Liberal Democrat Federal Conference
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Liberal Democrat Federal Conference

Liberal Democrat Federal Conference
Let the Conference Commence (21749133204).jpg
MottoLib Dem Fightback
Demand Better
Formation2 March 1988
(on creation of the Liberal Democrats)
Location
Federal Conference Committee
Key people
Geoff Payne (Chair)
Nick da Costa (Vice Chair)
(both elected in 2019 party elections)
Parent organization
Liberal Democrats
WebsiteLiberal Democrat Spring Conference
Liberal Democrat Autumn Conference

The Liberal Democrat Federal Conference (often referred to as the Liberal Democrat Conference) is an internal body of the Liberal Democrats, the third largest political party in the UK by the number of votes. The Federal Conference is the highest representative body of the Liberal Democrats, one of the few British political parties to use its annual gathering for voting and policy resolution. The event also features speeches from prominent party members and guests and an exhibition. There are also several fringe events, run by internal political groups such as Liberal Reform, Social Liberal Forum and Young Liberals, and a well-established late-evening entertainment revue known as the Glee Club.

The Federal Conference takes place twice per year, first as the Spring Conference, usually held in March, and then the Autumn Conference, usually in September.[1] The first Federal Conference was held in Blackpool, in the North West of England, from 25 to 29 September 1988,[1] with the most recent being the 64th Conference, held in Bournemouth, in Southern England, from 14 to 17 September 2019. The 2020 Spring Conference, due to have been held in York from the 13th and 15th March, has been cancelled due to fears about the Coronavirus epidemic.[2]

The Federal Conference is overseen by the Federal Conference Committee (FCC), which also selects motions and amendments for debates, runs Conference sessions and provides drafting advice and liaison. Its members are regularly elected and expected to be objective and fair in their selection of motions and amendments.[3]

The Federal Conference does not choose the Leader of the Liberal Democrats, who is instead elected by a party-wide ballot of all members in a one-member, one-vote contest. The system has been in use since the party's inception in 1988, which predates changes to internal party voting rules by both the Labour and the Conservative Parties. Neither Liberal Democrat MPs nor any other internal party groups have special voting rights over either party policy or in the election of the party Leader.

Conference Access Fund

The Conference Access Fund provides financial support for both low-income and disabled attendees. It offsets the costs of accommodation, childcare and travel for those on low incomes. For example, it provides £50 per night accommodation support on the understanding that the cheapest-available accommodation has been booked. It provided uncapped funding for disabled attendees. Members of the party directly contribute to the fund and are described as having donated "with generosity".[4] The funding is ring-fenced.[5] Among the three largest UK-wide parties, the Liberal Democrats are unique in providing an Access Fund that defrays costs for low-income and disabled Conference attendees.[4]

Conference locations

Bournemouth International Centre is a regular location for the Conference

Conference is held twice per year, in Spring (usually March) and Autumn (September or early October). It is held in locations across the UK, at conference and convention centres in cities such as Sheffield, Glasgow and Cardiff.

In recent years, locations have included the Brighton Centre, the York Barbican, and Bournemouth International Centre. The duration is usually three to four days.[6] The party's first Conference was held in Blackpool, in September 1988.[7] All locations are accessible on public transport by rail and road.

Conference policy decisions

Conference is the ultimate decision-making body of the Liberal Democrats. Every party member who attends Conference has the right to vote in policy debates, under a one-member, one-vote system. There are no 'weighted' votes reserved for the party's Elected Representatives, MPs, trade unions or for senior members of the party. A proposal can only become policy if Conference votes for it.[8][9]

Motions

Party members at the Conference voting on a Motion by raising their party cards

A Motion is put forward before each debate, and must be submitted to the party's Federal Policy Committee at least eight weeks before Conference. These are then published in the Conference Agenda.

