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Chemical structure of the prototypical limonoid limonin

Limonoids are phytochemicals of the triterpenoid class which abundant in sweet or sour-scented citrus fruit and other plants of the families Cucurbitaceae, Rutaceae, and Meliaceae.[1] Certain limonoids are antifeedants such as azadirachtin from the neem tree.[2]

Chemically, the limonoids consist of variations of the furanolactone core structure. The prototypical structure consists of four six-membered rings and a furan ring. Limonoids are classed as tetranortriterpenes.

Citrus fruits contain the limonoids limonin, nomilin and nomilinic acid, while both neem seeds and leaves contain the limonoid azadirachtin, although higher concentrations are present in the former.

See also


  1. ^ Amit Roy and Shailendra Saraf (2006). "Limonoids: Overview of Significant Bioactive Triterpenes Distributed in Plants Kingdom". Biol. Pharm. Bull. 29 (2): 191-201. doi:10.1248/bpb.29.191. PMID 16462017.
  2. ^ Donald E.Champagne, Opender Koul, Murray B. Isman, Geoffrey G. E.Scudder, G. H. Neil Towers. "Biological activity of limonoids from the rutales". Phytochemistry. 31: 377-394. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(92)90003-9.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)

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