has suffix -? and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples:
    • cave?, cav?re, c?v?, cautum "to be cautious"
    • fave?, fav?re, f?v?, fautum "to favour"
    • fove?, fov?re, f?v?, f?tum "to caress, to cherish"
    • sede?, sed?re, s?d?, sessum "to sit"
    • vide?, vid?re, v?d?, v?sum "to see"
  • perfect has suffix -?. Examples:
    • responde?, respond?re, respond?, resp?nsum "to reply"
    • str?de?, str?d?re, str?d?, - "to hiss, to creak" (also str?d? 3rd conj.)

Deponent verbs in this conjugation are few. They mostly go like the passive of terre?, but fateor and confiteor have a perfect participle with ss:[14]

  • fateor, fat?r?, fassus sum "to confess"
  • mereor, mer?r?, meritus sum "to deserve"
  • polliceor, pollic?r?, pollicitus sum "to promise"

The following are semi-deponent, that is, they are deponent only in the three perfect tenses:[15]

  • aude?, aud?re, ausus sum "to dare"
  • gaude?, gaud?re, g?v?sus sum "to rejoice, to be glad"
  • sole?, sol?re, solitus sum "to be accustomed"

Third conjugation

The third conjugation has a variable short stem vowel, which may be e, i,or u in different environments. Verbs of this conjugation end in -ere in the present active infinitive.

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I lead I will lead I was leading I may lead I might lead
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
d?c?
d?cis
d?cit
d?cimus
d?citis
d?cunt
d?cam
d?c?s
d?cet
d?c?mus
d?c?tis
d?cent
d?c?bam
d?c?b?s
d?c?bat
d?c?b?mus
d?c?b?tis
d?c?bant
d?cam
d?c?s
d?cat
d?c?mus
d?c?tis
d?cant
d?cerem
d?cer?s
d?ceret
d?cer?mus
d?cer?tis
d?cerent
Passive I am led I will be led I was being led I may be led I might be led
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
d?cor
d?ceris
d?citur
d?cimur
d?cimin?
d?cuntur
d?car
d?c?ris/re
d?c?tur
d?c?mur
d?c?min?
d?centur
d?c?bar
d?c?b?ris/re
d?c?b?tur
d?c?b?mur
d?c?b?min?
d?c?bantur
d?car
d?c?ris/re
d?c?tur
d?c?mur
d?c?min?
d?cantur
d?cerer
d?cer?ris/re
d?cer?tur
d?cer?mur
d?cer?min?
d?cerentur

The future tense in the 3rd and 4th conjugation (-am, -?s, -et etc.) differs from that in the 1st and 2nd conjugation (-b?, -bis, -bit etc.).

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: d?cere "to lead"
  • Passive infinitive: d?c? "to be led" (the 3rd conjugation has no r)
  • Imperative: d?c! (pl. d?cite!) "lead!"
  • Future imperative: d?cit?! (pl. d?cit?te!) "lead! (at a future time)"
  • Passive imperative: d?cere! (pl. d?cimin?!) "be led!" (usually only found in deponent verbs)
  • Present participle: d?c?ns (pl. d?cent?s) "leading"
  • Future participle: duct?rus (pl. duct?r?) "going to lead"
  • Gerundive: d?cendus (pl. d?cend?) "needing to be led"
  • Gerund: d?cend? "of leading", d?cend? "by /for leading", ad d?cendum "in order to lead"

Four 3rd conjugation verbs have no ending in the imperative singular: d?c! "lead!", d?c! "say!", fer! "bring!", fac! "do!". Others, like curre "run!", have the ending -e.[16]

There is no regular rule for constructing the perfect stem of third-conjugation verbs, but the following patterns are used:

  • perfect has suffix -s? (-x? when c or h comes at the end of the root). Examples:
    • carp?, carpere, carps?, carptum "to pluck, to select"
    • c?d?, c?dere, cess?, cessum "to yield, depart"
    • claud?, claudere, claus?, clausum "to close"
    • contemn?, contemnere, contemps?, contemptum "to despise, disdain, treat with contempt"
    • d?c?, d?cere, d?x?, dictum "to say"
    • d?vid?, d?videre, d?v?s?, d?v?sum "to divide"
    • d?c?, d?cere, d?x?, ductum "to lead"
    • flect?, flectere, flex?, flexum "to bend, to twist"
    • ger?, gerere, gess?, gestum "to wear, to bear; wage (war)"
    • mitt?, mittere, m?s?, missum "to send"
    • reg?, regere, r?x?, r?ctum "to rule"
    • scr?b?, scr?bere, scr?ps?, scr?ptum "to write"
    • teg?, tegere, t?x?, t?ctum "to cover, conceal"
    • trah?, trahere, tr?x?, tr?ctum "to drag, to pull"
    • v?v?, v?vere, v?x?, victum "to live"
  • perfect is reduplicated with suffix -?. Examples:
    • cad?, cadere, cecid?, c?sum "to fall"
    • caed?, caedere, cec?d?, caesum "to kill, to slay"
    • curr?, currere, cucurr?, cursum "to run, to race"
    • disc?, discere, didic?, - "to learn"
    • fall?, fallere, fefell?, falsum "to cheat"
    • occ?d?, occ?dere, occ?d?, occ?sum "to kill"
    • p?d?, p?dere, pep?d?, p?ditum "to fart"
    • pell?, pellere, pepul?, pulsum "to beat, to drive away"
    • p?sc?, p?scere, pop?sc?, - "to claim, request"
    • tang?, tangere, tetig?, t?ctum "to touch, to hit"
    • tend?, tendere, tetend?, tentum/t?nsum "to stretch"

Although d?, dare, ded?, datum "to give" is 1st conjugation, its compounds are 3rd conjugation and have internal reduplication:

    • cond?, condere, condid?, conditum "to found"
  • cr?d?, cr?dere, cr?did?, cr?ditum "to entrust, believe"
  • d?d?, d?dere, d?did?, d?ditum "to surrender"
  • perd?, perdere, perdid?, perditum "to destroy, lose"
  • redd?, reddere, reddid?, redditum "to give back"
  • tr?d?, tr?dere, tr?did?, tr?ditum "to hand over"