Any party member can submit a motion, with the support of at least 10 local party members. Any party member can also speak either for or against a Motion. The debate ends with a vote, open to all members at Conference. If a Motion is passed, it automatically becomes Lib Dem policy. Emergency Motions can be submitted until a few days before the start of Conference.[8][9]

Federal Conference Committee

The Liberal Democrat conference agenda is decided by the Federal Conference Committee, a democratically elected body of party members and officials. The current membership, in surname order (other than the Chair and Vice Chair), after the most recent set of elections, in November 2019, is:

  • Geoff Payne (Chair)
  • Nick da Costa (Vice Chair)
  • Chris Adams
  • Jon Ball
  • John Bridges
  • Cara Jenkinson
  • Liz Lynne
  • Chris Maines
  • Joe Otten
  • Bex Scott
  • Rachelle Shepherd-Dubey
  • Joe Toovey

Federal Policy Committee

A debate speech on widening the party's one member, one vote system

The Federal Policy Committee researches and develops party policy and oversees its policy-making process. At Conference, it provides policy papers for debate and compiles the election manifestos for both the Westminster and European elections.[10]

The Committee elects a Conference Chair who is responsible for choosing speakers and trying to ensure balance between different viewpoints on the issues to be debated. He or she may also receive speaking requests from Elected Representatives and SAOs.[9]

The current membership, in surname order (other than the Chair and Vice Chairs), after the most recent set of elections, in November 2019, is:

  • Ed Davey (Chair)
  • Sally Burnell (Vice Chair)
  • Jeremy Hargreaves (Vice Chair)
  • Aria Babu
  • Duncan Brack
  • Belinda Brooks-Gordon
  • Alisdair Calder-McGregor
  • Christine Cheng
  • Richard Cole
  • Tara Copeland
  • Helen Cross
  • Alyssa Gilbert
  • Robert Harrison
  • Elizabeth Jewkes
  • Mohsin Khan
  • Catherine Royce

List of all Liberal Democrat Federal Conferences (1988 to present)

Date Location Party President Notes
25--29 September 1988 Blackpool Ian Wrigglesworth
The first Leader of the Liberal Democrats, Paddy Ashdown. He led the party from 1988 to 1999.
Following a vote at the Liberal Assembly on 17 September 1987, and a Liberal Party Special Conference on 23 January 1988, the Liberal Party agreed to seek merger with the Social Democratic Party (SDP). A ballot of both parties members was counted on 2 March 1988, with 65,098 voting in favour and 16,294 against. Following the merger, the newly-created Social and Liberal Democrats holds its first Conference, known as the SLD Conference, under its new leader, Paddy Ashdown, with its members referring to their party as "the Democrats".[7]

In Ashdown's first speech as leader, entitled The Path Ahead, he says that he sees a "very exciting journey" ahead, and that the Labour Party, which has faced three consecutive general election defeats, could be replaced by the SLD.[11]

