Lianjiang County
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Lianjiang County

Lianjiang


Lienkong, Lienkiang, Lienchiang
Lianjiang Street View.jpg
Lianjiang is located in Fujian
Lianjiang
Lianjiang
Location in Fujian
Coordinates: 26°12?N 119°32?E / 26.200°N 119.533°E / 26.200; 119.533Coordinates: 26°12?N 119°32?E / 26.200°N 119.533°E / 26.200; 119.533
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceFujian
Prefecture-level cityFuzhou
SeatFengcheng
Township-level divisions16 towns,
6 townships
Area
 o Total1,168 km2 (451 sq mi)
Population
(2010)[1]
 o Total561,490
 o Density480/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
350500
Websiteljx.fuzhou.gov.cn (in Chinese)

Lianjiang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liánji?ng; Wade-Giles: Lien²-chiang¹; BUC: Lièng-g?ng) is a county on the eastern coast in Fuzhou prefecture-level city, the provincial capital of Fujian Province, China. Most of the county is administered by the People's Republic of China (PRC), while a number of outlying islands, collectively referred to as the Matsu Islands, are administered as Lienchiang County (same Chinese character name in traditional Chinese characters and referred to using Wade-Giles romanization) by the Republic of China (ROC) (now based in Taiwan) ever since their return to ROC control after Japanese occupation in World War II.

History

Lianjiang, in 282, during the Jin Dynasty, was Wenma, named after a shipyard there, Wensha Ship-hamlet (?). It was incorporated into Min Prefecture () in 607, during the Sui Dynasty.

Wenma was changed to the present name and made its own county in 623, during the Tang Dynasty, when Baisha () or Fusha () of Aojiang was the capital of Lianjiang County. The capital was changed to Fengcheng as today in 742.

After the Republic of China was established, Lianjiang switched back and forth numerous times between two special regions:

  • Minhou Special Region (?): 18 years in total
  • Fu'an (Ningde) Special Region (()): 16 years in total

In 1949, the county was split in two due to the Chinese Civil War, as it remains today.

Beginning on 1 July 1983, the PRC side reverted control to Fuzhou Municipality. In the late 1980s, people living in Lianjiang County began a massive emigration wave to western countries like the United Kingdom and the United States.[3]

Geography

Map including Lianjiang (labelled as Lienkong) (1917)

Gaodeng Island in Lienchiang County (the Matsu Islands), ROC (Taiwan), is located 9.25 kilometres (5.75 mi) away from the Beijiao Peninsula () in Lianjiang County, China (PRC).[2][4][5][6][7]

Administrative divisions

Map including Lianjiang (labeled as LIEN-CHIANG (LIENKONG) ) and surrounding region (AMS, 1954)
Satellite image including part of Lianjiang County, PRC and part of Lienchiang County, ROC

The PRC (China) administers 16 towns and 6 townships:[1][8][9]

Towns (?, zhen):

  • Fengcheng (?) ("Phoenix City Town")
  • Mabi (Ma-pi; ?) ("Horse Snout Town")
  • Danyang (?)
  • Dongdai (Tungtai; ?)
  • Donghu (?) ("East Lake Town")
  • Guanban (?) (Traditional: )
  • Tailu (T'ai-lu; ?)
  • Aojiang (?) ("Ao River Township")
  • Pukou (P'u-k'ou; ?) ("River Mouth Township")
  • Toubao (T'ou-pao; ?)
  • Huangqi (Huang-ch'i, Huangchi;[10]?)
  • Xiao'ao (Hsiao-ao; ?)
  • Guantou (Kwantow, Kuan-t'ou; ? - Guàntóu)
  • Xiaocheng (Hsiao-ch'eng; ? - Xi?ochéng)
  • Changlong (?, formerly ?) ("Long Dragon")
  • Kengyuan (K'eng-yüan; ?, formerly ?)

Townships (?, xiang):

These townships are divided into 266 villages.

Culture

Residents of Lianjiang - both on the Mainland and Matsu - speak the Lianjiang dialect, a subdialect of the Fuzhou dialect, a branch of Eastern Min. The dialect is also known as Bàng-uâ ().

Language

The Lianjiang dialect is a subdialect of Fuzhou dialect (the most prestigious dialect of Min Dong or Eastern Min). The Lianjiang dialect is mutually intelligible with Fuzhou dialect. It differs from Fuzhou dialect in its tonal sandhi pattern and vowel sandhi system. Small lexical differences also exist on object names, e.g. waxmelon is called "" /kuoua?/ in Fuzhou but "" /tøyua?/ in Lianjiang.

Generally speaking, the tonal sandhi system of Lianjiang is more conservative than that of Fuzhou, in that the Lianjiang tonal sandhi is still largely controlled by the Middle Chinese tonal registers,[11] while the Fuzhou tonal sandhi shows more deviation and irregularity.