Likewise the compounds of sist? have internal reduplication. Although sist? is transitive, its compounds are intransitive:[17]

  • sist?, sistere, (stit?), statum "to cause to stand"
  • c?nsist?, c?nsistere, c?nstit?, c?nstitum "to come to a halt"
  • d?sist?, d?sistere, d?stit?, d?stitum "to stand off"
  • resist?, resistere, restit?, restitum "to resist"
  • perfect has suffix -v?. Examples:
    • lin?, linere, l?v? (l?v?), litum "to smear, to daub" (also 4th conj. lini?, lin?re, l?v?, l?tum)
    • pet?, petere, pet?v?, pet?tum "to seek, to attack"
    • quaer?, quaerere, quaes?v?, quaes?tum "to look for, ask"
    • ser?, serere, s?v?, satum "to sow, to plant"
    • stern?, sternere, str?v?, str?tum "to spread, to stretch out"
    • ter?, terere, tr?v?, tr?tum "to rub, to wear out"
  • perfect has suffix -? and vowel lengthening in the stem. If the present stem has an n infix, as in fund?, relinqu? and vinc?, it disappears in the perfect. Examples:
    • ag?, agere, ?g?, ?ctum "to do, to drive"
    • c?g?, c?gere, co?g?, co?ctum "to compel, gather together"
    • em?, emere, ?m?, ?mptum "to buy"
    • fund?, fundere, f?d?, f?sum "to pour"
    • leg?, legere, l?g?, l?ctum "to collect, to read"
    • relinqu?, relinquere, rel?qu?, relictum "to leave behind"
    • rump?, rumpere, r?p?, ruptum "to burst"
    • vinc?, vincere, v?c?, victum "to conquer, to defeat"
  • perfect has suffix -? only. Examples:
    • ascend?, ascendere, ascend?, asc?nsum "to climb, to go up"
    • c?nstitu?, c?nstituere, c?nstitu?, c?nstit?tum "to establish, decide, cause to stand"
    • d?fend?, d?fendere, d?fend?, d?f?nsum "to defend"
    • expell?, expellere, expul?, expulsum "to drive out, expel"
    • ?c?, ?cere, ?c?, ictum "to strike"
    • metu?, metuere, metu?, met?tum "to fear, be apprehensive"
    • occ?d?, occ?dere, occ?d?, occ?sum "to kill"
    • ostend?, ostendere, ostend?, ostentum (ostensum) "to show"
    • toll?, tollere, sustul?, subl?tum "to lift, raise, remove"
    • vert?, vertere, vert?, versum "to turn"
    • v?s?, v?sere, v?s?, v?sum "to visit"
  • perfect has suffix -u?. Examples:
    • col?, colere, colu?, cultum "to cultivate, to till"
    • c?nsul?, consulere, c?nsulu?, c?nsultum "to consult, act in the interests of"
    • gign?, gignere, genu?, genitum "to beget, to cause"
    • p?n?, p?nere, posu?, positum "to place"
    • tex?, texere, texu?, textum "to weave, to plait"
    • vom?, vomere, vomu?, vomitum "to vomit"
  • Present tense indicative first person singular form has suffix -sc?. Examples:
    • adol?sc?, adol?scere, adol?v?, adultum "to grow up, to mature"
    • n?sc?, n?scere, n?v?, n?tum "to get to know, to learn"
    • p?sc?, p?scere, p?v?, p?stum "to feed upon, to feed (an animal)"
    • qui?sc?, qui?scere, qui?v?, qui?tum "to rest, keep quiet"

Deponent verbs in the 3rd conjugation include the following:

  • complector, complect?, complexus sum "to embrace"
  • fruor, fru?, fr?ctus sum "to enjoy" (fruitus is occasionally found)
  • fungor, fung?, f?nctus sum "to perform, discharge, busy oneself with"
  • l?bor, l?b?, l?psus sum "to glide, slip"
  • loquor, loqu?, loc?tus sum "to speak"
  • n?tor, n?t?, n?xus sum "to lean on; to strive" (n?sus is occasionally found)
  • queror, quer?, questus sum "to complain"
  • sequor, sequ?, sec?tus sum "to follow"
  • ?tor, ?t?, ?sus sum "to use"
  • vehor, veh?, vectus sum "to ride"

There are also a number of 3rd conjugation deponents with the ending -scor:

  • adip?scor, adip?sc?, adeptus sum "to obtain"
  • ?r?scor, ?r?sc?, ?r?tus sum "to get angry"
  • nanc?scor, nanc?sc?, nactus sum "to obtain"
  • n?scor, n?sc?, n?tus sum "to be born"
  • obl?v?scor, obl?v?sc?, obl?tus sum "to forget"
  • profic?scor, profic?sc?, profectus sum "to set out"
  • ulc?scor, ulc?sc?, ultus sum "to avenge, take vengeance on"

Deponent in some tenses only is the following:[18]

  • f?d?, f?dere, f?sus sum "to trust"

The following is deponent only in the non-perfect tenses:

  • revertor, revert?, revert? "to turn back"

Third conjugation -i? verbs

Intermediate between the third and fourth conjugation are the third-conjugation verbs with suffix -i?. These resemble the fourth conjugation in some forms.

