Liqueur
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Liqueur
Kumquat liqueurs from Corfu
Demänovka is a traditional Slovak liqueur produced since 1867.

A liqueur (, ) is an alcoholic beverage made from a distilled spirit flavored with either fruit, cream, herbs, spices, flowers or nuts, and is bottled with added sugars and other sweeteners, (such as high-fructose corn syrup). Liqueurs are typically sweet. Liqueurs are not aged for a large amount of time once the ingredients are mixed. A resting period during the production process allows the flavors to mingle. In some areas of the United States and Canada liqueurs are also referred to as cordials or schnapps, though the terms refer to different beverages elsewhere.

Etymology

The French word liqueur is derived from the Latin liquifacere, which means "to dissolve".[1][2]

History

Liqueurs are historical descendants of herbal medicines; they were made in Italy as early as the 13th century and were often prepared by monks (e.g. Chartreuse).

Nowadays, liqueurs are made worldwide and are served in many ways: by themselves, poured over ice, with coffee, mixed with cream or other mixers to create cocktails, etc. They are often served with or after a dessert. Liqueurs are also used in cooking.

Preparation

Some liqueurs are prepared by infusing certain woods, fruits, or flowers in either water or alcohol and adding sugar or other items. Others are distilled from aromatic or flavoring agents. Anise and Rak? liqueurs have the interesting property of turning from transparent to cloudy when added to water: the oil of anise remains in solution in the presence of a high concentration of alcohol, but crystallizes when the alcohol concentration is reduced; this is known as the ouzo effect.[3]

Usage

Cocktails

Liqueurs are sometimes mixed into cocktails to provide flavor.[4]

Layered drinks

The B-52 is a layered drink prepared using Grand Marnier atop Irish cream over a base of coffee liqueur.

Layered drinks are made by floating different-colored liqueurs in separate layers. Each liqueur is poured slowly into a glass over the back of a spoon or down a glass rod, so that the liquids of different densities remain unmixed, creating a striped effect.[5]

Legal definitions

In the United States and Canada, where spirits are often called "liquor" , there is often confusion discerning between liqueurs and liquors, due to the many different types of flavored spirits that are available today (e.g. flavored vodka). Liqueurs generally contain a lower alcohol content (15-30% ABV) than spirits[6] and it has sweetener mixed, while some can have an ABV as high as 55%.[7]

Canadian regulations

Under the Food and Drug Regulations (C.R.C., c. 870), liqueurs are produced from mixing alcohol with plant materials.[8] These materials include juices or extracts from fruits, flowers, leaves or other plant materials.[8] The extracts are obtained by soaking, filtering or softening the plant substances. A sweetening agent should be added in an amount that is at least 2.5 percent of the finished liqueur. The alcohol percentage shall be at least 23%.[8] It may also contain natural or artificial flavouring and color.[8]

United States

The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau regulates liqueurs similarly to Canada, requiring that alcohol be mixed with plant products and sweeteners be added to at least 2.5% by weight.[9]

Other terms

In some parts of the United States and Canada, liqueurs may be referred to as cordials, or schnapps.[10][11][12][13][14] This can cause confusion as in the United Kingdom a cordial would refer to a non-alcoholic concentrated fruit syrup, that is diluted to taste, and consumed as a non-carbonated soft drink.[14]Schnapps, on the other hand, can refer to any distilled beverage in Germany and aquavit in Scandinavian countries.[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ Owens, B.; Dikty, A.; Maytag, F. (2011). The Art of Distilling Whiskey and Other Spirits: An Enthusiast's Guide to the Artisan Distilling of Potent Potables. Quarry Books. p. 106. ISBN 978-1-61673-555-5. Retrieved 2018.
  2. ^ Etkin, N.L. (2009). Foods of Association: Biocultural Perspectives on Foods and Beverages that Mediate Sociability. University of Arizona Press. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-8165-2777-9. Retrieved 2018.
  3. ^ Sanchez-Dominguez, M.; Rodriguez-Abreu, C. (2016). Nanocolloids: A Meeting Point for Scientists and Technologists. Elsevier Science. p. 369. ISBN 978-0-12-801758-6. Retrieved 2018. O/W and W/O nano-emulsions can also be formed without a surfactant by self-emulsification, using the so-called Ouzo effect. The major components of Ouzo (a Greek drink) are trans-anethole, ethanol, and water. Anethole is almost insoluble ...
  4. ^ Meehan, Jim (12 June 2012). "Embellish Like Bartenders". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018.
  5. ^ "Know the Density of Your Liquor To Make the Best Layered Drinks". The Spruce Eats. Retrieved 2018.
  6. ^ "How to Tell Your Liquor From Your Liqueur". The Spruce Eats. Retrieved 2018.
  7. ^ "Liquor alcohol content". alcoholcontents.com. Retrieved 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d Branch, Legislative Services. "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Food and Drug Regulations". laws.justice.gc.ca.
  9. ^ "27 CFR 5.22 - The standards of identity". Retrieved 2018.
  10. ^ What are Schnapps and Cordials?. Retrieved 2012-05-28
  11. ^ Lichine, Alexis (1987). Alexis Lichine's New Encyclopedia of Wines & Spirits (5th ed.). New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-394-56262-9.
  12. ^ New Oxford American Dictionary (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. 2010. p. 385. ISBN 978-0-19-539288-3.cordial: "another term for liqueur"
  13. ^ "The Cook's Thesaurus". Retrieved 2010.
  14. ^ a b Dietsch, Michael. "9 Easily Confused Cocktail Terms You Should Know". Serious Eats. Retrieved 2018.
  15. ^ Prial, Frank (27 October 1985). "Schnapps, the Cordial Spirit". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018.

Further reading

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Liqueur
 



 



 
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