3--5
March
1989
Bournemouth Ian Wrigglesworth
9--15
September
1989
Brighton Ian Wrigglesworth The Federal Conference votes for a party-wide members' ballot to change the party's name to the Liberal Democrats. The members vote for the change, and the result is announced on 16 October 1989.[12]
10--11
March
1990
Cardiff Charles Kennedy
15--20
September
1990
Blackpool Charles Kennedy
15--17
March
1991
Nottingham Charles Kennedy
9--12
September
1991
Bournemouth Charles Kennedy
7--8
March
1992
Glasgow Charles Kennedy In the last Federal Conference before the 1992 General Election, amid much media speculation about the possibility of the forthcoming election resulting in a 'hung' parliament, Paddy Ashdown tells party members: "This could be a different sort of election. It could be an election where we don't just change the leaders, we can change the quality of leadership as well. Where we don't just change our government, but change our system of government as well. Where we don't just pass a verdict on the past, but where we set a new course for our country's future as well".[13]
13--17
September
1992
Harrogate Charles Kennedy
29--31
May
1993
Nottingham Charles Kennedy
19--23
September
1993
Manchester Charles Kennedy
12--13
March
1994
Cardiff Robert Maclennan
18--22
September
1994
Brighton Robert Maclennan
11--12
March
1995
Scarborough Robert Maclennan
17--21
September
1995
Glasgow Robert Maclennan
15--17
March
1996
Nottingham Robert Maclennan
22--26
September
1996
Brighton Robert Maclennan
8--9
March
1997
Cardiff Robert Maclennan Addressing the Federal Conference on the eve of the 1997 General Election, Paddy Ashdown tells party members: "We carry the torch of radicalism in our defence of individual liberties and progressive social policies. And in our fight to control the abuse of power and modernise our political system, we carry the torch of liberals and democrats and radicals and reformers in every generation for four hundred years who have fought the vested interests of the day, to modernise our political system, and control the power of the State. In every generation, we have been opposed by the conservatives and the reactionaries. In every generation, we have succeeded through our tenacity, through the force of our ideas, and through the strength of our cause... We have won the power to make the difference. We have proved ourselves in local government. We have proved our ability to change the agenda. To put education at the forefront of national debate. To demand open, honest taxation. To set a new style of co-operation in politics, which puts country before party where it is right and where it can make a difference. Yes - we have earned the right and the power to make a difference. We have proved our ability to win".

Ashdown continues: "I want every single one of you to look back on these next fifty days and be proud: proud to have been part of this great campaign. Proud that, like Lloyd George, you went to the country with a message you believed. Proud to have said what you think needs to be done for your country. Proud to have stood out against the fatalism of British politics. Proud to have said - it does not have to be like this. Yes, it can be done. Tell them how it is. Tell them what we will do. Tell them we will be their champions. Tell them their vote can make a difference".[14]

21--25
September
1997
Eastbourne Robert Maclennan Following Labour's landslide election victory in the 1997 General Election under Tony Blair, Ashdown praises both the Party's success and the large electoral advance of the Liberal Democrats, which has more than doubled its seats in the House of Commons, from 20 to 46 seats. Adapting a phrase from Shakespeare's Macbeth, he quips: "Hubble, bubble, toil and trouble; the Tory party's reduced to rubble".[15]
14--15
March
1998
Southport Diana Maddock
20--24
September
1998
Brighton Diana Maddock
5--7
March
1999
Edinburgh Navnit Dholakia
19--23
September
1999
Harrogate Navnit Dholakia
The second Leader of the Liberal Democrats, Charles Kennedy. He led the party from 1999 to 2006.
The first Federal Conference with Charles Kennedy as Leader, following the Leadership Contest on 9 August 1999.[7]

The outgoing leader, Paddy Ashdown, tells the Conference that the party has been ahead of its time, and that it "rightly" talks about strategy, but that "no strategy will work, unless we have something fresh to say and offer something distinctive to vote for", and that if it fails to "think afresh", that it risks "falling into the easy trap of leftist, oppositional politics. And that," he says, "would mean making ourselves irrelevant again for a generation".[16]

The new leader, Charles Kennedy, after thanking his predecessor, emphasises that in the forthcoming year, a number of elections are to be fought, and that it is important that politicians reconnect with voters, and that if they do, people will become "as enthusiastic about parties as they are about pressure groups". He says that if they don't, "derisory turnouts will be the norm". He says that party politics can make a difference beyond voting and by "engaging in the process", and that the party must inspire "a new generation of voters", and "connect [its] values and vision to everyday life".[17]