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I capture I will capture I was capturing I may capture I might capture
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
capi?
capis
capit
capimus
capitis
capiunt
capiam
capi?s
capiet
capi?mus
capi?tis
capient
capi?bam
capi?b?s
capi?bat
capi?b?mus
capi?b?tis
capi?bant
capiam
capi?s
capiat
capi?mus
capi?tis
capiant
caperem
caper?s
caperet
caper?mus
caper?tis
caperent
Passive I am captured I will be captured I was being captured I may be captured I might be captured
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
capior
caperis
capitur
capimur
capimin?
capiuntur
capiar
capi?ris/re
capi?tur
capi?mur
capi?min?
capientur
capi?bar
capi?b?ris/re
capi?b?tur
capi?b?mur
capi?b?min?
capi?bantur
capiar
capi?ris/re
capi?tur
capi?mur
capi?min?
capiantur
caperer
caper?ris/re
caper?tur
caper?mur
caper?min?
caperentur

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: capere "to capture, to take"
  • Passive infinitive: cap? "to be captured" (the 3rd conjugation has no r)
  • Imperative: cape! (pl. capite!) "capture!"
  • Future imperative: capit?! (pl. capit?te!) "capture! (at a future time)"
  • Passive imperative: capere! (pl. capimin?!) "be captured!" (usually only found in deponent verbs)
  • Present participle: capi?ns (pl. capient?s) "capturing"
  • Future participle: capt?rus (pl. capt?r?) "going to capture"
  • Gerundive: capiendus (pl. capiend?) "needing to be captured" (capiundus is also sometimes found)
  • Gerund: capiend? "of capturing", capiend? "by /for capturing", ad capiendum "in order to capture"

Some examples are:

  • accipi?, accipere, acc?p?, acceptum "to receive, accept"
  • capi?, capere, c?p?, captum "to take, capture"
  • c?nspici?, c?nspicere, c?nspex?, c?nspectum "to take, capture"
  • cupi?, cupere, cup?v?, cup?tum "to desire, long for"
  • faci?, facere, f?c?, factum "to do, to make"
  • fugi?, fugere, f?g?, fugitum "to flee"
  • iaci?, iacere, i?c?, iactum "to throw"
  • interfici?, interficere, interf?c?, interfectum "to kill"
  • rapi?, rapere, rapu?, raptum "to plunder, seize"
  • respici?, respicere, respex?, respectum "to look back"

Deponent verbs in this group include:

  • aggredior, aggred?, aggressus sum "to attack"
  • ?gredior, ?gred?, ?gressus sum "to go out"
  • morior, mor?, mortuus sum "to die"
  • patior, pat?, passus sum "to suffer, to allow"
  • pr?gredior, pr?gred?, pr?gressus sum "to attack"
  • regredior, regred?, regressus sum "to go back"

Fourth conjugation

The fourth conjugation is characterized by the vowel ? and can be recognized by the -?re ending of the present active infinitive:

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I hear I will hear I was hearing I may hear I might hear
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
audi?
aud?s
audit
aud?mus
aud?tis
audiunt
audiam
audi?s
audiet
audi?mus
audi?tis
audient
audi?bam
audi?b?s
audi?bat
audi?b?mus
audi?b?tis
audi?bant
audiam
audi?s
audiat
audi?mus
audi?tis
audiant
aud?rem
aud?r?s
aud?ret
aud?r?mus
aud?r?tis
aud?rent
Passive I am heard I will be heard I was being heard I may be heard I might be heard
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
audior
aud?ris
aud?tur
aud?mur
aud?min?
audiuntur
audiar
audi?ris/re
audi?tur
audi?mur
audi?min?
audientur
audi?bar
audi?b?ris/re
audi?b?tur
audi?b?mur
audi?b?min?
audi?bantur
audiar
audi?ris/re
audi?tur
audi?mur
audi?min?
audiantur
aud?rer
aud?r?ris/re
aud?r?tur
aud?r?mur
aud?r?min?
aud?rentur

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: aud?re "to hear"
  • Passive infinitive: aud?r? "to be heard"
  • Imperative: aud?! (pl. aud?te!) "hear!"
  • Future imperative: aud?t?! (pl. aud?t?te!) "hear! (at a future time)"
  • Passive imperative: aud?re! (pl. aud?min?!) "be heard!" (usually only found in deponent verbs)
  • Present participle: audi?ns (pl. audient?s) "hearing"
  • Future participle: aud?t?rus (pl. aud?t?r?) "going to hear"
  • Gerundive: audiendus (pl. audiend?) "needing to be heard"
  • Gerund: audiend? "of hearing", audiend? "by /for hearing", ad audiendum "in order to hear"

Principal parts of verbs in the fourth conjugation generally adhere to the following patterns:

  • perfect has suffix -v?. Verbs which adhere to this pattern are considered to be "regular". Examples:
    • audi?, aud?re, aud?v?, aud?tum "to hear, listen (to)"
    • cust?di?, cust?d?re, cust?d?v?, custod?tum "to guard"
    • dormi?, dorm?re, dorm?v? (dormi?), dorm?tum "to sleep"
    • impedi?, imped?re, imped?v?, imped?tum "to hinder, impede"
    • m?ni?, m?n?re, m?n?v?, m?n?tum "to fortify, to build"
    • p?ni?, p?n?re, p?n?v?, p?n?tum "to punish"
    • sci?, sc?re, sc?v?, sc?tum "to know"
  • perfect has suffix -u?. Examples:
    • aperi?, aper?re, aperu?, apertum "to open, to uncover"
  • perfect has suffix -s? (-x? when c comes at the end of the root). Examples:
    • saepi?, saep?re, saeps?, saeptum "to surround, to enclose"
    • sanci?, sanc?re, s?nx?, s?nctum "to confirm, to ratify"
    • senti?, sent?re, s?ns?, s?nsum "to feel, to perceive"
    • vinci?, vinc?re, v?nx?, v?nctum "to bind"
  • perfect has suffix -? and reduplication. Examples:
    • reperi?, reper?re, repper?, repertum "to find, discover"
  • perfect has suffix -? and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples:
    • veni?, ven?re, v?n?, ventum "to come, to arrive"
    • inveni?, inven?re, inv?n?, inventum "to find"

Deponent verbs in the 4th conjugation include the following:[19]

  • assentior, assent?r?, ass?nsus sum "to assent"
  • experior, exper?r?, expertus sum "to experience, test"
  • largior, larg?r?, larg?tus sum "to bestow"
  • mentior, ment?r?, ment?tus sum "to tell a lie"
  • m?tior, m?t?r?, m?nsus sum "to measure"
  • m?lior, m?l?r?, m?l?tus sum "to exert oneself, set in motion, build"
  • potior, pot?r?, pot?tus sum "to obtain, gain possession of"
  • sortior, sort?r?, sort?tus sum "to cast lots"

The verb orior, or?r?, ortus sum "to arise" is also regarded as 4th conjugation, although some parts, such as the 3rd singular present tense oritur and imperfect subjunctive orerer, have a short vowel like the 3rd conjugation. But its compound adorior "to rise up, attack" is entirely 4th conjugation.

