Latin Grammar
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Latin Grammar

Latin is a heavily inflected language with largely free word order. Nouns are inflected for number and case; pronouns and adjectives (including participles) are inflected for number, case, and gender; and verbs are inflected for person, number, tense, aspect, voice, and mood. The inflections are often changes in the ending of a word, but can be more complicated, especially with verbs.

Thus verbs can take any of over 100 different endings to express different meanings, for example reg? "I rule", regor "I am ruled", regere "to rule", reg? "to be ruled".

Nouns belong to one of three genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter). The gender of a noun is shown by the adjectives and pronouns that refer to it: e.g., hic vir "this man", haec mulier "this woman", hoc n?men "this name". There are also two numbers: singular (mulier "woman") and plural (mulier?s "women").

There is no definite or indefinite article in Latin, so that r?x can mean "king", "a king", or "the king" according to context.

As well as having gender and number, nouns have different endings according to their function in the sentence. These different forms of the noun are called cases. For example, masculine and feminine nouns have different forms depending on whether they are the subject or the object of the verb: r?x videt "the king sees", but r?gem videt "he sees the king"; these two are called the nominative and accusative cases respectively. Other cases are the genitive (r?gis "of the king"), dative (r?g? "to/for the king"), ablative (r?ge "with the king") and vocative (r?x "o king!"); the last is often the same as the nominative. A seventh case, the locative, is mostly found with the names of towns and cities, e.g. R?mae "in Rome".

Pronouns, adjectives, participles, and some numerals also change their endings to show case and number. These also have different masculine, feminine, and neuter forms to agree with the gender of the noun they refer to.

Priscian, or the Grammar, marble cameo panel dated 1437-1439 from the bell tower of Florence, Italy, by Luca della Robbia. The scene is an allegory of grammar and, by implication, all of education. Note the opening door in the background and the unshod feet of the first pupil.

Latin word order is commonly subject-object-verb. However, other word orders are common. Different word orders can also be used to express subtle nuances, even in prose. (See Latin word order.)

In Latin an adjective can come either before or after a noun, e.g. vir bonus or bonus vir "a good man", although some kinds of adjectives, such as adjectives of nationality (vir R?m?nus "a Roman man") usually follow the noun. The adjective may also be separated from its noun by other words, especially in poetry.

Latin usually omits pronouns as the subject except for emphasis; so for example am?s by itself means "you love" without the need to add the pronoun t? "you". (A language with this characteristic is known as a pro-drop language.) Latin also exhibits verb framing in which the path of motion is encoded into the verb rather than shown by a separate word or phrase. For example, the Latin verb exit (a compound of ex and it) means "he/she/it goes out".

In this article a line over a vowel (e.g. ?) indicates that it is long.

Nouns

Number

Most Latin nouns have two numbers, singular and plural: r?x "king", r?g?s "kings". A few nouns, called pl?r?lia tantum ("plural only"), although plural, have a singular meaning, e.g. castra "a camp", litterae "a letter", n?ptiae "a wedding".

Gender

Nouns are divided into three genders, known as masculine, feminine, and neuter. The difference is shown in the pronouns and adjectives that refer to them, for example:

  • ipse r?x "the king himself" (masculine)
  • ipsa puella "the girl herself" (feminine)
  • ipsum bellum "the war itself" (neuter)

To a certain extent, the genders follow the meanings of the words (for example, winds are masculine, tree-names feminine):

  • Masculine nouns include all those referring to males, such as dominus "master", puer "boy", deus "god", but also some inanimate objects such as hortus "garden", exercitus "army", m?s "custom". Words in the second declension ending in -us or -er are usually masculine.
  • Feminine nouns include all those referring to females, such as puella "girl", mulier "woman", dea "goddess", but also inanimate or abstract nouns such as arbor "tree", urbs "city", h?m?nit?s "kindness", n?ti? "nation". Words in the 1st declension like puella ending in -a are usually feminine, with a few exceptions such as po?ta "poet", and also feminine are 3rd declension nouns ending in -t?s and -ti?.
  • Neuter nouns (apart from scortum "a (male or female) whore") all refer to things, such as n?men "name", corpus "body", bellum "war", ven?num 'poison'.

Masculine and feminine nouns, of whatever declension, always add -m to make the object singular (e.g. puellam, puerum, r?gem), and -s to make the object plural (puell?s, puer?s, r?g?s).

Neuter nouns differ from masculine and feminine in two ways: (1) the plural ends in -a, e.g. bella "wars", corpora "bodies"; (2) the subject (nominative) and object (accusative) cases are identical.

Case

Nouns in Latin have a series of different forms, called cases of the noun, which have different functions or meanings. For example, the word for "king" is r?x when subject of a verb, but r?gem when it is the object:

  • r?x videt "the king sees" (nominative case)
  • r?gem videt "he sees the king" (accusative case)

Further cases mean "of" (genitive case), "to/for" (dative case), and "with" (ablative case). A few nouns have a separate form used for addressing a person (vocative case), but in most nouns the vocative is the same as the nominative.

Some nouns, such as the names of cities and small islands, and the word domus "home", have a seventh case called the locative, for example R?mae "in Rome" or dom? "at home". But most nouns do not have this case.

All the cases except nominative and vocative are called the "oblique" cases.[1]

The order in which the cases are given in grammar books differs in different countries. In Britain and countries influenced by Britain the order nominative, vocative, accusative is used as in the table below.[2] In the United States in grammars such as Gildersleeve and Lodge (1895) the traditional order is used, with the genitive case in the second place and ablative last. In the popularly used Wheelock's Latin (1956, 7th edition 2011) and Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar (1903), however, the vocative is placed at the end.

The following table shows the endings of a typical noun of the 3rd declension.[3] If Gildersleeve and Lodge's order is preferred, click on the symbol "GL" in the seventh column in the table below; for Wheelock's order click on "Wh":

Name of case Use sing. meaning plur. meaning Br GL Wh
Nominative Subject r?x a king, the king r?g?s kings, the kings 1 1 1
Vocative Addressing r?x o king! r?g?s o kings! 2 5 6
Accusative Object, goal r?gem a king, the king (object) r?g?s kings, the kings (object) 3 4 4
Genitive of r?gis of the king, of a king r?gum of kings, of the kings 4 2 2
Dative to, for r?g? to the king r?gibus to kings, to the kings 5 3 3
Ablative with, by, from, in r?ge with the king r?gibus with the kings 6 6 5

Sometimes the same endings, e.g. -?s and -ibus, are used for more than one case. Since the function of a word in Latin is shown by ending rather than word order, in theory r?g?s d?cunt could mean either "the kings lead" or "they lead the kings". In practice, however, such ambiguities are rare.

