List of Alpine Four-thousanders
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List of Alpine Four-thousanders

This list tabulates all of the 82 official mountain summits of 4,000 metres (13,123 ft) or more in height in the Alps, as defined by the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (UIAA).[1] All are located within France, Italy or Switzerland, and are often referred to by mountaineers as the Alpine four-thousanders.[2][3] A further table of 46 subsidiary mountain points which did not met the UIAA's selection criteria is also included.[4]

The official UIAA list of 82 mountain summits, titled in English as 'The 4000ers of the Alps' was first published in 1994. They were selected primarily on a prominence of at least 30 metres (98 ft)) above the highest adjacent col or pass. Additional criteria were used to deselect or include some points, based on the mountain's overall morphology and mountaineering significance. (For example, the Grand Gendarme on the Weisshorn was excluded, despite meeting the prominence criterion as it was simply deemed part of that mountain's ridge.) A further 46 additional points of mountaineering significance, such as Pic Eccles, which did not meet the UIAA's primary selection criteria, were then included within an 'enlarged list'.[4]

For a list containing many of the independent mountains of the Alps (i.e. only those with a prominence greater than 300 metres (980 ft) and covering all countries, see List of prominent mountains of the Alps.

Another, less formal, list of 4000 metre alpine mountains, containing only independent peaks with a prominence of over 100m, and based on an earlier 1990s publications by Richard Goedeke, contains just 51 mountains.[5]

Official list

The table shows the 82 four-thousanders in the Alps that are recognised by the UIAA. They are located in Switzerland (48),[Note 1]Italy (38) and France (25).

Clicking the symbol at the head of the column sorts the table by that column's data.