In the perfect tenses, shortened forms without -v- are common, for example, aud?st?, audi?runt, audierat, aud?sset for aud?vist?, aud?v?runt, aud?verat, aud?visset. Cicero, however, prefers the full forms aud?v?, aud?vit to audi?, audiit.[20]

Irregular verbs

Sum and possum

The verb sum, esse, fu? "to be" is the most common verb in Latin. It is conjugated as follows:[21]

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I am I will be I was I may be I might be
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
sum
es
est
sumus
estis
sunt
er?
eris
erit
erimus
eritis
erunt
eram
er?s
erat
er?mus
er?tis
erant
sim
s?s
sit
s?mus
s?tis
sint
essem
ess?s
esset
ess?mus
ess?tis
essent
Active I am able I will be able I was able I may be able I might be able
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
possum
potes
potest
possumus
potestis
possunt
poter?
poteris
poterit
poterimus
poteritis
poterunt
poteram
poter?s
poterat
poter?mus
poter?tis
poterant
possim
poss?s
possit
poss?mus
poss?tis
possint
possem
poss?s
posset
poss?mus
poss?tis
possent

In early Latin (e.g. Plautus), siem, si?s, si?t can be found for the present subjunctive sim, s?s, sit. In poetry the subjunctive fuam, fu?s, fuat also sometimes occurs.[22]

An alternative imperfect subjunctive is sometimes made using forem, for?s, foret etc. See further: Latin tenses#Forem.

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: esse "to be", posse "to be able"
  • Perfect infinitive: fuisse "to have been", potuisse "to have been able"
  • Future infinitive: fore "to be going to be" (also fut?rus esse)
  • Imperative: es! (pl. este!) "be!"
  • Future imperative: est?! (pl. est?te!) "be! (at a future time)"
  • Future participle: fut?rus (pl. fut?r?) "going to be" (Possum has no future participle or future infinitive.)

The present participle is found only in the compounds abs?ns "absent" and praes?ns "present".[23]

In Plautus and Lucretius, an infinitive potesse is sometimes found for posse "to be able".

The principal parts of these verbs are as follows:

  • sum, esse, fu? "to be"
  • absum, abesse, ?fu? "to be away"
  • adsum, adesse, adfu? "to be present"
  • d?sum, d?esse, d?fu? "to be wanting"
  • possum, posse, potu? "to be able"
  • pr?sum, pr?desse, pr?fu? "to be for, to profit" (adds d before a vowel)[24]

The perfect tenses conjugate in the regular way.

For the difference in meaning between eram and fu?, see Latin tenses#Eram and fu?

Vol?, n?l?, and m?l?

The verb vol? and its derivatives n?l? and m?l? (short for magis vol?) resemble a 3rd conjugation verb, but the present subjunctive ending in -im is different:

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I want I will want I was wanting I may want I might want
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
vol?
v?s
vult
volumus
vultis
volunt
volam
vol?s
volet
vol?mus
vol?tis
volent
vol?bam
vol?b?s
vol?bat
vol?b?mus
vol?b?tis
vol?bant
velim
vel?s
velit
vel?mus
vel?tis
velint
vellem
vell?s
vellet
vell?mus
vell?tis
vellent
Active I am unwilling I will be unwilling I was unwilling I may be unwilling I might be unwilling
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
n?l?
n?n v?s
n?n vult
n?lumus
n?n vultis
n?lunt
n?lam
n?l?s
n?let
n?l?mus
n?l?tis
n?lent
n?l?bam
n?l?b?s
n?l?bat
n?l?b?mus
n?l?b?tis
n?l?bant
n?lim
n?l?s
n?lit
n?l?mus
n?l?tis
n?lint
n?llem
n?ll?s
n?llet
n?ll?mus
n?ll?tis
n?llent
Active I prefer I will prefer I was preferring I may prefer I might prefer
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
m?l?
m?v?s
m?vult
m?lumus
m?vultis
m?lunt
m?lam
m?l?s
m?let
m?l?mus
m?l?tis
m?lent
m?l?bam
m?l?b?s
m?l?bat
m?l?b?mus
m?l?b?tis
m?l?bant
m?lim
m?l?s
m?lit
m?l?mus
m?l?tis
m?lint
m?llem
m?ll?s
m?llet
m?ll?mus
m?ll?tis
m?llent

The spellings volt and voltis were used up until the time of Cicero for vult and vultis.[25]

These verbs are not used in the passive.

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: velle "to want", n?lle "to be unwilling", m?lle "to prefer"
  • Present participle: vol?ns "willing", n?l?ns "unwilling"
  • Imperative: n?l?, pl. n?l?te (used in expressions such as n?l? m?r?r? "don't be surprised!")

Principal parts:

  • vol?, velle, volu? "to want"
  • n?l?, n?lle, n?lu? "not to want, to be unwilling"
  • m?l?, m?lle, m?lu? "to prefer"

The perfect tenses are formed regularly.

E? and compounds

The verb e? "I go" is an irregular 4th conjugation verb, in which the i of the stem sometimes becomes e. Like 1st and 2nd conjugation verbs, it uses the future -b?, -bis, -bit:[26]

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I go I will go I was going I may go I might go
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
e?
?s
it
?mus
?tis
eunt
?b?
?bis
?bit
?bimus
?bitis
?bunt
?bam
?b?s
?bat
?b?mus
?b?tis
?bant
eam
e?s
eat
e?mus
e?tis
eant
?rem
?r?s
?ret
?r?mus
?r?tis
?rent

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: ?re "to go"
  • Passive infinitive: ?r? "to go" (used impersonally, e.g. qu? ?r? d?b?ret ign?rant?s "not knowing which way to go")
  • Imperative: ?! (pl. ?te!) "go!"
  • Future imperative: ?t?! (pl. ?t?te!) "go! (at a future time)" (rare)
  • Present participle: i?ns (pl. eunt?s) "going"
  • Future participle: it?rus (pl. it?r?) "going to go"
  • Gerundive: eundum "necessary to go" (used impersonally only)
  • Gerund: eund? "of going", eund? "by / for going", ad eundum "in order to go"