Declensions

1st and 2nd declensions

The endings of nouns vary according to their declension. Nouns of the 1st and 2nd declensions generally follow the following patterns, showing the declension of puella "girl", dominus "lord, master", and bellum "war":[4]

Case 1 sg. 1 pl. 2 sg. 2 pl. 2n sg. 2n pl. Br GL Wh
Nominative puella puellae dominus domin? bellum bella 1 1 1
Vocative puella puellae domine domin? bellum bella 2 5 6
Accusative puellam puell?s dominum domin?s bellum bella 3 4 4
Genitive puellae puell?rum domin? domin?rum bell? bell?rum 4 2 2
Dative puellae puell?s domin? domin?s bell? bell?s 5 3 3
Ablative puell? puell?s domin? domin?s bell? bell?s 6 6 5

1st declension nouns are usually feminine, except for a few referring to men, such as agricola "farmer" or po?ta "poet". The nouns f?lia "daughter" and dea "goddess" have dative and ablative plural f?li?bus, de?bus. The locative case ends in -ae, pl. -?s, e.g. R?mae "in Rome", Ath?n?s "in Athens".[5]

2nd declension nouns in -us are usually masculine, except for those referring to trees (e.g. p?nus "pine tree") and some place names (e.g. Aegyptus "Egypt"), which are feminine. v?rus "poison" and vulgus "crowd" are neuter. A few 2nd declension nouns, such as vir "man" and puer "boy", lack endings in the nominative and vocative singular. In the 2nd declension, the genitive plural in some words is optionally -um, especially in poetry:[6][7]deum or de?rum "of the gods", virum or vir?rum "of men".

Neuter nouns such as bellum "war" have -a in the nominative plural. In neuter nouns, the vocative and accusative are always the same as the nominative; the genitive, dative, and ablative are the same as the masculine.

3rd declension

Third declension nouns have various patterns of declension. Some decline like the following: m?les "soldier", urbs "city", corpus "body":[8]

Case 3 sg. 3 pl. 3 sg. 3 pl. 3n sg. 3n pl. Br GL Wh
Nominative m?les m?lit?s urbs urb?s corpus corpora 1 1 1
Vocative m?les m?lit?s urbs urb?s corpus corpora 2 5 6
Accusative m?litem m?lit?s urbem urb?s/-?s corpus corpora 3 4 5
Genitive m?litis m?litum urbis urbium corporis corporum 4 2 2
Dative m?lit? m?litibus urb? urbibus corpor? corporibus 5 3 3
Ablative m?lite m?litibus urbe urbibus corpore corporibus 6 6 5

There are some variations, however. A few, such as v?s, vim, v? "force", have accusative singular -im and ablative singular -?; some, like ignis "fire", optionally have -? instead of -e in the ablative singular. The genitive plural in some nouns is -um, in others -ium. (For details, see Latin declension.) 3rd declension nouns can be of any gender.

It is not usually possible to guess the genitive of a noun from the nominative. dux "leader" has genitive ducis but r?x "king" has r?gis; pater "father" has genitive patris but iter "journey" has itineris. For this reason the genitive is always given in dictionaries, and can be used to discover the remaining cases.

4th and 5th declension

4th and 5th declension nouns are less common. They decline like the following (manus "hand", gen? "knee", di?s "day"):[9]

Case 4 sg. 4 pl. 4n sg. 4n pl. 5 sg. 5 pl. Br GL Wh
Nominative manus man?s gen? genua di?s di?s 1 1 1
Vocative manus man?s gen? genua di?s di?s 2 5 6
Accusative manum man?s gen? genua di?m di?s 3 4 4
Genitive man?s manuum gen?s genuum di di?rum 4 2 2
Dative manu? manibus genu?, gen? genibus di di?bus 5 3 3
Ablative man? manibus gen? genibus di? di?bus 6 6 5

4th declension nouns are usually masculine, but a few, such as manus "hand" and anus "old lady", are feminine. There are only four 4th declension neuter nouns.[10]

5th declension nouns (except for di?s (m) "day") are usually feminine. r?s "thing" is similar to di?s except for a short e in the genitive and dative singular re?.

Other nouns

In addition to the above there are some irregularly declined nouns, mostly borrowed from Greek, such as the name Aens "Aeneas" (1st declension masculine).[11]

The vocative is nearly always the same as the nominative, except in 1st and 2nd declension masculine singular words, such as Aen! "Aeneas!" and domine! "master!/lord!". Some words, such as deus "god", have no separate vocative, however.

Use of cases

Nominative

The nominative case is used for the subject of an active or a passive verb, or the complement of a copula verb such as est "is":[12]

r?x respondit = the king replied
r?x occ?sus est = the king was killed
r?x erat Aens n?b?s = our king was Aeneas / Aeneas was our king
r?x factus est = he was made king / he became king

Vocative

The vocative case is used when addressing someone:

iub?sne m?, r?x, foedus fer?re? = do you order me, king, to strike a treaty?

Accusative

The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence:[13]

r?gem peti?runt = they begged for a king

It can also be used with a place name to refer to the destination:

R?mam profectus est = he set out for Rome

The accusative is also used after various prepositions (especially those that imply motion towards):

sen?tus ad r?gem l?g?t?s m?sit = the Senate sent ambassadors to the king
c?nsul in urbem rediit = the consul returned to the city

Another use of the accusative is to give a length of time or distance:

r?gn?vit ann?s qu?nque = he reigned for five years
qu?nque ped?s longus = five foot tall

Genitive

The genitive case means "of":

r?gis f?lia = the king's daughter, daughter of the king

If the head noun is derived from a verb, the genitive can be subjective or objective:[14]

Caesaris adventus = Caesar's arrival (compare: "Caesar arrives")
d?s?derium tu? = longing for you (compare: "I miss you")

A frequent type of genitive is the partitive genitive, expressing the quantity of something:[15]

satis temporis = enough time

Certain verbs take the genitive, such as misereor "I pity", interest "it is in the interest of", obl?v?scor "I forget" (but obl?v?scor also takes the accusative):[16]

obl?tus sum me? = I have forgotten myself[17]

Dative

The dative case means "to" or "for". It is also used with certain verbs such as p?re? "I obey" or persu?de? "I persuade":[18]

r?g? n?nti?tum est = it was announced to the king
p?ruit r?g? = he was obedient to (i.e. obeyed) the king
pec?niam r?g? cr?didit = he entrusted the money to the king

There are also various idiomatic uses, such as the dative of possession:

quid est tib? n?men? = what's your name?[19]