17--19
March
2000
Plymouth Navnit Dholakia
17--21
September
2000
Bournemouth Navnit Dholakia
16--18
March
2001
Torquay Navnit Dholakia
23--27
September
2001
Bournemouth Navnit Dholakia
8--10
March
2002
Manchester Navnit Dholakia
22--26
September
2002
Brighton Navnit Dholakia
14--16
March
2003
Torquay Navnit Dholakia
21--25
September
2003
Brighton Navnit Dholakia Party leader Charles Kennedy addresses Federal Conference and denounces the (then) Labour Government for going to war in Iraq: "No more glad, confident morning for this shop-soiled Labour government. They seek to manage, not lead; to manipulate, not tell it as it is... The soul goes out of politics. So the system itself simply has to change. I tell you this. If the British House of Commons had known then what it knows now - about the events leading up to that fateful parliamentary debate and vote on committing our forces into war in Iraq - then the outcome could and should have been fundamentally different... This is supposed to be a parliamentary democracy. What we've seen is a small clique driving us into a war, disregarding widespread public doubts. That is not acceptable".[18]
19--21
March
2004
Southport Simon Hughes
19--23
September
2004
Bournemouth Simon Hughes
4--6
March
2005
Harrogate Simon Hughes
18--22
September
2005
Blackpool Simon Hughes
3--5
March
2006
Harrogate Simon Hughes
15--19
September
2006
Brighton Simon Hughes
The third Leader of the Liberal Democrats, Menzies Campbell. He led the party from March 2006 to December 2007.
The first Federal Conference with Menzies Campbell as Leader, following the Leadership Contest on 21 March 2006.[19]

Campbell tells the Conference of the hopes dashed by Labour after a decade of rule, and continues: "After three election victories, Labour has failed. The gap between rich and poor is wider than at any point under Margaret Thatcher. We have higher taxes, but little improvement in public services. Millions of pensioners remain consigned to poverty: two thirds of them women. Hard-working families are crippled by debt. Carbon emissions are rising. And now hospital wards are closing, doctors and nurses are losing their jobs. This is the domestic legacy of the Blair-Brown Government."[20]

2--4
March
2007
Harrogate Simon Hughes
16--20
September
2007
Brighton Simon Hughes
7--9
March
2008
Liverpool Rosalind Scott
The fourth Leader of the Liberal Democrats, Nick Clegg, addressing the 2008 Federal (Autumn) Conference. He led the party from 2007 to 2015.
The first Federal Conference with Nick Clegg as Leader, following the Leadership Contest on 18 December 2007.[19]

The new leader talks about the failures of the political system to improve living standards and respond to the public's needs, and continues: "No wonder people are tired of politics. Tired of a system that swings like a pendulum between two establishment parties. Tired of the same old politicians, the same old fake choices, the same old feeling that nothing ever changes. But this isn't a story of indifference. People do care about issues. Climate change. Poverty. Their local school or hospital. There are marches and campaigns and petitions launched every day of the week. People care. They just don't care about politicians".[21]

15--17
September
2008
Bournemouth Rosalind Scott
13--14
March
2009
Harrogate Rosalind Scott
23--25
September
2009
Bournemouth Rosalind Scott
18--23
March
2010
Birmingham Rosalind Scott
16
May
2010
Birmingham Rosalind Scott Special Conference to debate the Party's joining the coalition government.[22]
18--22
September
2010
Liverpool Rosalind Scott The September 2010 Conference is the first after the party has entered government for the first time, in a coalition with the Conservative Party, led by Prime Minister David Cameron. The Liberal Democrat leader, Nick Clegg, has become Deputy Prime Minister. Clegg receives a three-minute standing ovation from the Conference Hall before his speech. He says that the coalition wasn't easy to achieve, and that it required difficult negotiations, but that five months on, the coalition has made good progress, and that the public should stick with the party as it is committed to "changing Britain for good". He says that the "chance for change" has come, and that the Liberal Democrats have "responded with real courage and conviction".[23]

Clegg says that the Conservatives had been willing to "embrace negotiation and compromise", and continues, "We created a government which will govern, and govern well, for the next five years. Hold our nerve and we will have changed British politics for good. Hold our nerve and we will have changed Britain for good". He acknowledges that the budget deficit reduction programme, reducing the level of public debt incurred by the previous Labour government, represents "unsettling times", but states that it will be implemented "as fairly as possible", with the long-term goal of "wiping the slate clean for a new generation".[23]