The impersonal passive forms ?tur "they go", itum est "they went" are sometimes found.[27]

The principal parts of some verbs which conjugate like e? are the following:

  • e?, ?re, i?/(?v?), itum "to go"
  • abe?, ab?re, abi?, abitum "to go away"
  • ade?, ad?re, adi?, aditum "to go up to"
  • coe?, co?re, coi?, coitum "to meet, assemble"
  • exe?, ex?re, exi?/(ex?v?), exitum "to go out"
  • ine?, in?re, ini?, initum "to enter"
  • intere?, inter?re, interi?, interitum "to perish"
  • introe?, intro?re, introi?, introitum "to enter"
  • pere?, per?re, peri?, peritum "to die, to perish"
  • praetere?, praeter?re, praeteri?, praeteritum "to pass by"
  • rede?, red?re, redi?, reditum "to return, to go back"
  • sube?, sub?re, subi?, subitum "to go under, to approach stealthily, to undergo"
  • v?ne?, v?n?re, v?ni?, v?nitum "to be sold"

In the perfect tenses of these verbs, the -v- is almost always omitted, especially in the compounds,[28] although the form ex?vit is common in the Vulgate Bible translation.

Fer? and compounds

The verb fer?, ferre, tul?, l?tum "to bring, to bear, to carry" is 3rd conjugation, but irregular in that the vowel following the root fer- is sometimes omitted. The perfect tense tul? and supine stem l?tum are also irregularly formed.[29]

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I bring I will bring I was bringing I may bring I might bring
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
fer?
fers
fert
ferimus
fertis
ferunt
feram
fer?s
feret
fer?mus
fer?tis
ferent
fer?bam
fer?b?s
fer?bat
fer?b?mus
fer?b?tis
fer?bant
feram
fer?s
ferat
fer?mus
fer?tis
ferant
ferrem
ferr?s
ferret
ferr?mus
ferr?tis
ferrent
Passive I am brought I will be brought I was being brought I may be brought I might be brought
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
feror
ferris
fertur
ferimur
ferimin?
feruntur
ferar
fer?ris/re
fer?tur
fer?mur
fer?min?
ferentur
fer?bar
fer?b?ris/re
fer?b?tur
fer?b?mur
fer?b?min?
fer?bantur
ferar
fer?ris/re
fer?tur
fer?mur
fer?min?
ferantur
ferrer
ferr?ris/re
ferr?tur
ferr?mur
ferr?min?
ferrentur

The future tense in the 3rd and 4th conjugation (-am, -?s, -et etc.) differs from that in the 1st and 2nd conjugation (-b?, -bis, -bit etc.).

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: ferre "to bring"
  • Passive infinitive: ferr? "to be brought"
  • Imperative: fer! (pl. ferte!) "bring!"
  • Passive imperative: ferre! (pl. ferimin?!) "be carried!" (rare)
  • Present participle: fer?ns (pl. ferent?s) "bringing"
  • Future participle: l?t?rus (pl. l?t?r?) "going to bring"
  • Gerundive: ferendus (pl. ferend?) "needing to be brought"
  • Gerund: ferend? "of bringing", ferend? "by /for bringing", ad ferendum "in order to bring"

Compounds of fer? include the following:[30] The principal parts of some verbs which conjugate like e? are the following:

  • affer?, afferre, attul?, all?tum "to bring (to)"
  • aufer?, auferre, abstul?, abl?tum "to carry away, to steal"
  • c?nfer?, c?nferre, contul?, coll?tum "to collect"
  • differ?, differre, distul?, d?l?tum "to put off"
  • effer?, efferre, extul?, ?l?tum "to carry out"
  • offer?, offerre, obtul?, obl?tum "to offer"
  • refer?, referre, rettul?, rel?tum "to refer"

The perfect tense sustul?, however, belongs to the verb toll?:

  • toll?, tollere, sustul?, subl?tum "to raise, to remove"

F

The irregular verb f, fier?, factus sum "to become, to happen, to be done, to be made" as well as being a verb in its own right serves as the passive of faci?, facere, f?c?, factum "to do, to make".[31] The perfect tenses are identical with the perfect passive tenses of faci?.

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I become I will become I was becoming I may become I might become
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
f
f?s
fit
(f?mus)
(f?tis)
f?unt
f?am
fs
f?et
fmus
ftis
f?ent
fbam
fb?s
fbat
fb?mus
fb?tis
fbant
f?am
fs
f?at
fmus
ftis
f?ant
fierem
fier?s
fieret
fier?mus
fier?tis
fierent

The 1st and 2nd plural forms are almost never found.

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: fier? "to become, to be done, to happen"
  • Imperative: f?! (pl. f?te!) "become!"

Ed?

The verb ed?, edere/?sse, ?d?, ?sum "to eat" has regular 3rd conjugation forms appearing alongside irregular ones:[32]

Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Imperfect Present Imperfect
Active I eat I will eat I was eating I may eat I might eat
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
ed?
edis, ?s
edit, ?st
edimus
editis, ?stis
edunt
edam
ed?s
edet
ed?mus
ed?tis
edent
ed?bam
ed?b?s
ed?bat
ed?b?mus
ed?b?tis
ed?bant
edam
ed?s
edat
ed?mus
ed?tis
edant
ederem, ?ssem
eder?s, ?ss?s
ederet, ?sset
eder?mus, ?ss?mus
eder?tis, ?ss?tis
ederent, ?ssent

Other forms:

  • Infinitive: edere/?sse "to eat"
  • Passive infinitive: ed? "to be eaten"
  • Imperative: ede!/?s! (pl. edite!/?ste) "eat!"
  • Present participle: ed?ns (pl. edent?s) "eating"
  • Future participle: ?s?rus (pl. ?s?r?) "going to eat"
  • Gerundive: edendus (pl. edend?) "needing to be eaten"
  • Gerund: edend? "of eating", edend? "by /for eating", ad edendum "in order to eat" / "for eating"

The passive form ?stur "it is eaten" is also found.