Ablative

The ablative case can mean "with", especially when the noun it refers to is a thing rather than a person:[20]

gladi? s? transf?git = he stabbed himself with a sword

Often a phrase consisting of a noun plus participle in the ablative can express time or circumstance. This is known as an "ablative absolute":[21]

r?gibus ex?ct?s = with the kings driven out, i.e. after the kings were driven out

It is also frequently used with prepositions, especially those meaning "from", "with", "in", or "by":

?nus ? r?gibus = one from (i.e. one of) the kings
cum r?gibus = with the kings
? r?gibus = by the kings, from the kings
pr? r?ge = for/on behalf of the king

Another use is in expressions of time and place (except those that give the length of time or distance):

e? tempore = at that time
h?c loc? = at this place
pauc?s di?bus = in a few days

The ablative can also mean "from", especially with place names:[22]

R?m? profectus est = he set out from Rome
loc? ille m?tus est = he was dislodged from his position

Locative

The locative is a rare case used only with names of cities, small islands, and one or two other words such as domus "home". It means "at" or "in":[23]

c?nsul alter R?mae m?nsit = one of the two consuls remained in Rome[24]
mult?s ann?s nostrae dom? v?xit = he lived at our house for many years[25]

Adjectives

Declension of adjectives

Adjectives, like nouns, have different endings for the different cases singular and plural. They also differ as to gender, having different forms for masculine, feminine, and neuter. (But masculine and neuter are identical in the genitive, dative, and ablative cases.)

Many adjectives belong to the 1st and 2nd declensions, declining in the same way as the nouns puella, dominus, bellum. An example is the adjective bonus "good" shown below:

Case m. sg. f. sg. n. sg. m. pl f. pl. n. pl. Br GL Wh
Nominative bonus bona bonum bon? bonae bona 1 1 1
Vocative bone bona bonum bon? bonae bona 2 5 6
Accusative bonum bonam bonum bon?s bon?s bona 3 4 4
Genitive bon? bonae bon? bon?rum bon?rum bon?rum 4 2 2
Dative bon? bonae bon? bon?s bon?s bon?s 5 3 3
Ablative bon? bon? bon? bon?s bon?s bon?s 6 6 5

Other adjectives belong to the 3rd declension, in which case the masculine and feminine are usually identical. Most 3rd declension adjectives are i-stems, and have ablative singular -? and genitive plural -ium. An example is ing?ns "huge" shown below:

Case m/f. sg. n. sg. m/f. pl n. pl. Br GL Wh
Nominative ing?ns ing?ns ingent?s ingentia 1 1 1
Vocative ing?ns ing?ns ingent?s ingentia 2 5 6
Accusative ingentem ing?ns ingent?s/-?s ingentia 3 4 4
Genitive ingentis ingentis ingentium ingentium 4 2 2
Dative ingent? ingent? ingentibus ingentibus 5 3 3
Ablative ingent? ingent? ingentibus ingentibus 6 6 5

In a very few 3rd declension adjectives such as ?cer, ?cris, ?cre "sharp, keen", the feminine is different from the masculine, but only in the nominative and vocative singular.

A few adjectives (especially comparative adjectives) decline as consonant stems, and have ablative singular -e and genitive plural -um. An example is melior "better":

Case m/f. sg. n. sg. m/f. pl n. pl. Br GL Wh
Nominative melior melius meli?rem meli?ra 1 1 1
Vocative melior melius meli?r?s meli?ra 2 5 6
Accusative meli?rem melius meli?r?s meli?ra 3 4 4
Genitive meli?ris meli?ris meli?rum meli?rum 4 2 2
Dative meli?r? meli?r? meli?ribus meli?ribus 5 3 3
Ablative meli?re meli?re meli?ribus meli?ribus 6 6 5

Participles such as d?c?ns "leading" usually have -e in the ablative singular, but -ium in the genitive plural.[26]

There are no adjectives in the 4th or 5th declensions.

The adjectives s?lus "only" and t?tus "the whole of" decline like pronouns, with genitive singular -?us and dative singular -?:

t?t?us Graeciae = of the whole of Greece (genitive case)
tib? s?l? = to you alone (dative case)

Agreement of adjectives

Any adjective that describes or refers to a noun must be in the same case as the noun, as well as the same number and gender. Thus in the phrase below, where r?x is in the vocative singular case, bonus must be in the vocative singular also:

? bone r?x = o good king

Comparative and superlative adjectives

Adjectives have positive, comparative and superlative forms. Superlative adjectives are declined according to the first and second declension, but comparative adjectives are third declension.

When used in sentences, a comparative adjective can be used in several ways:

  • Absolutely (with the meaning "rather" or "more than usual")
  • With quam (Latin for "than")
  • With an ablative meaning "than"
  • With the genitive

Examples:

  • Corn?lia est fortis puella: Cornelia is a brave girl.

The comparative adjective can be used absolutely (i.e. without any overt comparison) or with the comparison made explicit:

  • Corn?lia est fortior puella: Cornelia is a rather brave girl.
  • Corn?lia est fortior puella quam Fl?via: Cornelia is a braver girl than Flavia. (Here quam is used, Flavia is in the nominative to match Cornelia)
  • Corn?lia est fortior Fl?vi?: Cornelia is braver than Flavia. (Here Flavia is in the ablative.)
  • Corn?lia est fortior puell?rum: Cornelia is the braver of the girls

Superlative adjectives are most frequently used absolutely, but they can also be used with the genitive omnium "of all":

  • Corn?lia est puella fortissima: Cornelia is a very brave girl
  • Corn?lia est puella omnium fortissima: Cornelia is the bravest girl of all.
Some comparative and superlative adjectives
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
longus, -a, -um
long, tall
longior, -ius
longer, taller
longissimus, -a, -um
very long, longest
brevis, -e
short
brevior, -ius
shorter
brevissimus, -a, -um
very short, shortest
pulcher, -chra, -chrum
beautiful
pulchrior, -ius
more beautiful
pulcherrimus, -a, -um
very beautiful, most beautiful
bonus, -a, -um
good
melior, -ius
better
optimus, -a, -um
very good, best
facilis, -is, -e
easy
facilior, -ius
easier
facillimus, -a, -um
very easy, easiest
magnus, -a, -um
great
m?ior, -ius
greater
maximus, -a, -um
very great, greatest
malus, -a, -um
bad
p?ior, -ius
worse
pessimus, -a, -um
very bad, worst
multus, -a, -um
much
pl?s (+ genitive)
more
pl?rimus, -a, -um
very much, most
mult?, -ae, -a
many
pl?res, pl?ra
more
pl?rim?, -ae, -a
very many, most
parvus, -a, -um
small
minor
smaller
minimus, -a, -um
very small, smallest
superus, -a, -um
situated above
superior, -ius
higher, previous
supr?mus, -a, -um / summus, -a, -um
highest, last
(prae)
before
prior, prius
earlier
pr?mus, -a, -um
first

Detailed information and declension tables can be found at Latin declension.