Nr.
Image Summit Height
(m)
Range Country Isolation[6]
(km)
Prominence[6]
(m)
First ascent[7] Easiest (normal) route to summit Observations
1 Mont Blanc seen from Gare des Glaciers Mont Blanc[Note 2] 4,809 Mont Blanc Group France/
Italy
[9]
2,812
Kjukjurtlju (RU)
4,697
near Lake Kubenskoye (RU)
[Note 3]
8 August 1786
Jacques Balmat, Michel-Gabriel Paccard
Goûter Route (PD-/PD+) Highest mountain of the Alps, border dispute France/Italy
2 Mont Blanc de Courmayeur seen Mont Blanc Mont Blanc de Courmayeur 4,748 Mont Blanc Group France[10]/
Italy
[11][12][9]
0.6
Mont Blanc
18
Col Major
18 August 1822
F. Clissold, J. M. Couttet and five guides[13][14]
Goûter Route (PD-/PD+) extension from summit of Mont Blanc Fore-summit of Mont Blanc, border dispute France/Italy
3 Dufourspitze seen from the west Dufourspitze 4,634 Monte Rosa Massif Switzerland 78.3
Mont Blanc de Courmayeur
2,165
Grosser Sankt Bernhard
1 August 1855
Charles Hudson and 7 companions
From Monte Rosa Hut via Monte Rosa glacier (III, 40°, AD-) Highest peak of the Monte Rosa Massif, highest peak of the Alps outside of the Mont Blanc Massif
4 Nordend from Zumsteinspitze Nordend 4,609 Monte Rosa Massif Italy/
Switzerland
0.6
Grenzgipfel
94
Silbersattel
26 August 1861
Edward N. Buxton, T.F. Buxton, John J. Cowell, Michel-Clément Payot, Binder
From Monte Rosa Hut via Silbersattel (II, PD)
5 Zumsteinspitze summit Zumsteinspitze 4,563 Monte Rosa Massif Italy/
Switzerland
0.5
Grenzgipfel
110
Grenzsattel
1 August 1820
Joseph Zumstein, Joseph Vincent and Johann Niklaus Vincent and others
From Gnifetti Hut (Italian side) via Lys glacier or Monte Rosa Hut (Swiss side) via Grenz glacier to Lys Col and then along the Western flank and SE ridge to the summit (I, PD)
6 Signalkuppe seen from the south Signalkuppe 4,554 Monte Rosa Massif Italy/
Switzerland
0.7
Zumsteinspitze
102
Colle Gnifetti
9 August 1842
Giovanni Gnifetti and 7 companions
Highest mountain hut and building in Europe, Capanna Regina Margherita, at 4,554 m.
7 Dom seen from the north Dom 4,545 Mischabel Group Switzerland 16.9
Nordend
1,046
Neues Weisstor
11 September 1858
John Llewelyn Davies, Johann Zumtaugwald, Johann Kronig, Hieronymous Brantschen
From Domhütte via Northern flank to the summit (PD) Highest peak located entirely within Switzerland
8 Lyskamm Eastern Summit seen from the west Lyskamm
(Eastern Summit)
4,533 Wallis Alps Italy/
Switzerland
2.9
Zumsteinspitze
381
Lisjoch
19 August 1861
by 14 mountaineers
From Gnifetti Hut via Lys glacier, Lys Col (Lisjoch) and East Ridge to the (Eastern) summit (II, AD) Western summit (4479 m)
9 Weisshorn seen from the east Weisshorn 4,505 Wallis Alps Switzerland 11.1
Dom
1,235
Furggjoch
19 August 1861
John Tyndall, Johann Joseph Brennen, Ulrich Wenger
East ridge from Weisshornhütte (III, AD)
10 Täschorn west face Täschhorn 4,491 Mischabel Group Switzerland 1.2
Dom
210
Domjoch
30 July 1862
John Llewelyn Davies], J.W. Hayward, Peter-Josef Summermatter, Stefan, Johann Zumtaugwald
11 Lyskamm Western Summit from Felikjoch Lyskamm
(Western Summit)
4,479 Wallis Alps Italy/
Switzerland
1.1
Lyskamm Eastern Summit
62
Col to the Eastern Summit
19 August 1861
William E. Hall and 13 companions
12 Matterhorn from the north Matterhorn 4,478 Wallis Alps Italy/
Switzerland
13.9
Lyskamm Western Summit
1,040
Col Durand
14 July 1865
Croz, Taugwalder, Whymper, Hudson, Douglas and Hadow
13 Picco Luigi Amedeo von La Thuile Picco Luigi Amedeo 4,469 Mont Blanc Group Italy 0.7
Mont Blanc de Courmayeur
54
Col to Mont Blanc de Courmayeur
20 July 1901
G.B. and G.F. Gugliermina, Joseph Brocherel
14 Mont Maudit seen from the northeast Mont Maudit 4,465 Mont Blanc Group France/
Italy
1.9
Mont Blanc
162
Col de la Brenva
12 September 1878
Henry S. King, William E. Davidson, Johann Jaun, Johann von Bergen
15 Parrotspitze from the Lyskamm Parrotspitze 4,432 Monte Rosa Massif Italy/
Switzerland
0.9
Signalkuppe
136
Seserjoch
16 August 1863
Florence Crauford Grove, Melchior Anderegg and 4 companions
16 Dent Blanche Dent Blanche 4,357 Wallis Alps Switzerland 7.4
Matterhorn
895
Col d'Herens
18 July 1862
Thomas S. Kennedy, William and C. Wigram mit Jean-Baptiste Croz, Johann Kronig
17 Ludwigshöhe seen from the north Ludwigshöhe 4,341 Monte Rosa Massif Italy/
Switzerland
0.7
Parrotspitze
58
Fiodejoch
25 August 1822
Ludwig von Welden and companions
18 Nadelhorn seen from the Ulrichshorn Nadelhorn 4,327 Mischabel Group Switzerland 1.7
Dom
206
Lenzjoch
16 September 1858
Franz Andenmatten, Baptiste Epiney, Aloys Supersaxo, Joseph Zimmermann
19 Schwarzhorn seen from the Ludwigshöhe Schwarzhorn
(Corno Nero)
4,322 Monte Rosa Massif Italy 0.3
Ludwigshöhe
42
col with the Ludwigshöhe
18 August 1873
Marco Maglionini, Albert de Rothschild, Eduard Cupelin mit Peter and Nikolaus Knubel
20 Grand Combin from the north Combin de Grafeneire 4,314 Grand Combin Switzerland 26.5
Dent Blanche
1,517
Fenêtre de Durand
20 July 1857
Jouvence Bruchez, Benjamin, Maurice Felley
21 Dôme du Goûter seen from Chamonix Dôme du Goûter 4,304 Mont Blanc Group France
Italy
2.0
Mont Blanc
58
Col du Dôme
17 September 1784
Jean-Marie Couttet, François Cuidet
22 Lenzspitze northeast face Lenzspitze 4,294 Mischabel Group Switzerland 0.5
Nadelhorn
86
Nadeljoch
1870
Clinton Thomas Dent, Alexander and Franz Burgener
23 Finsteraarhorn from the east Finsteraarhorn 4,274 Bernese Alps Switzerland 51.7
Nadelhorn
2,280
west of the Simplon Pass
16 August 1812
Arnold Abbühl, Joseph Bortis, Alois Volker
24 Mont Blanc du Tacul seen from the Aiguille du Midi Mont Blanc du Tacul 4,248 Mont Blanc Group France 1.4
Mont Maudit
213
Col Maudit
31 July 1855
J-M Chabot, P-J Mochet, J-M Perrod and James H. Ramsay[15]
25 Grand Pilier d'Angle north face Grand Pilier d'Angle 4,243 Mont Blanc Group Italy 0.7
Mont Blanc de Courmayeur
35
Col to the Mont Blanc de Courmayeur
3 August 1957
Walter Bonatti, Toni Gobbi[16]
26 Stecknadelhorn 4,241 Mischabel Group Switzerland 0.5
Nadelhorn
30
Stecknadeljoch
8 August 1887
Oscar Eckenstein, Matthias Zurbriggen
27 Castor (links) seen from the Grenz Glacier Castor 4,223 Wallis Alps Italy/
Switzerland
2.4
Lyskamm Western Summit
165
Felikjoch
23 August 1861
William Mathews, F.W. Jacomb, Michel Croz
28 Zinalrothorn from the east Zinalrothorn 4,221 Wallis Alps Switzerland 4.5
Weisshorn
490
Hohlicht Pass
22 August 1864
Florence Crauford Grove, Leslie Stephen, Jakob and Melchior Anderegg
29 Hohberghorn 4,219 Mischabel Group Switzerland 0.4
Stecknadelhorn
75
Hohbergjoch
August 1869
R. B. Heathcote, Franz Biner, Peter Perren, Peter Taugwalder
30 Vincent Pyramid seen from Parrotspitze Vincent Pyramid 4,215 Monte Rosa Massif Italy 0.7
Schwarzhorn
(Corno Nero)
128
Col to the Schwarzhorn
5 August 1819
Johann Nikolaus Vincent, three unknown companions
31 Grandes Jorasses from the north Grandes Jorasses
(Pointe Walker)
4,208 Mont Blanc Group France/
Italy
7.9
Mont Blanc du Tacul
843
Col du Géant
30 June 1868
Horace Walker, Melchior Anderegg, J. Jaun, J. Grange
32 Alphubel from the south Alphubel 4,206 Mischabel Group Switzerland 2.3
Täschhorn
355
Mischabeljoch
9 August 1860
T .W. Hinchliff, Leslie Stephen, Melchior Anderegg, Peter Perren
33 Rimpfischhorn seen from Gornergrat Rimpfischhorn 4,199 Mischabel Group Switzerland 4.7
Alphubel
635
Allalin Pass
9 September 1859
Leslie Stephen, Robert Liveing, Melchior Anderegg, Johann Zumtaugwald
34 Aletschhorn from Mönchsjoch Aletschhorn 4,193 Bernese Alps Switzerland 13.5
Finsteraarhorn
1,017
Lötschenlücke
18 June 1859
Francis F. Tuckett, Johann Joseph Bennen, Peter Bohren, V. Tairraz
35 Strahlhorn (right) Strahlhorn 4,190 Mischabel Group Switzerland 1.8
Rimpfischhorn
401
Alder Pass
15 August 1854
Edmund J. Grenville, Christopher Smyth, Franz-Josef Andenmatten, Ulrich Lauener
36 Combin de Valsorey 4,183 Grand Combin Switzerland 0.5
Combin de Grafeneire
57
Col to the Combin de Grafeneire