In early Latin a present subjunctive edim, ed?s, edit etc. is found.

In writing, there is a possibility of confusion between the forms of this verb and those of sum "I am" and ?d? "I give out, put forth"; for example, ?sse "to eat" vs. esse "to be"; edit "he eats" vs. ?dit "he gives out".

The compound verb comed?, comedere/com?sse, com?d?, com?sum "to eat up, consume" is similar.

Non-finite forms

The non-finite forms of verbs are participles, infinitives, supines, gerunds and gerundives. The verbs used are:

1st conjugation: laud?, laud?re, laud?v?, laud?tum - to praise
2nd conjugation: terre?, terr?re, terru?, territum - to frighten, deter
3rd conjugation: pet?, petere, pet?v?, pet?tum - to seek, attack
3rd conjugation (-i stem): capi?, capere, c?p?, captum - to take, capture
4th conjugation: audi?, aud?re, aud?v?, aud?tum - to hear, listen (to)

Participles

There are four participles: present active, perfect passive, future passive, and future active.

  • The present active participle is declined as a 3rd declension adjective. The ablative singular is -e, but the plural follows the i-stem declension with genitive -ium and neuter plural -ia.
  • The perfect passive participle is declined like a 1st and 2nd declension adjective.
    • In all conjugations, the perfect participle is formed by removing the -um from the supine, and adding a -us (masculine nominative singular).
  • The future active participle is declined like a 1st and 2nd declension adjective.
    • In all conjugations the -um is removed from the supine, and an -?rus (masculine nominative singular) is added.
  • The future passive participle, more usually called the gerundive, is formed by taking the present stem, adding "-nd-", and the usual first and second declension endings. Thus laudare forms laudandus. The usual meaning is "needing to be praised", expressing a sense of obligation.
Participles
laud?re terr?re petere capere aud?re
Present active laud?ns, -antis terr?ns, -entis pet?ns, -entis capi?ns, -entis audi?ns, -entis
Perfect passive laud?tus, -a, -um territus, -a, -um pet?tus, -a, -um captus, -a, -um aud?tus, -a, -um
Future active laud?t?rus, -a, -um territ?rus, -a, -um pet?t?rus, -a, -um capt?rus, -a, -um aud?t?rus, -a, -um
Gerundive laudandus, -a, -um terrendus, -a, -um petendus, -a, -um capiendus, -a, -um audi?ndus, -a, -um

Infinitives

There are seven main infinitives. They are in the present active, present passive, perfect active, perfect passive, future active, future passive, and potential active. Further infinitives can be made using the gerundive.

  • The present active infinitive is the second principal part (in regular verbs). It plays an important role in the syntactic construction of Accusative and infinitive, for instance.
    • laud?re means, "to praise."
  • The present passive infinitive is formed by adding a -r? to the present stem. This is only so for the first, second and fourth conjugations. In the third conjugation, the thematical vowel, e, is taken from the present stem, and an -? is added.
    • laud?r? translates into "to be praised."
  • The perfect active infinitive is formed by adding an -isse onto the perfect stem.
    • laud?visse/laud?sse translates into "to have praised."
  • The perfect passive infinitive uses the perfect passive participle along with the auxiliary verb esse. The perfect passive infinitive must agree with what it is describing in number, gender, and case (nominative or accusative).
    • laud?tus esse means, "to have been praised."
  • The future active infinitive uses the future active participle with the auxiliary verb esse.
    • laud?t?rus esse means, "to be going to praise." The future active infinitive must agree with what it is describing in number, gender, and case (nominative or accusative).
    • Esse has two future infinitives: futurus esse and fore
  • The future passive infinitive uses the supine with the auxiliary verb {{lang|la|?r?. Because the first part is a supine, the ending -um does not change for gender or number.
    • laud?tum ?r? is translated as "to be going to be praised." This is normally used in indirect speech. For example: 'Sp?rat s? absol?tum ?r?.[33] "He hopes that he will be acquitted."
  • The potential infinitive uses the future active participle with the auxiliary verb fuisse.
    • laud?t?rus fuisse is used only in indirect statements to represent a potential imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive of direct speech. It is translated with "would" or "would have". For example: n?n vid?tur ment?t?rus fuisse, nis? d?sp?r?sset (Quintilian)[34] 'it seems unlikely that he would have told a lie, if he had not been desperate'
Infinitives (with masculine endings used for participles)
laud?re terr?re petere capere aud?re
Present active laud?re terr?re petere capere aud?re
Present passive laud?r? terr?r? pet? cap? aud?r?
Perfect active laud?visse terruisse pet?visse c?pisse aud?visse
Perfect passive laud?tus esse territus esse pet?tus esse captus esse aud?tus esse
Future active laud?t?rus esse territ?rus esse pet?t?rus esse capt?rus esse aud?t?rus esse
Future passive laud?tum ?r? territum ?r? pet?tum ?r? captum ?r? aud?tum ?r?
Potential laud?t?rus fuisse territ?rus fuisse pet?t?rus fuisse capt?rus fuisse aud?t?rus fuisse

The future passive infinitive was not very commonly used. The Romans themselves often used an alternate expression, fore ut followed by a subjunctive clause.

Supine

The supine is the fourth principal part of the verb, as given in Latin dictionaries. It resembles a masculine noun of the fourth declension. Supines only occur in the accusative and ablative cases.

  • The accusative form ends in a -um, and is used with a verb of motion in order to show purpose. Thus it is only used with verbs like ?re "to go", ven?re "to come", etc. The accusative form of a supine can also take an object if needed.
    • Pater l?ber?s su?s laud?tum v?nit. - The father came to praise his children.
  • The ablative, which ends in a -?, is used with the Ablative of Specification.
    • Arma haec facillima laud?t? erant. - These arms were the easiest to praise.
Supine
laud?re terr?re petere capere aud?re
Accusative laud?tum territum pet?tum captum aud?tum
Ablative laud?t? territ? pet?t? capt? aud?t?