11--13
March
2011
Sheffield Tim Farron
17--21
September
2011
Birmingham Tim Farron
9--11
March
2012
Gateshead Tim Farron
22--26
September
2012
Brighton Tim Farron
8--10
March
2013
Brighton Tim Farron
14--18
September
2013
Glasgow Tim Farron
7--9
March
2014
York Tim Farron
4--8
October
2014
Glasgow Tim Farron
13--15
March
2015
Liverpool Sal Brinton
19--23
September
2015
Bournemouth Sal Brinton
The fifth Leader of the Liberal Democrats, Tim Farron, addressing the 2015 Federal (Autumn) Conference. He led the party from 2015 to 2017.
The first Federal Conference with Tim Farron as Leader, following the Leadership Contest on 16 July 2015.[19]

Farron tells the Federal Conference that, after the worst General Election defeat in 45 years, the party has now become more relevant than ever, with people on low incomes suffering a further fall in living standards, and business threatened by losing access to European markets after the forthcoming EU Referendum. He continues by saying, "Britain needs an opposition that is economically credible, radical, liberal. Britain needs an opposition that is passionate and socially just. Britain needs an opposition that is serious about power to make a difference, to improve all our lives. Under my leadership the Liberal Democrats will be that opposition, because if we do not do this, it is clear now that no one else will. The alternative will be years of a disastrous one-party monopoly".[24]

Conference votes that all party members attending Conference will be able to vote, starting with Spring Conference 2016. It also introduces one-member, one-vote of all party members for party committees, such as the Federal Executive, Federal Policy Committee and Federal Conference Committee, starting with the next round of elections at Autumn Conference 2016.[25]

11--13
March
2016
York Sal Brinton [1]
17--20
September
2016
Brighton Sal Brinton [26]
17--19
March
2017
York Sal Brinton [27]
16--19
September
2017
Bournemouth Sal Brinton [28]
The sixth Leader of the Liberal Democrats, Vince Cable. He led the party from 2017 to 2019.
The first Federal Conference with Vince Cable as Leader, following the Leadership Contest on 20 July 2017.[19] In his first Leader's Speech, Cable pays tribute to his predecessor, Tim Farron, saying that the party under his leadership was "larger, stronger and more diverse" than before.

Cable continues by saying, "Anyone who doubts the relevance of the Liberal Democrats should reflect on the three great disasters perpetrated by the two main parties in recent years: the war in Iraq; the banking crisis; now Brexit. You may remember that the Labour government, egged on by the Conservative opposition, plunged this country into a disastrous, illegal war. It helped to fuel the jihadist movements which terrorise the Middle East, and our own country, and our allies, to this day. Then, the same government lost control of the economy. It allowed reckless and greedy bankers to run amok. Yet again, the Conservatives egged Labour on, demanding even less restraint." "The Liberal Democrats warned that it would end badly. And it did. An economy built on banking and property speculation was left dangerously exposed to the global financial crisis. And the baleful consequences are still with us: our economy continues to be dependent on the life support system of ultra-cheap money, which is now inflating a new credit bubble". He added: "Quite simply, Brexit Britain will be poorer and weaker than if we had decided to stay in Europe. Brexit was described by the Brexit Secretary himself as an operation of such technical complexity that it makes the moon landing look simple. "I have to say it is a pity that the Brexit landing is being managed by people who would struggle to get their heads around a toddlers' Lego set".[29]

9--11
March
2018
Southport Sal Brinton [30]
15--18
September
2018
Brighton Sal Brinton [31] In the 30th year from the founding of the Liberal Democrats, Federal Conference launches a new slogan for the party, Demand Better, and party members vote for Policy paper 134: Demand Better: Liberal Democrat priorities for a better Britain, the first time that a full policy prospectus had emerged between elections. It is also the first time that the party's overall approach has been decided in advance, with policies specifically advanced to further that approach. This is in marked contrast to political parties' usual method of accumulating detailed policies and then trying to create an appropriate slogan to accommodate them when an election nears.[32]

The aforementioned motion is, however, overwhelmingly amended to remove references to a so-called 'progressive alliance' and the debate over this is framed as a debate over standing aside for other parties by all involved with the voting body of conference resolving that the party should not stand aside for the Labour or Green parties due to their perceived illiberalism.