Pronouns

Pronouns are of two kinds, personal pronouns and 3rd person pronouns. Personal pronouns decline as follows.

Case I you sg. himself/
herself
we you pl. themselves Br Am
Nominative eg? t? - n?s v?s - 1 1
Accusative m? t? s? / s?s? n?s v?s s? / s?s? 3 4
Genitive me? tu? su? nostrum/-tr? vestrum/-tr? su? 4 2
Dative mih? tib? sib? n?b?s v?b?s sib? 5 3
Ablative m? t? s? / s?s? n?b?s v?b?s s? / s?s? 6 6

m?, t?, n?s, v?s can also be used reflexively ("I see myself" etc.).[27]

N?s is frequently used in classical Latin for "I", but v?s is never used in a singular sense.[28]

The genitive nostrum is used partitively (?nusquisque nostrum "each one of us"), nostr? objectively (memor nostr? "remembering us, mindful of us").[29][30]

3rd person pronouns are those such as hic "this" and ipse "(he) himself". The 3rd person pronouns can also be used adjectivally (except that quid "what?" when adjectival becomes quod). The declension of these pronouns tends to be irregular. They generally have -?us in the genitive singular, and -? in the dative singular. In a few pronouns (illud "that", istud "that {of yours)", id "it, that", quod "which", quid "anything; what?", aliud "another", aliquid "something") the neuter singular ends in -d.

The declension of ille "that" is as follows:[31]

Case m. sg. f. sg. n. sg. m. pl f. pl. n. pl. Br Am
Nominative ille illa illud ill? illae illa 1 1
Accusative illum illam illud ill?s ill?s illa 3 4
Genitive ill?us (illius) ill?us ill?us ill?rum ill?rum ill?rum 4 2
Dative ill? ill? ill? ill?s ill?s ill?s 5 3
Ablative ill? ill? ill? ill?s ill?s ill?s 6 6

Ipse "he himself" is very similar, except that the neuter singular ipsum ends in -m instead of -d.

Other very common 3rd person pronouns are hic, haec, hoc "this" and is, ea, id "he, she, it; that". Like other 3rd person pronouns, these can be used either independently (is "he") or adjectivally (is hom? "that man"):

Case m. sg. f. sg. n. sg. m. pl f. pl. n. pl. Br Am
Nominative hic haec hoc h? hae haec 1 1
Accusative hunc hanc hoc h?s h?s haec 3 4
Genitive huius huius huius h?rum h?rum h?rum 4 2
Dative huic huic huic h?s h?s h?s 5 3
Ablative h?c h?c h?c h?s h?s h?s 6 6

Hic and hoc are generally pronounced as if spelled hicc and hocc. Huius is pronounced as if spelled huiius with a long first syllable.[32]

Case m. sg. f. sg. n. sg. m. pl f. pl. n. pl. Br Am
Nominative is ea id i? eae ea 1 1
Accusative eum eam id e?s e?s ea 3 4
Genitive eius eius eius e?rum e?rum e?rum 4 2
Dative e? e? e? e?s/i?s e?s/i?s e?s/i?s 5 3
Ablative e? e? e? e?s/i?s e?s/i?s e?s/i?s 6 6

Also very common is the relative pronoun qu?, quae, quod "who, which". The interrogative quis? quid? "who? what?" and indefinite quis, qua, quid "anyone, anything" are similar apart from the nominative singular:[33]

Case m. sg. f. sg. n. sg. m. pl f. pl. n. pl. Br Am
Nominative qu? quae quod qu? quae quae 1 1
Accusative quem quam quod qu?s qu?s quae 3 4
Genitive cuius cuius cuius qu?rum qu?rum qu?rum 4 2
Dative cu? cu? cu? quibus quibus quibus 5 3
Ablative qu? qu? qu? quibus quibus quibus 6 6

Like adjectives, pronouns must agree in gender, case, and number with the nouns they refer to, as in the following, where hic is masculine agreeing with amor, but haec is feminine, agreeing with patria:

hic amor, haec patria est = this is my love, this my country[34]

There is no indefinite article or definite article (the, a, an). Sometimes the weak determiner is, ea, id (English "that, this") can serve for the definite article:

Persu?s?t popul? ut e? pec?ni? classis aedific?r?tur[35]
"He persuaded the people that a fleet should be built with the money (with that money)"

Adverbs

Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs by indicating time, place or manner. Latin adverbs are indeclinable and invariable. Like adjectives, adverbs have positive, comparative and superlative forms.

The positive form of an adverb can often be formed from an adjective by appending the suffix -? (2nd declension adjectives) or -(t)er (3rd declension adjectives). Thus the adjective cl?rus, -a, -um, which means "bright", can be contrasted to the adverb cl?r?, which means "brightly". The adverbial ending -(i)ter is used to form adverbs from 3rd declension adjectives, for example celer "quick", celeriter "quickly". Other endings such as -?, -e, -tim are also found.

The comparative form of an adverb is the same as the neuter nominative singular form of a comparative adjective and usually ends in -ius. Instead of the adjective cl?rior, which means "brighter", the adverb is cl?rius, which means "more brightly".

The superlative adverb has the same base as the superlative adjective and always ends in a long -?. Instead of the adjective cl?rissimus, which mean "very bright" or "brightest", the adverb is cl?rissim?, which means "very brightly" or "most brightly".

Some comparative and superlative adverbs[36]
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
dign?
worthily
dignius
more worthily
dignissim?
very worthily, most worthily
fortiter
bravely
fortius
more bravely
fortissim?
very bravely, most bravely
facile
easily
facilius
more easily
facillim?
very easily, most easily
bene
well
melius
better
optim?
very well, best
male
badly
peius
worse
pessim?
very badly, worst
magnopere
greatly
magis
more
maxim?
very greatly, most, especially
paulum
a little
minus
less
minim?
very little, least
multum
much
pl?s
more
pl?rimum
very much, most
di?
for a long time
di?tius
for a longer time, any longer
di?tissim?
for a very long time
saepe
often
saepius
more often
saepissim?
very often, most often

Prepositions

Prepositions

A prepositional phrase in Latin is made up of a preposition followed by a noun phrase in the accusative or ablative case. The preposition determines the case that is used, with some prepositions allowing different cases depending on the meaning. For example, Latin in takes the accusative case when it indicates motion (English "into") and the ablative case when it indicates position (English "on" or "inside"):

in urbem = "into the city" (accusative)
in urbe = "in the city" (ablative)