Gerund

The gerund is formed similarly to the present active participle. However, the -ns becomes an -ndus, and the preceding ? or ? is shortened. Gerunds are neuter nouns of the second declension, but the nominative case is not present. The gerund is a noun, meaning "the act of doing (the verb)", and forms a suppletive paradigm to the infinitive, which cannot be declined. For example, the genitive form laudand? can mean "of praiseing", the dative form laudand? can mean "for praiseing", the accusative form laudandum can mean "praiseing", and the ablative form laudand? can mean "by praiseing", "in respect to praiseing", etc.

Gerund
laud?re terr?re petere capere aud?re
Accusative laudandum terrendum petendum capiendum audiendum
Genitive laudand? terrend? petend? capiend? audiend?
Dative laudand? terrend? petend? capiend? audiend?
Ablative

One common use of the gerund is with the preposition ad to indicate purpose. For example, paratus ad oppugnandum could be translated as "ready to attack". However the gerund was avoided when an object was introduced, and a passive construction with the gerundive was preferred. For example, for "ready to attack the enemy" the construction paratus ad hostes oppugnandos is preferred over paratus ad hostes oppugnandum.[35]

Gerundive

The gerundive has a form similar to that of the gerund, but it is a first and second declension adjective, and functions as a future passive participle (see § Participles above). It means "(which is) to be ...ed". Often, the gerundive is used with part of the verb esse, to show obligation.

  • Puer laudandus est "The boy needs to be praised"
  • Oratio laudanda est means "The speech is to be praised". In such constructions a substantive in dative may be used to identify the agent of the obligation (dativus auctoris), as in Oratio nobis laudanda est meaning "The speech is to be praised by us" or "We must praise the speech".
Gerundive
laud?re terr?re petere capere aud?re
laudandus, -a, -um terrendus, -a, -um petendus, -a, -um capiendus, -a, -um audiendus, -a, -um

An older form of the 3rd and 4th conjugation gerundive ends in -undum, e.g. (faciundum for faciendum).[36] This ending is also found with the gerundive of e? 'I go': eundum est 'it is necessary to go'.

For some examples of uses of Latin gerundives, see the Gerundive article.

Periphrastic conjugations

There are two periphrastic conjugations. One is active, and the other is passive.

Active

The first periphrastic conjugation uses the future participle. It is combined with the forms of esse. It is translated as "I am going to praise," "I was going to praise", etc.

Conjugation Translation
Pres. ind. laud?t?rus sum I am going to praise
Imp. ind. laud?t?rus eram I was going to praise
Fut. ind. laud?t?rus er? I shall be going to praise
Perf. ind. laud?t?rus fu? I have been going to praise
Plup. ind. laud?t?rus fueram I had been going to praise
Fut. perf. ind. laud?t?rus fuer? I shall have been going to praise
Pres. subj. laud?t?rus sim I may be going to praise
Imp. subj. laud?t?rus essem I should be going to praise
Perf. subj. laud?t?rus fuerim I may have been going to praise
Plup. subj. laud?t?rus fuissem I should have been going to praise

Passive

The second periphrastic conjugation uses the gerundive. It is combined with the forms of esse and expresses necessity. It is translated as "I am needing to be praised", "I was needing to be praised", etc., or as "I have to (must) be praised", "I had to be praised," etc.

Conjugation Translation
Pres. ind. laudandus sum I am needing to be praised
Imp. ind. laudandus eram I was needing to be praised
Fut. ind. laudandus er? I will be needing to be praised
Perf. ind. laudandus fu? I was needing to be praised
Plup. ind. laudandus fueram I had been needing to be praised
Fut. perf. ind. laudandus fuer? I will have been needing to be praised
Pres. subj. laudandus sim I may be needing to be praised
Imp. subj. laudandus essem I should be needing to be praised
Perf. subj. laudandus fuerim I may have been needing to be praised
Plup. subj. laudandus fuissem I should have been needing to be praised
Pres. inf. laudandus esse To be needing to be praised
Perf. inf. laudandus fuisse To have been needing to be praised

Peculiarities

Deponent and semi-deponent verbs

Deponent verbs are verbs that are passive in form (that is, conjugated as though in the passive voice) but active in meaning. These verbs have only three principal parts, since the perfect of ordinary passives is formed periphrastically with the perfect participle, which is formed on the same stem as the supine. Some examples coming from all conjugations are:

1st conjugation: m?ror, m?r?r?, m?r?tus sum - to admire, wonder
2nd conjugation: polliceor, pollic?r?, pollicitus sum - to promise, offer
3rd conjugation: loquor, loqu?, loc?tus sum - to speak, say
4th conjugation: mentior, ment?r?, ment?tus sum - to tell a lie

Deponent verbs use active conjugations for tenses that do not exist in the passive: the gerund, the supine, the present and future participles and the future infinitive. They cannot be used in the passive themselves (except the gerundive), and their analogues with "active" form do not in fact exist: one cannot directly translate "The word is said" with any form of loqu?, and there are no forms like loqu?, loquis, loquit, etc.

Semi-deponent verbs form their imperfective aspect tenses in the manner of ordinary active verbs; but their perfect tenses are built periphrastically like deponents and ordinary passives; thus, semi-deponent verbs have a perfect active participle instead of a perfect passive participle. An example:

aude?, aud?re, ausus sum - to dare, venture

Unlike the proper passive of active verbs, which is always intransitive, some deponent verbs are transitive, which means that they can take an object. For example:

hostes sequitur. - he follows the enemy.

Note: In the Romance languages, which lack deponent or passive verb forms, the Classical Latin deponent verbs either disappeared (being replaced with non-deponent verbs of a similar meaning) or changed to a non-deponent form. For example, in Spanish and Italian, m?r?r? changed to mirar(e) by changing all the verb forms to the previously nonexistent "active form", and aude? changed to osar(e) by taking the participle ausus and making an -ar(e) verb out of it (note that au went to o).

Defective verbs

Defective verbs are verbs that are conjugated in only some instances.