The party leader, Vince Cable, announces plans to create a registered supporters' scheme, to enable non-members to vote in leadership elections without needing to pay a join-up fee. He says that around 200,000 individuals who are not party members have volunteered for the party, and it is believed that giving them a say will help expand support for the party.[33]

15--17
March
2019
York Sal Brinton Vince Cable's last Conference speech as party leader. He talks about the disillusionment the public feel about politics, and continues, "I am proud of the role our party has played, unapologetically leading the case for Remaining for an Exit from Brexit through securing and then winning a People's Vote. Against all the odds, our cause is very much alive. We have been quite clear that the 2016 referendum, now more than 2½ years ago, was not a good basis for leaving. It was undertaken solely to satisfy an internal quarrel inside the Conservative Party."

"A narrow majority of voters, and only 37% of the electorate, voted to Leave. Facts change, and they have changed. We also now understand much better the scale of the cheating and lying, which went on to secure the result. Without a confirmatory referendum there will be no such thing as the 'settled will of the people': merely a feud without end. I remain astounded that some people claim a new referendum would be undemocratic. What is democracy if it is not the right for a country to change its mind?".[34]

14--17
September
2019
Bournemouth Sal Brinton
The seventh Leader of the Liberal Democrats, Jo Swinson, addressing members during the Conference Rally, on the first day of the 2019 Federal (Autumn) Conference. She has led the party since July 2019.
The first Federal Conference with Jo Swinson as Leader, following her landslide win in the Leadership Contest on 22 July 2019.

After receiving a standing ovation, Jo Swinson talks of her early life before politics, how her father had been an inspiration and why the party's values became so important for her. She continues by talking about the importance of fighting for the "heart and soul of Britain", pledging to stop Brexit and stating that the country deserves "a better choice than an entitled Etonian or a 1970s socialist". To wide applause, she says that she is standing "as your candidate for Prime Minister", and that in the case that the party wins a majority of seats, it would revoke Article 50.[35]

Swinson also pledges that future government budgets would be based not only on GDP figures but on factors of national wellbeing, inspired by a model used by the Prime Minister of New Zealand, Jacinda Ardern. She says that policies would be developed by gauging their long-term impact on a range of factors, such as life satisfaction, happiness, anxiety and the feeling of whether something had been worthwhile.[35]

Swinson also promises to set a target of net zero carbon emissions, to create a new Green Investment Bank and to use a different approach to tackling youth crime.[35]