Most prepositions take one case only. For example, all those that mean "from", "by", or "with" take the ablative:

ex urbe = "out of the city"
ab urbe = "(away) from the city"
cum Caesare = "with Caesar"

Other prepositions take only the accusative:

extr? urbem = "outside the city"
ad urbem = "to/near the city"
per urbem = "through(out) the city"
circum urbem = "around the city"

Postpositions

In addition, there are a few postpositions. tenus "as far as" usually follows an ablative, sometimes a genitive plural case:[37]

Taur? tenus "as far as Taurus"
C?m?rum tenus "as far as Cumae"

versus "towards" is usually combined with ad or in:

ad Alp?s versus "towards the Alps"

caus? "for the sake of" follows a genitive:

hon?ris caus? "for the sake of (doing) honour"

The word cum "with" is usually a preposition, but with the personal pronouns m?, t?, s?, n?b?s, v?b?s "me, you sg., him/herself/themselves, us, you pl." it follows the pronoun and is joined to it in writing:

cum e? "with him"
m?cum "with me"

Both qu?cum and cum qu? "with whom" are found.

Prepositions and postpositions in Latin (extensive list)
Preposition Grammar case Comments
?, ab, abs + abl from; down from; at, in, on, (of time) after, since (source of action or event) by, of
absque + abl without (archaic, cf. sine and praeter)
ad + acc towards, to, at
adversus, adversum + acc towards, against (also an adverb)
ante + acc before (also an adverb)
apud +acc at, by, near, among; chez; before, in the presence of, in the writings of, in view of
caus? + gen for the sake of (normally after its noun; simply the abl. of causa)
circum + acc about, around, near;
circ? + acc around, near, about; regarding, concerning
circiter + acc (of place and time) near, close, round about
cis + acc on, to this, the near side of, short of; before
citr? + acc on this side of (also an adverb)
clam + acc &
+ abl
without the knowledge of, unknown to (also an adverb). Its use with the ablative is rare. Clanculum is a variant of this preposition.
contr? + acc against, opposite to, contrary to, otherwise, in return to, back
c?ram + abl in person, face to face; publicly, openly
cum + abl with
d? + abl from, concerning, about; down from, out of
erg? + acc against, opposite; towards, with regard to (sometimes placed after the noun or pronoun)
ex, ? + abl out of, from
extr? + acc outside of, beyond
f?ne, f?n? + gen up to (ablative of f?nis). Can also be a postposition.[38]
gr?ti? + gen for the sake of. Usually placed after the noun.[39]
in + acc into, onto, to; about, respecting; according to; against
+ abl in, among, at, on (space); during, at (time)
?nfr? + acc below
inter + acc between, among; during, while
intr? + acc within, inside; during; in less than
i?xt? + acc nearly; near, close to, just as. Can also follow the noun.[40]
ob + acc in the direction of, to, towards; on account of, according to, because of, due to, for (the purpose of); against; facing
palam + abl without concealment, openly, publicly, undisguisedly, plainly, unambiguously
penes + acc Under one's government or command; In one's disposal or custody; At, with, about, concerning
per + acc through, by means of; during
p?ne + acc behind; in the rear of
post + acc behind (of space); afterwards, after (of time)
prae + abl before, in front of, because of
praeter + acc besides, except; beyond; more than
pr? + abl for, on behalf of; before; in front, instead of; about; according to; as, like; as befitting
procul + abl far, at a distance
prope + acc near, nearby, (figuratively) towards, about (in time)
propter + acc near, close to, hard by; because of, on account of, for; (rare) through, by means of
secundum + acc next, along, according to
simul + abl with
sine + abl without
sub + acc under, up to, up under, close to (of a motion); until, before, up to, about
+ abl (to) under, (to) beneath; near to, up to, towards; about, around (time)
subter + acc under, underneath; following (in order or rank); in the reign of
+ abl underneath, (figuratively) below inferior
super + acc above, over, beyond; during
+ abl concerning, regarding, about
supr? + acc above, over, more than, before
tenus + gen &
+ abl
(with genitive and ablative) right up to, as far as, just as far as;
(with ablative, of a process) up to (a given stage of);
(with genitive and ablative, of limitation) to the maximum extent of, within. Used as a postposition.[41]
tr?ns + acc across, beyond
versus,
versum
+ acc towards (postposition, usually combined with ad or in)[42]
ultr? + acc beyond

Numerals and numbers

The first three numbers have masculine, feminine and neuter forms fully declined as follows:[43]

Declension 1 m f n 2 m f n 3 mf n Br GL Wh
Nominative ?nus ?na ?num duo duae duo tr?s tria 1 1 1
Vocative ?ne ?na ?num duo duae duo tr?s tria 2 5 6
Accusative ?num ?nam ?num du?s/duo du?s duo tr?s/tr?s tria 3 4 4
Genitive ?n?us/-ius ?n?us ?n?us du?rum du?rum du?rum trium trium 4 2 2
Dative ?n? ?n? ?n? du?bus du?bus du?bus tribus tribus 5 3 3
Ablative ?n? ?n? ?n? du?bus du?bus du?bus tribus tribus 6 6 5

?nus (one) can also be used in the plural, with plural-only nouns, e.g. ?na castra "one camp", ?nae litterae "one letter". For larger numbers plural-only nouns use special numerals: b?na castra "two camps", tr?na castra "three camps". (See Latin numerals.)

The numbers quattuor (four) through decem (ten) are not declined:

quattuor (4)
qu?nque (5)
sex (6)
septem (7)
oct? (8)
novem (9)
decem (10)

The "tens" numbers are also not declined:

v?gint? (20)
tr?gint? (30)
quadr?gint? (40)
qu?nqu?gint? (50)
sex?gint? (60)
septu?gint? (70)
oct?gint? (80)
n?n?gint? (90)

The numbers 11 to 17 are formed by affixation of the corresponding digit to the base -decim, hence ?ndecim, duodecim, tredecim, quattuordecim, qu?ndecim, s?decim, septendecim. The numbers 18 and 19 are formed by subtracting 2 and 1, respectively, from 20: duod?v?gint? and ?nd?v?gint?. For the numbers 21 to 27, the digits either follow or are added to 20 by the conjunction et: v?gint? ?nus or ?nus et v?gint?, v?gint? duo or duo et v?gint? etc. The numbers 28 and 29 are again formed by subtraction: duod?tr?gint? and ?nd?tr?gint?. Each group of ten numerals through 100 follows the patterns of the 20s but 98 is n?n?gint? oct? and 99 is n?n?gint? novem rather than *duod?centum and *?nd?centum respectively.