37 Grandes Jorasses
(Pointe Whymper)
4,184 Mont Blanc Group France/
Italy
0.2
Pointe Walker
51[17]
col with the Pointe Walker
24. June 1865
Edward Whymper, Michel Croz, Christian Almer, F. Biner
38 Dent d'Hérens from the north Dent d'Hérens 4,171 Wallis Alps Italy/
Switzerland
4.2
Matterhorn
692
Colle Tournanche
12 August 1863
Florence Crauford Grove, Melchior Anderegg and 5 companions
39 Breithorn from Klein Matterhorn Breithorn
(Western Summit)
4,164 Wallis Alps Italy/
Switzerland
4.2
Castor
433
Schwarztor
13 August 1813
Henri Maynard, Joseph-Marie Couttet, Jean Gras, Jean-Baptiste and Jean-Jacques Erin
40 Breithorn Central Summit Breithorn
(Central Summit)
4,159 Wallis Alps Italy/
Switzerland
0.7
Breithorn (Western Summit)
82
Col to the (Western Summit)
13 August 1813
Henri Maynard, Joseph-Marie Couttet, Jean Gras, Jean-Baptiste and Jean-Jacques Erin
41 Jungfrau (4,158) seen from Interlaken Jungfrau 4,158 Bernese Alps Switzerland 8.3
Aletschhorn
687
Jungfraujoch
3 August 1811
Johann Rudolf, Hieronymus Meyer, Alois Volker, Joseph Bortis
42 Bishorn (4,153) Nordwand Bishorn 4,153 Wallis Alps Switzerland 0.8
Weisshorn
95
Weisshornjoch
18 August 1884
G. S. Barnes, R. Chessyre-Walker, Joseph Imboden, J. M. Chanton
43 Breithorn Twin Peaks (4,139, left) Eastern Breithorn
(Eastern Summit/ western Twin Peak)
4,139 Wallis Alps Italy/
Switzerland
0.8
Breithorn (Central Summit)
117
Selle