13-15
March
2020
York Mark Pack The 2020 Spring Conference has been cancelled, due to fears about the Coronavirus epidemic.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Roger Mortimore and Andrew Blick, Butler's British Political Facts, Palgrave Macmillan 2018, p. 274 & 275
  2. ^ a b Jonathon Reid (12 March 2020). "Lib Dems cancel spring conference over coranavirus fears". The European. Retrieved 2020.
  3. ^ "Federal Conference Committee". Liberal Democrats. Retrieved 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Why the Conference Access Fund is a good thing". Liberal Democrat Voice. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ "Conference Access Fund". Liberal Democrats. Retrieved 2019.
  6. ^ "Your conference venues for next year are..." Liberal Democrat Voice. Retrieved 2019.
  7. ^ a b c Roger Mortimore and Andrew Blick, Butler's British Political Facts, Palgrave Macmillan 2018, pp. 273, 274
  8. ^ a b "How is policy decided?". Liberal Democrats. Retrieved 2019.
  9. ^ a b c "Standing orders for Federal Conference - Glossary of terms" (PDF). Liberal Democrats. Retrieved 2019.
  10. ^ "Federal Policy Committee". Liberal Democrats. Retrieved 2019.
  11. ^ O'Grady,Sean (19 September 1999). "It's hard being one man in a two-horse race". The Independent. Retrieved 2018.
  12. ^ Roger Mortimore and Andrew Blick, Butler's British Political Facts, Palgrave Macmillan 2018, p. 273
  13. ^ Leader's Speech, Liberal Democrat Federal Conference. (Glasgow; 8 March 1992)
  14. ^ "Speech Archive - Leader's speech to the Spring Party Conference, Cardiff 1997 - Paddy Ashdown (Liberal Democrat". britishpoliticalspeech.com. Retrieved 2018.
  15. ^ "Your Favourite Conference Clips - Paddy Ashdown, 1997". BBC Daily Politics. 3 October 2007. Retrieved 2018.
  16. ^ "UK Politics - Paddy Ashdown's speech". BBC News. 21 September 1999. Retrieved 2018.
  17. ^ "Speech Archive - Leader's speech, Harrogate 1999b - Charles Kennedy (Liberal Democrat)". British Political Speeches.org. Retrieved 2018.
  18. ^ "Charles Kennedy's 2003 speech on his party's anti-Iraq war stance". The Guardian. 2 June 2015. Retrieved 2018.
  19. ^ a b c d Roger Mortimore and Andrew Blick, Butler's British Political Facts, Palgrave Macmillan 2018, pp. 273, 275
  20. ^ "Liberal Democrat conference 2006 - Sir Menzies Campbell's speech". The Guardian. 21 September 2006. Retrieved 2019.
  21. ^ "Nick Clegg - 2008 Speech to Liberal Democrat Party Conference". UKPOL. 23 November 2015. Retrieved 2019.
  22. ^ Roger Mortimore and Andrew Blick, Butler's British Political Facts, Palgrave Macmillan 2018, p. 275
  23. ^ a b Hélène Mulholland (20 September 2010). "Nick Clegg: stick with us and change Britain for good". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019.
  24. ^ "Tim Farron's speech to the Lib Dem conference". The Guardian. September 2015. Retrieved 2019.
  25. ^ Pack, Mark (22 September 2015). "One Member, One Vote: what next?". markpack.org.uk. Retrieved 2018.
  26. ^ Waddington, Sian (26 July 2016). "Autumn Conference 2016 - BRIGHTON, 17th-20th September 2016". Liberal Democrats. Retrieved 2018.
  27. ^ Dumont, Lydia (20 February 2017). "Spring Conference 2017". Liberal Democrats. Retrieved 2018.
  28. ^ Everitt, Jack (2 August 2017). "Autumn Conference 2017 BOURNEMOUTH, 16-19 September 2017". Liberal Democrats. Retrieved 2018.
  29. ^ Kevin Schofield (19 September 2017). "Vince Cable: Brexit will be 'disaster' like Iraq and the financial crash"". PoliticsHome. Retrieved 2019.
  30. ^ Brody, Laura (7 February 2018). "Spring Conference 2018". Retrieved 2018.
  31. ^ Jack Everitt (1 August 2018). "Autumn Conference - Brighton: 15 - 18 September 2018". Liberal Democrats. Retrieved 2018.
  32. ^ Pack, Mark (22 August 2018). "The new Lib Dem slogan". markpack.org.uk. Retrieved 2018.
  33. ^ Walker,Peter (7 September 2018). "Lib Dems plan to let supporters choose leader without joining fee". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018.
  34. ^ "Read Vince Cable's speech in full". Liberal Democrats. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  35. ^ a b c Peter Walker and Kate Proctor (17 September 2019). "Jo Swinson urges Lib Dems to fight populists 'for heart and soul of Britain'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019.

External links


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