Compounds ending in 1 2 and 3 are the only ones to decline:

I saw 20 blackbirds = v?gint? merul?s v?d?
I saw 22 blackbirds = v?gint? du?s merul?s v?d? (where du?s changes to agree with merul?s)

The "hundreds" numbers are the following:

centum (indeclinable)
ducent?, -ae, -a (200)
trecent?, -ae, -a (300)
quadringent?, -ae, -a (400)
qu?ngent?, -ae, -a (500)
s?scent?, -ae, -a (600)
septingent?, -ae, -a (700)
octingent?, -ae, -a (800)
n?ngent?, -ae, -a (900)

However, 1000 is mille, an indeclinable adjective, but multiples such as duo m?lia (2000) have m?lia as a neuter plural substantive followed by a partitive genitive:

I saw a thousand lions = m?lle le?n?s v?d?
I saw three thousand lions = tria m?lia le?num v?d?

Ordinal numbers are all adjectives with regular first- and second-declension endings. Most are built off of the stems of cardinal numbers (for example, tr?c?simus, -a, -um (30th) from tr?gint? (30), s?scent?simus, -a, -um n?nus, -a, -um (609th) for s?scent? novem (609). However, "first" is pr?mus, -a, -um, and "second" is secundus, -a, -um (literally "following" the first; sequi means "to follow").

Verbs

Person and number

Each tense has endings corresponding to three persons in the singular, known as 1st person singular ("I"), 2nd person singular ("you sg."), 3rd person singular ("he, she, it"), and three in the plural, known as 1st person plural ("we"), 2nd person plural ("you pl.") , and 3rd person plural ("they"). There is no dual number in the Latin verb.

1st sg.
2nd sg.
3rd sg.
I
you sg.
he, she, it
am?
am?s
amat
I love
you sg. love
he, she, it loves
1st pl.
2nd pl.
3rd pl.
we
you pl.
they
am?mus
am?tis
amant
we love
you pl. love
they love

There are no respectful 2nd person forms in Latin grammar: the 2nd person singular is used even when addressing a person of high status. However, the 1st person plural is often used to mean "I".[44]

Gender

Most verbs do not show distinctions of gender: the same form is used for "he", "she", and "it". However, tenses which are formed periphrastically from a participle and part of the verb sum show gender in the participle:

Masculine ductus est he was led duct? sunt they (m) were led
Feminine ducta est she was led ductae sunt they (f) were led
Neuter ductum est it was led ducta sunt they (n) were led

Impersonal verbs, such as n?nti?tum est "it was reported", are neuter singular.

Voice

Latin verbs have two voices, active (e.g. d?c? "I lead") and passive (e.g. d?cor "I am led").

Active (doing) d?c? I lead, I am leading
Passive (being done) d?cor I am led, I am being led

In addition there are a few verbs (e.g. sequor "I follow") which have the endings of passive verbs but with an active meaning. These verbs are known as deponent verbs.[45]

Intransitive verbs such as sum "I am" usually have no passive voice. However, some intransitive verbs can be used in the passive voice, but only when impersonal, e.g. pugn?tum est "(a battle) was fought", ventum est "they came" (literally, "it was come").

Mood

Latin verbs have three moods: indicative, subjunctive, and imperative:[46]

Indicative (actual) d?cit he leads, he is leading
Subjunctive (potential) d?cat he may/would/should lead
Imperative (command) d?c! lead!

Ordinary statements such as d?c? "I lead" or v?nit "he came" are said to be in the indicative mood. The subjunctive mood (e.g. d?cat "he may lead, he would lead" or d?xisset "he would have led") is used for potential or hypothetical statements, wishes, and also in reported speech and certain types of subordinate clause. The imperative mood (e.g. d?c "lead!") is a command.

In addition Latin verbs have a number of non-finite forms, such as the infinitive and various participles.

Regular and irregular verbs

Most Latin verbs are regular and follow one of the five patterns below.[47] These are referred to as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th conjugation, according to whether the infinitive ends in -?re, -?re, -ere or -?re.[48] (Verbs like capi? are regarded as variations of the 3rd conjugation, with some forms like those of the 4th conjugation.)

Other verbs like sum "I am" are irregular and have their own pattern.[49]

REGULAR I love I see I lead I capture I hear
Present
tense
active
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
am?
am?s
amat
am?mus
am?tis
amant
vide?
vid?s
videt
vid?mus
vid?tis
vident
d?c?
d?cis
d?cit
d?cimus
d?citis
ducunt
capi?
capis
capit
capimus
capitis
capiunt
audi?
aud?s
audit
aud?mus
aud?tis
audiunt
Infinitive to am?re (1) vid?re (2) d?cere (3) capere (3) aud?re (4)
I am loved I am seen I am led I am captured I am heard
Present
tense
passive
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
amor
am?ris
am?tur
am?mur
am?min?
amantur
videor
vid?ris
vid?tur
vid?mur
vid?min?
videntur
d?cor
d?ceris
d?citur
d?cimur
d?cimin?
ducuntur
capior
caperis
capitur
capimur
capimin?
capiuntur
audior
aud?ris
aud?tur
aud?mur
aud?min?
audiuntur
Infinitive to am?r? (1) vid?r? (2) d?c? (3) cap? (3) aud?r? (4)
IRREGULAR I am I am able I bring I want I go
Present
tense
I
you sg.
he, she, it
we
you pl.
they
sum
es
est
sumus
estis
sunt
possum
potes
potest
possumus
potestis
possunt
fer?
fers
fert
ferimus
fertis
ferunt
vol?
v?s
vult
volumus
vultis
volunt
e?
?s
it
?mus
?tis
eunt
Infinitive to esse posse ferre velle ?re

Compound verbs such as adsum "I am present", n?l? "I don't want", rede? "I go back", etc., usually have the same endings as the simple verbs from which they are made.

Tenses

A 3rd conjugation example

Latin verbs have six basic tenses in the indicative mood. Three of these are based on the present stem (e.g. d?c-) and three on the perfect stem (e.g. d?x-).

In addition, there are four tenses in the subjunctive mood, and two in the imperative.

Further tenses can be made periphrastically by combining participles with the verbs sum "I am" or habe? "I have", for example duct?rus eram "I was going to lead" or ductum habe? "I have led".

The following table gives the various forms of a 3rd conjugation verb d?c?. As with other verbs, three different stems are needed to make the various tenses: d?c- in the three non-perfect tenses, d?x- in the three perfect tenses, and duct- in the perfect participle and supine. The perfect and supine stems for any particular verb cannot always be predicted and usually have to be looked up in a dictionary.