44 Combin de la Tsessette 4,134 Grand Combin Switzerland 0.9
Combin de Grafeneire
52
Col to the Combin de Grafeneire

45 Aiguille Verte from the north Aiguille Verte 4,122 Mont Blanc Group France 7.2
Grandes Jorasses
688
Col de l'Eboulement
29 June 1865
Edward Whymper, Christian Almer, Franz Biner
46 The Aiguilles de Diable from the north Aiguilles du Diable
(L'Isolée)
4,114 Mont Blanc Group France 0.2
Mont Blanc du Tacul
36[17]
Col to Mont Blanc du Tacul
1925[18]
Antoine Blanchet, Armand Charlet
47 North face of Aiguille Blanche de Peuterey Aiguille Blanche de Peuterey 4,112 Mont Blanc Group Italy 1.0
Mont Blanc
178
Col de Peuterey
31 July 1885
Henry S. King, Emile Rey, Ambros Supersaxo, Aloys Anthamatten
48 Grandes Jorasses
(Pointe Croz)
4,110 Mont Blanc Group France/
Italy
0.4
Pointe Whymper
10[17]
col with Pointe Walker

49 The Aiguilles de Diable from the north Aiguilles du Diable
(Pointe Carmen)
4,109 Mont Blanc Group France 0.2
L'Isolée
36[17]
col with L'Isolée
1923[18]
Brégault, Chevalier, De Lépiney
50 Mönch seen from the north Mönch 4,107 Bernese Alps Switzerland 3.5
Jungfrau
578
Unteres Mönchsjoch
15 August 1857
Sigismund Porges, Christian Almer, Christian and Ulrich Kaufmann
51 Breithorn
(Gendarm/ eastern Twin Peak)
4,106 Wallis Alps Italy/
Switzerland
0.3
Breithorn (eastern Twin Peak)
36[17]
Col to western Twin Peak

