Leagues of China
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Leagues of China
Leagues of Inner Mongolia

A league (Mongolian: Ayimagh.svg ayima? [æ:m?] Aimag; historically, Cighulghan.svg ?i?ul?an [t?:l?n] Qûûlgan; Chinese: ?; pinyin: méng) is an administrative unit of the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia in the People's Republic of China.

Leagues are the prefectures of Inner Mongolia. The name comes from a Mongolian administrative unit used during the Qing dynasty in Mongolia. Mongolian Banners (county level regions) were organized into conventional assemblies at the league level. During the ROC era, the leagues had a status equivalent to provinces. Leagues contain banners, equivalent to counties.

After the establishment of the provincial level Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in 1947, leagues of Inner Mongolia became equal to prefectures in other provinces and autonomous regions. The administrative commission (Chinese: ?; pinyin: xíngzhèngg?ngsh?) of the league is the administrative branch office dispatched by the People's Government of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The leader of the league's government, titled as league leader (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: méngzh?ng), is appointed by People's Government of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. So are deputy leaders of leagues. Instead of local level of People's Congress, league's working commissions of the Standing Committee of the People's Congress of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region are detached and supervise the league's governments, but can not elect or dismiss league's government officials.[1] In such a way, the league's working committee of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region's committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference is instead of league's committee of CPPCC.

Leagues have existed since the Qing dynasty as a level of government. The head of a league was chosen from jasagh or sula of the banners belonging to it. The original six leagues were Jirem, Ju Ud, Jost, Xilingol, Ulanqab, and Ih Ju. More were added in the subsequent centuries.

Today, leagues belong to the prefecture level of the Chinese administrative hierarchy. Of the 9 leagues that existed in the late 1970s, 6 have now been reorganized into prefecture-level cities. There are only 3 leagues remaining in Inner Mongolia: Xilingol, Alxa, and Hinggan.

Leagues (1949-present)

Current

Name Mongolian Transcription and IPA
(Chakhar Mongolian)
Simplified
Chinese
Pinyin Capital Notes
Hinggan Hinggan [xn] X?ng'?n Ulanhot Established: 26 July 1980
Xilingol ? ? Xiliin Gôl ? X?língu?lè Xilinhot Present day: Xilingol and Hinggan (1954)
Alxa Alxaa ?l?shàn Bayanhot Town, Alxa Left Banner Until 1954 it was known as Alxa Öölüd Banners and Ejin Torghuud Banner

Defunct

Name Mongolian Transcription and IPA
(Chakhar Mongolian)
Simplified
Chinese
Pinyin Capital Notes
Bayannur Bayan Nûûr ? B?yànnào'?r Linhe
(Linhe District)
Dissolution: 1 December 2003
Present day: Bayannur (prefecture-level city)
Jirem Jirem Zhél?mù Bayisingtu
(Horqin District)
Dissolution: 13 January 1999
Present day: Tongliao (prefecture-level city)
Ju Ud Jûû Ûd Zh?ow?dá Ulanhad
(Hongshan District)
Dissolution: 10 October 1983
Present day: Chifeng (prefecture-level city)
Jost Jôstiin Zhuósu?tú Chaoyang
(Shuangta District)
Dissolution: 10 October 1911
Present day: Fuxin, Chaoyang, and part of Chifeng (prefecture-level city)
Chahar Qahar Cháh?'?r Baochang Dissolution: 1 October 1958
merged into Xilingol and Ulanqab
Ulanqab Ulaanqab ? W?lánchábù Jining
(Jining District)
Dissolution: 1 December 2003
Present day: Ulanqab (prefecture-level city), Baotou (1954), & Bayannur (1954)
Ih Ju ? Ih Jûû Y?kèzh?o Dongsheng
(Dongsheng District)
Dissolution: 26 February 2001
Present day: Ordos (prefecture-level city)
Heilongjiang (present day northern part of Inner Mongolia)
? /
H?nà
Hailar
(Hailar District)
Dissolution: 1 April 1953 merge into Inner Mongolia Eastern Administrative Zone
Hulunbuir ? Holon Bûir ? H?lúnbèi'?r Hailar
(Hailar District)
Dissolution: 11 April 1949
Merged into Hulunbuir-Nunmoron
Re-established: 21 May 1954
Dissolution: 10 October 2001 (present day greater Hulunbuir)
Nun Moron Nûûn Moron ? Nàwénmùrén Zhalantun Dissolution: 11 April 1949
merge into Hulunbuir-Nunmoron