  • Some verbs are conjugated only in the perfective aspect's tenses, yet have the imperfective aspect's tenses' meanings. As such, the perfect becomes the present, the pluperfect becomes the imperfect, and the future perfect becomes the future. Therefore, the defective verb ?d? means, "I hate." These defective verbs' principal parts are given in vocabulary with the indicative perfect in the first person and the perfect active infinitive. Some examples are:
?d?, ?disse (future participle ?s?rus) - to hate
memin?, meminisse (imperative mement?, mement?te) - to remember
coep?, coeptum, coepisse - to have begun
  • A few verbs, the meanings of which usually have to do with speech, appear only in certain occurrences.
Cedo (plur. cette), which means "Hand it over" is only in the imperative mood, and only is used in the second person.

The following are conjugated irregularly:

Aio

Conjugation of ai?
Indicative
present
Indicative
imperfect
Subjunctive
present
Imperative
present
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular
First person ai? -- ai?bam ai?b?mus -- -- --
Second person ais ai?b?s ai?b?tis ai?s ai
Third person ait aiunt ai?bat ai?bant aiat aiant --
Present Active Participle: - ai?ns, aientis

Inquam

Conjugation of inquam
Present indicative Future
indicative
Perfect
indicative
Imperfect
indicative
Singular Plural Singular Singular Singular
First person inquam inquimus -- inqui? --
Second person inquis inquitis inqui?s inquist?
Third person inquit inquiunt inquiet inquit inqui?bat

For

Conjugation of for
Present
indicative
Future
indicative
Perfect
indicative
Pluperfect
indicative
Present
imperative
Singular Plural Singular Singular Singular Singular Plural
First person for -- f?bor f?tus sum f?tus eram -- --
Second person -- -- -- -- f?re f?min?
Third person f?tur fantur f?bitur -- --
Present Active Participle - f?ns, fantis
Present Active Infinitive - f?r? (variant: f?rier)
Supine - (acc.) f?tum, (abl.) f?t?
Gerund - (gen.) fand?, (dat. and abl.) fand?, no accusative
Gerundive - fandus, -a, -um

The Romance languages lost many of these verbs, but others (such as ?d?) survived but became regular fully conjugated verbs (in Italian, odiare).

Impersonal verbs

Impersonal verbs are those lacking a person. In English impersonal verbs are usually used with the neuter pronoun "it" (as in "It seems," or "it is raining"). Latin uses the third person singular. These verbs lack a fourth principal part. A few examples are:

pluit, pluere, pl?vit/pluit - to rain (it rains)
ningit, ningere, ninxit - to snow (it snows)
oportet, oport?re, oportuit - to be proper (it is proper, one should/ought to)
licet, lic?re, licuit - to be permitted [to] (it is allowed [to])

Irregular future active participles

The future active participle is normally formed by removing the -um from the supine, and adding a -?rus. However, some deviations occur.

Present
active
infinitive
Supine Future
active
participle
Meaning
iuv?re i?tum iuv?t?rus going to help
lav?re/lavere lav?tum (but PPP lautus) lav?t?rus going to wash
parere partum parit?rus going to produce
ruere rutum ruit?rus going to fall
sec?re sectum sec?t?rus going to cut
fru? fr?ctum/fruitum fruit?rus going to enjoy
n?sc? n?tum n?t?rus/nascit?rus going to be born
mor? mortuum morit?rus going to die
or?r? ortum orit?rus going to rise

Alternative verb forms

Several verb forms may occur in alternative forms (in some authors these forms are fairly common, if not more common than the canonical ones):

  • The ending -ris in the passive voice may be -re as in:
laud?b?ris -> laud?b?re
  • The ending -?runt in the perfect may be -?re (primarily in poetry) as in:
laud?v?runt -> laud?v?re
  • The ending -? in the passive infinitive may be -ier as in:
laud?r? -> laud?rier, dic? -> dicier

Syncopated verb forms

Like in most Romance languages, syncopated forms and contractions are present in Latin. They may occur in the following instances:

  • Perfect stems that end in a -v may be contracted when inflected.
laud?visse -> laud?sse
laud?vist? -> laud?st?
laud?verant -> laud?rant
laud?visset -> laud?sset
  • The compounds of n?scere (to learn) and mov?re (to move, dislodge) can also be contracted.
n?vist? -> n?st?
n?vistis -> n?stis
comm?veram -> comm?ram
comm?ver?s -> comm?r?s

See also

Bibliography

  • Bennett, Charles Edwin (1918). New Latin Grammar.
  • Gildersleeve, B.L. & Gonzalez Lodge (1895). Gildersleeve's Latin Grammar. 3rd Edition. (Macmillan)
  • J.B. Greenough; G.L. Kittredge; A.A. Howard; Benj. L. D'Ooge, eds. (1903). Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and College. Ginn and Company.

References

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster online dictionary "Conjugation".
  2. ^ Donatus [Ars Maior], 10.16.
  3. ^ Priscian, Liber octauus de uerbo (Corpus Grammaticorum Latinorum)
  4. ^ Daniel J. Taylor "Latin declensions and conjugations: from Varro to Priscian" Historie Épistémologie Langage 13.2 (1991), p. 85-93.
  5. ^ e.g. Gildersleeve and Lodge, 3rd edition (1895), §120.
  6. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 89.
  7. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 89.
  8. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 89.
  9. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge, Latin Grammar (1895), §163.
  10. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 91.
  11. ^ C.J. Fordyce (1961), Catullus, note on Catullus 5.10.
  12. ^ Wackernagel (2009) Lectures on Syntax, p. 305, note 7.
  13. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 90.
  14. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge, Latin Grammar (1895), §164.
  15. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 114.
  16. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 89.
  17. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 105.
  18. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 114.
  19. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge Latin Grammar (1985), §166.
  20. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 90.
  21. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), pp. 66-68.
  22. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 68.
  23. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 68.
  24. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 68.
  25. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 121.
  26. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), pp. 115-6.
  27. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 116.
  28. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), pp. 116, 90.
  29. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), pp. 117-8.
  30. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 118.
  31. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 119.
  32. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), pp. 118-119.
  33. ^ Cicero, Sull. 21.
  34. ^ Quintilian, 5.12.3.
  35. ^ Eitrem, S. (2006). Latinsk grammatikk (3 ed.). Oslo: Aschehoug. p. 111.
  36. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 89.

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