52 Grande Rocheuse 4,102 Mont Blanc Group France 0.3
Aiguille Verte
52[17]
col with the Aiguille Verte
17 September 1865
Robert Fowler, Michel Ducroz, Michel Balmat
53 Barre des Écrins south face Barre des Écrins 4,102 Pelvoux France 107.3
Picco Luigi Amedeo
2,043
Col du Lautaret
25 June 1864
Edward Whymper, Horace Walker, Adolphus W. Moore, Christian Almer, Michel Croz
54 The Aiguilles de Diable from the north Aiguilles du Diable
(Pointe Médiane)
4,097 Mont Blanc Group France 0.2
Pointe Carmen
40[17]
col with the Carmen
1925[18]
Antoine Blanchet, Jean Chaubert, Armand Charlet, Devouassoud
55 Pollux seen from the Gornergrat Pollux 4,092 Wallis Alps Italy/
Switzerland
0.7
Castor
247
Zwillingsjoch
1 August 1864
Jules Jacot, Josef-Marie Perren, Peter Taugwalder sen.
56 Schreckhorn seen from the north Schreckhorn 4,078 Bernese Alps Switzerland 5.9
Finsteraarhorn
788
Finsteraarjoch
1 August 1864
Leslie Stephen, Ulrich Kaufmann, Peter and Christian Michel
57 Roccia Nera Breithorn
(Roccia Nera)
4,075 Wallis Alps Italy/
Switzerland
0.4
Zwilling-Ost
30[17]
Col to the Zwilling East

58 The Aiguilles de Diable from the north Aiguilles du Diable
(Pointe Chaubert)
4,074 Mont Blanc Group France 0.2
Pointe Médiane
57[17]
Col to the Médiane
1925[18]
Jean Chaubert, Armand Charlet
59 Mont Brouillard seen from Col Emile Rey Mont Brouillard 4,069 Mont Blanc Group France 0.2
Picco Luigi Amedeo
39
Col Emile Rey
1906
Karl Blodig, Oscar Eckenstein, Alessio Brocherel
60 Grandes Jorasses
(Pointe Marguerite)
4,065 Mont Blanc Group France/
Italy
0.2
Pointe Croz
50[17]
col with Pointe Croz

61 The Aiguilles de Diable from the north Aiguilles du Diable
(Corne du Diable)
4,064 Mont Blanc Group France 0.2
Pointe Chaubert
19[17]
Col to the Chaubert
1925[18]
Jean Chaubert, Armand Charlet
62 Ober Gabelhorn Ober Gabelhorn 4,063 Wallis Alps Switzerland 3.1
Zinalrothorn
536
Triftjoch
6 July 1865
Horace Walker, Adolphus W. Moore, Jakob Anderegg
63 Gran Paradiso by sunset Gran Paradiso 4,061 Graian Alps Italy 45.1
Grandes Jorasses
1,879
Nahe Kleiner Sankt Bernhard
4. September 1860
John J. Cowell, W. Dundas, Jean Tairraz, Michel-Clément Payot
64 Aiguille de Bionnassay from Dôme du Goûter Aiguille de Bionnassay 4,052 Mont Blanc Group France/
Italy
1.8
Dôme du Goûter
164
Col de Bionnassay
28 July 1865
E.N. Buxton, F.C. Grove, R.J.S. Macdonald, Michel Payot, Jean-Pierre Cachat
65 Piz Bernina Piz Bernina 4,049 Bernina Group Switzerland 138
Finsteraarhorn
2,234
Maloja Pass
13 September 1850
Johann Coaz, Jon and Lorenz Ragut Tscharner
66 Gross Fiescherhorn vom Mittellegigrat aus seen Gross Fiescherhorn 4,049 Bernese Alps Switzerland 4.7
Mönch
364
Fiescherjoch
23 July 1862
Adolphus W. Moore, H. B. George, Ulrich Kaufmann, Christian Almer
67 Vincent Pyramid
(Punta Giordani/Giordanispetz)
4,046 Monte Rosa Massif Italy 0.1
Vincent Pyramid
6
col with the Vincent Pyramid
23 July 1801
Pietro Giordani [19]
68 Grandes Jorasses
(Pointe Elena)
4,045 Mont Blanc Group France/
Italy
0.2
Pointe Marguerite
10[17]
col with Pointe Marguerite