INDICATIVE Active Passive
Present d?c?
d?cis
d?cit
d?cimus
d?citis
d?cunt
I lead, I am leading
you lead
he/she/it leads
we lead
you pl. lead
they lead
d?cor
d?ceris
d?citur
d?cimur
d?cimin?
d?cuntur
I am led, I am being led
you are led
he/she/it is led
we are led
you pl. are led
they are led
Future d?cam
d?c?s
d?cet
d?c?mus
d?c?tis
d?cent
I will lead, I will be leading
you will lead
he/she/it will lead
we will lead
you pl. will lead
they will lead
d?car
d?c?ris/-e
d?c?tur
d?c?mur
d?c?min?
d?centur
I will be led, I will be being led
you will be led
he/she/it will be led
we will be led
you pl. will be led
they will be led
Imperfect d?c?bam
d?c?b?s
d?c?bat
d?c?b?mus
d?c?b?tis
d?c?bant
I was leading, used to lead
you were leading
he/she/it was leading
we were leading
you pl. were leading
they were leading
d?c?bar
d?c?b?ris/-re
d?c?b?tur
d?c?b?mur
d?c?b?min?
d?c?bantur
I was being led, I used to be led
you were being led
he/she/it was being led
we were being led
you pl. were being led
they were being led
Perfect d?x?
d?xist?
d?xit
d?ximus
d?xistis
d?x?runt/-?re
I led, I have led
you led
he/she/it led
we led
you pl. led
they led
ductus sum
ductus es
ductus est
duct? sumus
duct? estis
duct? sunt
I was led, I have been led
you were led
he was led
we were led
you pl. were led
they were led
Future Perfect d?xer?
d?xer?s/-is
d?xerit
d?xer?mus
d?xer?tis
d?xerint
I will have led
you will have led
he/she/it will have led
we will have led
you pl. will have led
they will have led
ductus er?
ductus eris
ductus erit
duct? erimus
duct? eritis
duct? erunt
I will have been led
you will have been led
he will have been led
we will have been led
you pl. will have been led
they will have been led
Pluperfect d?xeram
d?xer?s
d?xerat
d?xer?mus
d?xer?tis
d?xerant
I had led
you had led
he/she/it had led
we had led
you pl. had led
they had led
ductus eram
ductus er?s
ductus erat
duct? er?mus
duct? er?tis
duct? erant
I had been led
you had been led
he had been led
we had been led
you pl. had been led
they had been led
SUBJUNCTIVE
Present d?cam
d?c?s
d?cat
d?c?mus
d?c?tis
d?cant
I may lead, I would lead
you would lead
he/she/it would lead
we would lead
you pl. would lead
they would lead
d?car
d?c?ris
d?c?tur
d?c?mur
d?c?min?
d?cantur
I may be led, I would be led
you would be led
he/she/it would be led
we would be led
you pl. would be led
they would be led
Imperfect d?cerem
d?cer?s
d?ceret
d?cer?mus
d?cer?tis
d?cerent
I might lead, should lead
you might lead
he/she/it might lead
we might lead
you pl. might lead
they might lead
d?cerer
d?cer?ris
d?cer?tur
d?cer?mur
d?cer?min?
d?cerentur
I might be led
you might be led
he/she/it might be led
we might be led
you pl. might be led
they might be led
Perfect d?xerim
d?xer?s
d?xerit
d?xer?mus
d?xer?tis
d?xerint
I would have led, I led
you would have led
he/she/it would have led
we would have led
you pl. would lead
they would have led
ductus sim
ductus s?s
ductus sit
duct? s?mus
duct? s?tis
duct? sint
I would have been led, I was led
you were led
he was led
we were led
you pl. were led
they were led
Pluperfect d?xissem
d?xiss?s
d?xisset
d?xiss?mus
d?xiss?tis
d?xissent
I would have led, I had led
you would have led
he/she/it would have led
we would have led
you pl. would have led
they would have led
ductus essem
ductus ess?s
ductus esset
duct? ess?mus
duct? ess?tis
duct? essent
I would have been led
you would have been led
he would have been led
we would have been led
you pl. would have been led
they would have been led
IMPERATIVE
Present d?c!
d?cite!
lead! (sg.)
lead! (pl.)
(d?cere!)
(d?cimin?!)
be led!
be led! (pl.)
Future d?cit?!
d?cit?te!
lead! (sg.)
lead! (pl.)
3rd person d?cit?
d?cunt?
he must lead
they must lead
INFINITIVES
Present d?cere to lead d?c? to be led
Future duct?rus esse to be going to lead ductum ?r? to be going to be led
Perfect d?xisse to have led ductus esse to have been led
Periphrastic perfect duct?rus fuisse to have been going to lead
PARTICIPLES
Present d?c?ns
d?cent?s
(while) leading (sg.)
(while) leading (pl.)
Future duct?rus/a/um going to lead
Perfect ductus/a/um having been led
GERUNDIVE d?cendus/a/um (needing) to be led
GERUND ad d?cendum
d?cend?
d?cend?
with a view to leading
of leading
by leading
SUPINE ductum (it)
(facile) duct?
(he goes) in order to lead
(easy) to lead

A distinction between perfective aspect (I did) and imperfective aspect (I was doing) is found only in the past in Latin. In the present or future, the same tenses have both aspectual meanings.

Unlike in Ancient Greek or modern English, there is no distinction between perfect (I have done) and simple past (I did). The same tense, known in Latin grammar as the perfect tense, has both meanings.

The passive imperative is almost never used except in deponent verbs, e.g. sequere m?! "follow me!"

Variations

The different conjugations differ in some tenses. For example, in the future tense:

  • 1st and 2nd conjugation verbs and e? have the endings -b?, -bis, -bit, -bimus, -bitis, -bunt (e.g. am?b? "I will love", vid?b? "I will see", ?b? "I will go").
  • 3rd and 4th conjugation verbs and vol? and fer? have the endings -am, -?s, -et, -?mus, -?tis, -ent (d?cam "I will lead", audiam "I will hear").
  • Sum and possum have the endings er?, eris, erit, erimus, eritis, erunt (er? "I will be", poter? "I will be able")

In the imperfect indicative:

  • Most verbs have the endings -bam, -b?s, -bat, -b?mus, -b?tis, -bant (e.g. am?bam, vid?bam, d?c?bam, capi?bam, fer?bam, vol?bam)
  • Sum and possum have eram, er?s, erat, er?mus, er?tis, erant (e.g. poteram "I was able")

They also differ in the present subjunctive:

  • 1st conjugation verbs have the endings -em, -?s, -et, -?mus, -?tis, -ent (e.g. amem "I may love")
  • 2nd, 3rd, 4th conjugations have -am, -?s, -at, -?mus, -?tis, -ant (videam "I may see", d?cam "I may lead", audiam "I may hear", eam "I may go")
  • Sum, possum, vol? have -im, -?s, -it, -?mus, -?tis, -int (sim "I may be", possim "I may be able", velim "I may wish")

The imperfect subjunctive of every verb looks like the infinitive + an ending:

  • Regular: am?rem, vid?rem, d?cerem, caperem, aud?rem
  • Irregular: essem, possem, ferrem, vellem, ?rem

In the various perfect tenses, all verbs have regular endings. However, the stem to which the perfect endings are added cannot always be guessed, and so is given in dictionaries.