Lianjiang vowel sandhi is more complicated than that of Fuzhou. Both Lianjiang and Fuzhou have systematic vowel variations between citation forms and non-final forms of the same morpheme, e.g. "?" /tei/ "land" - "" /ti-tsuo/ "landlord". However, not all morphemes have such variations. Only the morphemes with low-starting tones show such variation. The morphemes with high-starting tones instead only have the more close variant, e.g. "?" /ti/ "late"- "" /ti tsia/ "early or late".[12][13] However, some cognates are produced with different vowels in Lianjiang and Fuzhou, e.g. "? river" is produced as /kye?/ in Lianjiang, but /kou?/ in Fuzhou. Also, the rimes in Lianjiang are generally more close and front than that in Fuzhou, which is especially salient in the open vowels, e.g. "? down" is [?] in Fuzhou, but [a] in Lianjiang.[12]

Surrounded by mountains, Lianjiang used to be a relatively isolated from the inland part of China for centuries. This explains why the Lianjiang phonological system is relatively more conservative. However, with the construction of the high-speed railway system[14] and the improvement of tunnel system, northern migrants are flooding into Lianjiang in the past decade, which may bring language contact into perspective. Just like in Fuzhou, most young or middle-aged Lianjiang speakers speak Mandarin Chinese fluently, but usually with a local accent influenced by the local dialect. However, due to the misleading language policy (Not speaking Mandarin Chinese is taken as "immoral".)[15] and disadvantageous status of the dialect, both Fuzhou and Lianjiang dialects are losing speakers in the youngest generation. More and more young people and children are only receptive bilinguals in Lianjiang.[12]

Economy

A field of red-fleshed dragon-fruit cactus in Dongdai town

[2]

Food products:

Transportation

Luochang Expressway runs through the county's section of National Highway 104 in 500.3 kilometres (310.9 mi). 42.6-kilometre (26.5 mi) navigable river length.

Guantou and Kemen () are the largest seaports in Lianjiang with national access.

Tourism

There are hot springs in Gui'an () and Tanghui () of Pandu. There is a Dragon King Palace-Temple () in the Xiaocang She Ethnic Township.

Climate

Notes

  1. ^ Area figure excludes the Matsu Islands (north).

References

  1. ^ a b c ? [Lianjiang County Historical Evolution]. XZQH.org (in Chinese). 16 June 2015. Retrieved 2020. 2000,599962?,{...}2000,1168?,61.75{...}2007,1190.7?(23.5?)613354?(),128298{...}2010,561490?,:75553?,52636?,18791?,60055?,29520?,15272?,24284?,9143?,13455?,26516?,24948?,25825?,23368?,25629?,27955?,16163?,16755?,22984?,24216?,14296?,11180?,2946
  2. ^ a b c . Cihai (Sixth Edition) (in Chinese). . Shanghai. Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. September 2009. pp. 1365, 1516. ISBN 9787532628599. {...}2 {...}1191{...}?,{...}? 25~40{...}?,{...},9.2,1.25?,,,177
  3. ^ Zhao, Xiaojian. The New Chinese America : Class, Economy, and Social Hierarchy. p. 2010.
  4. ^ DeWitt Copp, Marshall Peck (1962). The Odd Day. New York City: William Morrow & Company. pp. 58, 67, 71, 206 – via Internet Archive. Kueffer indicated two islands bunched near Peikan, "Tachiu and Kaoteng. The latter is five miles off the mainland, the closest to the enemy."CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  5. ^ "FAQ". Matsu National Scenic Area. 29 July 2019. Retrieved 2019. The area closest to the mainland is Gaodeng Island, 9.25 km off the Beijia [sic] Peninsula.
  6. ^ "Chinese Reds Shell Islands; Fight Feared". Times-News. Twin Falls, Idaho. 30 December 1955 – via Internet Archive. Sporadic Communist shelling was directed against Kaoteng in the Matsu island group 150 miles up the coast. Kaoteng is five miles from the nearest Communist position and serves as an outpost for the main Matsu island.
  7. ^ ?. (in Chinese). 22 January 2020. Retrieved 2020. ?,9.25;
  8. ^ 2019: [2019 Statistical Area Numbers and Rural-Urban Area Numbers: Lianjiang County] (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2019. Retrieved 2020. ? 350122100000 350122101000 350122102000 350122103000 350122104000 350122105000 350122106000 350122107000 350122108000 350122109000 350122110000 350122111000 350122112000 350122113000 350122114000 350122115000 350122200000 350122201000 350122202000 350122203000 350122204000 350122205000 350122400000
  9. ^ (22 January 2020). ? [Administrative Divisions]. (in Chinese). Retrieved 2020. ?2019,,22?269(?)?:
  10. ^ "CURRENT INTELLIFENCE BULLETIN". Office of Current Intelligence, CIA. 5 May 1955. p. 9. HUANGCHI
  11. ^ Wu, J., & Chen, Y. (2012). The Effect of Historical Tone Categories on Tone Sandhi in Lianjiang. Paper presented at the 20th Annual Conference of the IACL, Hongkong.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271849974_The_Effect_of_Historical_Tone_Categories_on_Tone_Sandhi_in_Lianjiang
  12. ^ a b c Wu,J., & Chen, Y. (in prep.) Lianjiang.
  13. ^ , & . (Eds.). (1998) . ?. ISBN 7534334217
  14. ^ http://www.gaotie.cn/lianjiangzhan/
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Lianjiang_County
 



 



 
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