Original leagues of the Qing

The 6 leagues under Inner Mongolia

Name Mongolian Transcription and IPA
(Chakhar Mongolian)
Simplified
Chinese
Pinyin Tribes & Banners Notes
Jirem Jirem Zhél?mù 4 tribes
10 banners
Jost Jôstiin Zhuósu?tú 2 tribes
5 banners
Ju Ud
Ju'ud
Jûû Ûd Zh?ow?dá 8 tribes
11 banners
Xilingol ? ? Xiliin Gôl ? X?língu?lè 5 tribes
10 banners
Ulanqab Ulaanqab ? W?lánchábù 4 tribes
6 banners
Ih Ju
Ihju
? Ih Jûû Y?kèzh?o 1 tribe
7 banners

Other league

Name Mongolian Transcription and IPA
(Chakhar Mongolian)
Simplified
Chinese
Pinyin Tribes & Banners Notes
Chahar Qahar Cháh?'?r 8 banners

Changes

Year(s) Leagues
1636-1928 (Qûûlgan) Jirem, Ju Ud, Jost, Xilingol, Ulanqab, and Ih Ju
1928-1938 (Qûûlgan and Province) Jirem, Ju Ud, Jost, Xilingol, Chahar Province (Qahar), Ulanqab, and Ih Ju
1938-1945 (ROC) Jirem, Ih Ju
1938-1945 (Mengjiang) Ju Ud, Xilingol, Chahar (Qahar), Ulanqab, Bayantala (Bayantal)
1945-1948 (Aimag) Nun Moron, Jirem, Ju Ud, Jost, Xilingol, Qahar, Ulanqab, and Ih Ju
1948-1949 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Nun Moron, Jirem, Ju Ud, Jost, Xilingol, Qahar, Ulanqab, and Ih Ju
1949 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Nun Moron, Jirem, Ju Ud, Jost, Xilingol, Qahar, Ulanqab, and Ih Ju
1949-1953 (Aimag) Hulunbuir-Nun Moron, Hinggan, Jirem, Ju Ud, Xilingol, Qahar
1953 (Aimag) Ju Ud, Xilingol, Qahar
1953-1956 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Jirem, Ju Ud, Xilingol, Qahar, Ulanqab, Ih Ju
1956-1958 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Jirem, Ju Ud, Xilingol, Qahar, Ulanqab, Ih Ju, Bayannur
1958-1969 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Jirem, Ju Ud, Xilingol, Ulanqab, Ih Ju, Bayannur
1969-1979 (Inner Mongolia) Xilingol, Ulanqab, Ih Ju, Bayannur
1969-1979 (Heilongjiang) Hulunbuir
1969-1979 (Jilin) Jirem
1979-1980 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Jirem, Ju Ud, Xilingol, Ulanqab, Ih Ju, Bayannur, Alxa
1980-1983 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Hinggan, Jirem, Ju Ud, Xilingol, Ulanqab, Ih Ju, Bayannur, Alxa
1983-1999 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Hinggan, Jirem, Xilingol, Ulanqab, Ih Ju, Bayannur, Alxa
1999-2001 (Aimag) Hulunbuir, Hinggan, Xilingol, Ulanqab, Ih Ju, Bayannur, Alxa
2001-2003 (Aimag) Hinggan, Xilingol, Ulanqab, Bayannur, Alxa
2003-present (Aimag) Hinggan, Xilingol, Alxa

References

  1. ^ "The standing committee of the people's congress of a province and autonomous region may set up administrative offices in the prefectures under its jurisdiction. " from Item 2, Article 53, Organic Law of the Local People's Congresses and Local People's Governments of the People's Republic of China (2004 Revision)

See also


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