Word order

Latin allows a very flexible word order because of its inflectional syntax. Ordinary prose tended to follow the pattern of subject, direct object, indirect object, adverbial words or phrases, verb (with the proviso that when noun and verb make a compound, as impetum facio "I attack / make an attack" the noun is generally placed close to the verb).[50] Any extra but subordinate verb, such as an infinitive, is placed before the main verb. Adjectives and participles usually directly follow nouns unless they are adjectives of beauty, size, quantity, goodness, or truth, in which case they usually precede the noun being modified. However, departures from these rules are frequent.

Relative clauses are commonly placed after the antecedent that the relative pronoun describes. Since grammatical function in a sentence is based not on word order but on inflection, the usual word order in Latin was often abandoned with no detriment to understanding but with various changes in emphasis.

While these patterns of word order were the most frequent in Classical Latin prose, they were frequently varied. The strongest surviving evidence suggests that the word order of colloquial Latin was mostly Subject-Object-Verb. That can be found in some very conservative Romance languages, such as Sardinian and Sicilian in which the verb is still often placed at the end of the sentence (see Vulgar Latin). On the other hand, subject-verb-object word order was probably also common in ancient Latin conversation, as it is prominent in the Romance languages, which evolved from Latin.[51]

In poetry, however, word order was often changed for the sake of the meter for which vowel quantity (short vowels vs. long vowels and diphthongs) and consonant clusters, not rhyme and word stress, governed the patterns. One must bear in mind that poets in the Roman world wrote primarily for the ear, not the eye; many premiered their work in recitation for an audience. Hence, variations in word order served a rhetorical as well as a metrical purpose; they certainly did not prevent understanding.

In Virgil's Eclogues, for example, he writes, Omnia vincit amor, et n?s c?d?mus am?r?!: "Love conquers all, let us too yield to love!". The words omnia (all), amor (love) and am?r? (to love) are thrown into relief by their unusual position in their respective phrases.

The ending of the common Roman name M?rcus is different in each of the following pairs of examples because of its grammatical usage in each pair. The ordering in the second sentence of each pair would be correct in Latin and clearly understood, whereas in English it is awkward, at best, and meaningless, at worst:

M?rcus ferit Corn?liam: Marcus hits Cornelia. (subject-verb-object)
M?rcus Corn?liam ferit: Marcus Cornelia hits. (subject-object-verb)
Corn?lia dedit M?rc? d?num: Cornelia has given Marcus a gift. (subject-verb-indirect object-direct object)
Corn?lia M?rc? d?num dedit: Cornelia (to) Marcus a gift has given. (subject-indirect object-direct object-verb)

See also

Bibliography

  • Bennett, Charles Edwin (1895). Latin Grammar. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Devine, Andrew M. & Laurence D. Stephens (2006), Latin Word Order. Structured Meaning and Information. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. xii, 639. ISBN 0-19-518168-9.
  • Gildersleeve, B.L. & Gonzalez Lodge (1895). Gildersleeve's Latin Grammar. 3rd Edition. (Macmillan)
  • Greenough, J.B. et al. (1903). Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges. Boston and London.
  • Kennedy, Benjamin Hall (1871). The Revised Latin Primer. Edited and further revised by Sir James Mountford, Longman 1930; reprinted 1962.
  • Kühner, Raphael; & Karl Stegmann (1912) [1879]. Ausführliche Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache
  • Leumann, Manu; J.B. Hofmann, & Anton Szantyr (1977) [1926]. Lateinische Grammatik. Munich.

References

  1. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), p. 13.
  2. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), p. 13.
  3. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), p. 22.
  4. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), pp. 17-19.
  5. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), p. 17.
  6. ^ Greenough (1903), §49.
  7. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), p. 19.
  8. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), pp. 22-26.
  9. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), pp. 30-31.
  10. ^ Greenough (1903) New Latin Grammar, §91.
  11. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), pp. 34-36.
  12. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), p. 119.
  13. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), pp. 119-122.
  14. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), pp. 232-3.
  15. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), pp. 235-7.
  16. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), pp. 240-2.
  17. ^ Terence, Eun. 2, 3, 15.
  18. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), pp. 123-127.
  19. ^ Plautus, Pseudolus 634.
  20. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), pp. 128-132.
  21. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), p, 130.
  22. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), p. 128.
  23. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), p. 132.
  24. ^ Livy, 2.33.4.
  25. ^ Cicero, Tusc. Disp. 5.113.
  26. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 42.
  27. ^ Greenough (1903), p. 64.
  28. ^ Greenough (1903), p. 63.
  29. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), p. 48.
  30. ^ Greenough (1903), p. 64.
  31. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), p. 49.
  32. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), pp. 48, 42.
  33. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), p. 51.
  34. ^ Virgil, Aeneid, 4.345.
  35. ^ Nepos, Themistocles 2.2.
  36. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), p. 44.
  37. ^ Lewis & Short, Latin Dictionary, s.v. tenus.
  38. ^ Lewis & Short, Latin Dictionary, s.v. finis.
  39. ^ Lewis & Short, Latin Dictionary, s.v. gratia.
  40. ^ Lewis & Short, Latin Dictionary, s.v. iuxta.
  41. ^ Lewis & Short, Latin Dictionary, s.v. tenus.
  42. ^ Lewis & Short, Latin Dictionary, s.v. verto.
  43. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), p. 45.
  44. ^ Greenough (1903), p. 63.
  45. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), p. 59.
  46. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), p. 58.
  47. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), pp. 64-84.
  48. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), p. 60.
  49. ^ Kennedy (1962 ed.), pp. 62, 85-88.
  50. ^ Andrew M. Devine, Laurence D. Stephens, Latin Word Order. Structured Meaning and Information. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006, page 79.
  51. ^ Devine, Andrew M.; Stephens, Laurence D. (2006). Latin word order: structured meaning and information. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 3-5. Word order is what gets the reader of Latin from disjoint sentences to coherent and incrementally interpretable text.

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