69 Grünhorn Grünhorn 4,044 Bernese Alps Switzerland 2.5
Gross Fiescherhorn
305
Kleine Grünhornlücke
7 August 1865
Edmund von Fellenberg, Peter Michel, Peter Egger, Peter Inäbnit
70 Lauteraarhorn Lauteraarhorn 4,042 Bernese Alps Switzerland 1.0
Gross Fiescherhorn
128
Schreckhorn Saddle
7 August 1865
Pierre Desor, Arnold Escher von der Linth, Christian Girard, Melchior Bannholzer, Jakob Leuthold
71 Aiguille du Jardin 4,035 Mont Blanc Group France 0.2
Grande Rocheuse
37
col with the Rocheuse
1 August 1904
E. Fontaine, Jean Ravanel, Léon Tournier
72
Dürrenhorn
Dürrenhorn 4,035 Mischabel Group Switzerland 0.8
Hohberghorn
123
Dürrenjoch
7 September 1879
Albert F. Mummery, William Penhall, Alexander Burgener, Ferdinand Imseng
73 Allalinhorn Allalinhorn 4,027 Wallis Alps Switzerland 2.1
Rimpfischhorn
255
Alphubeljoch
28 August 1856
Edward L. Ames, Johann Josef Imseng, Franz Josef Andenmatten
74 Hinter Fiescherhorn 4,025 Bernese Alps Switzerland 0.7
Gross Fiescherhorn
102
Fiescher Saddle
28 July 1885
Eugen Guido Lammer, August Lorria
75 Weissmies from Lagginhorn Weissmies 4,017 Wallis Alps Switzerland 11.2
Lenzspitze
1,185
Mondelli Pass
Late August 1855
de:Jakob Christian Heusser, Peter Josef Zurbriggen
76 Dôme de Rochefort 4,015 Mont Blanc Group France/
Italy
0.9
Pointe Marguerite
190
Col des Grandes Jorasses
12 August 1881
Alphonse Payot, Michel-Clément Payot, J. Eccles
77 Dôme de Neige Barre des Écrins
(Dôme de Neige)
4,015 Pelvoux France 0.2
Barre des Écrins
41
Brèche Lory

78 Dent du Géant Dent du Géant 4,013 Mont Blanc Group France/
Italy
1.2
Dôme de Rochefort
139
col with the Aiguille de Rochefort
28 July 1882
Jean-Joseph, Baptiste and Daniel Maquignaz ("Pointe Sella")[Note 4]
79 Punta Baretti 4,013 Mont Blanc Group Italy 0.3
Mont Brouillard
56
Col to the Mont Brouillard
28 July 1880
Martino Baretti, Jean-Joseph Maquignaz
80 Lagginhorn west face Lagginhorn 4,010 Wallis Alps Switzerland 3.3
Weissmies
511
Lagginjoch
26 July 1856
Edward L. Ames, Johann Josef Imseng, Franz-Josef Andenmatten
81 Aiguille de Rochefort Aiguille de Rochefort 4,001 Mont Blanc Group France/
Italy
0.6
Dent du Géant
106
Col to the Dôme de Rochefort
14. August 1873
Alphonse Payot, Michel-Clément Payot, J. Eccles
82 Les Droites Les Droites 4,000 Mont Blanc Group France 0.7
Grande Rocheuse
204
Col de l' Aiguille Verte
7 August 1876
Thomas Middlemore, John Oakley Maund, Henri Cordier, Johann Jaun, Andreas Maurer

Enlarged list

The following expandable table forms an extended list of 46 'lesser summits' identified by the UIAA. These are either:

  • secondary summits or gendarmes which satisfy the topographic criteria, but are part of other well-defined mountain summits already listed above,
  • or have failed to meet the topographic criteria, but have been included through more subjective criteria (i.e. morphological or mountaineering significance).[4]
Name Country Height Range
Rocher de la Tournette France, Italy 4677 m Mont Blanc Massif
Dunantspitze Switzerland 4632 m Monte Rosa Massif
Grenzgipfel Italy, Switzerland 4618 m Monte Rosa Massif
Les Bosses France, Italy 4547 m Mont Blanc Massif
La Grande Bosse France, Italy 4513 m Mont Blanc Massif
Monte Cervino Vetta Italiana/Sommet italien du mont Cervin Italy, Switzerland 4476,4 m Pennine Alps
Dom (Großer Gendarm) Switzerland 4468 m Pennine Alps
Aiguille de la Belle Etoile Italy 4349 m Mont Blanc Massif
Grand Gendarme (Weisshorn) Switzerland 4331 m Pennine Alps
Pointe Mieulet France 4287 m Mont Blanc Massif
Liskammnase Italy, Switzerland 4272 m Pennine Alps
Pointe Bayeux France 4258 m Mont Blanc Massif
Mont Blanc du Tacul (Punkt E) France 4247 m Mont Blanc Massif
Aiguille du Croissant Switzerland 4243 m Pennine Alps
Pic Tyndall Italy, Switzerland 4241 m Pennine Alps
Picco Muzio Italy, Switzerland 4187 m Pennine Alps
Entdeckungsfels (Roccia della Scoperta) Switzerland 4178 m Pennine Alps
Balmenhorn Italy 4167 m Pennine Alps
Alphubel south top Switzerland 4166 m Pennine Alps
Dent d'Hérens la Corne Switzerland 4148 m Pennine Alps
Pointe Burnaby Switzerland 4135 m Pennine Alps
Alphubel Nordostgipfel Switzerland 4128 m Pennine Alps
Alphubel Nordgipfel Switzerland 4116 m Pennine Alps
Rimpfischhorn (Großer Gendarm) Switzerland 4108 m Pennine Alps
Aiguille Blanche de Peuterey (Pointe SO) Italy 4107 m Mont Blanc Massif
Pointe de l'Androsace France, Italy 4107 m Mont Blanc Massif
Aiguille Blanche de Peuterey (Pointe NW) Italy 4104 m Mont Blanc Massif
Dent Blanche (Grand Gendarme) Switzerland 4097 m Pennine Alps
Felikhorn Italy 4093 m Pennine Alps
Lenzspitze Großer Gendarm Switzerland 4091 m Pennine Alps
Wengen Jungfrau Switzerland 4089 m Bernese Alps
Combin de la Tsessette gendarme (south-east) Switzerland 4088 m Pennine Alps
Pic Lory France 4086 m Dauphiné Alps
Dent d'Hérens Gendarme Crochu Switzerland 4075 m Pennine Alps
Pilier du Diable France 4067 m Mont Blanc Massif
Terzo pilastro del Col Maudit France 4064 m Pennine Alps
Pointe Bravais France 4057 m Mont Blanc Massif
Pic Eccles Italy 4041 m Mont Blanc Massif
Dent d'Hérens, L'Epaule Italy, Switzerland 4040 m Pennine Alps
Gendarme del Col Maudit France 4032 m Mont Blanc Massif
Il Roc Italy 4026 m Graian Alps
Pointe Eveline France 4026 m Mont Blanc Massif
Pointe Croux France 4023 m Mont Blanc Massif
La Spedla / Punta Perrucchetti Italy, Switzerland 4020 m Bernina Range
L'Epaule Switzerland 4017 m Pennine Alps
Piton des Italiens France, Italy 4003 m Mont Blanc Massif

Number of Alpine four-thousanders and distribution

Since no exact and formal definition of a 'mountain' exists, the number of 4000-metre summits is arbitrary. The topographic prominence is an important factor to decide the official nomination of a summit. The 'Official list' proposed by the UIAA is based not only on prominence but also on other criteria such as the morphology (general appearance) and mountaineering interest. Summits such as Punta Giordani or Mont Blanc de Courmayeur have much less than the 30 metres minimum prominence criterion but are included in the list because of the other criteria. In comparison, the official 14 eight-thousanders recognised by the UIAA have all a prominence of over 600 metres (despite a proposed expansion). A minimum prominence criterion of 300 metres[Note 5] would reduce the number of Alpine four-thousanders to only 29, whilst a prominence criterion of 100 metres would raise it to 49.[20]

The table below gives the number of four-thousanders as a function of their minimum prominence.

Minimum prominence UIAA list Enlarged list Karl Blodig list
Country / Range 2,000 metres (6,562 ft) 1,500 metres (4,921 ft) (Ultras) 1,000 metres (3,281 ft) 500 metres (1,640 ft) 300 metres (984 ft) 200 metres (656 ft) 100 metres (328 ft) 30 metres (98 ft) - - -
Switzerland 3 4 9 17 24 28 37 46 48 71 41
Italy 1 2 3 5 7 8 20 31 38 60 25
France 2 2 2 4 4 6 11 20 25 41 13
Pennine 1 2 6 11 15 19 26 38 41 65 34
Mont Blanc 1 1 1 3 3 5 11 23 28 46 15
Bernese 1 1 2 5 7 7 9 9 9 10 9
Dauphiné 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 1
Bernina 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1
Graian[21] 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1
Total 5 7 12 22 29 35 51 73 82 128 61

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Cantons of Valais (45), Bern (7) and Graubünden (1)
  2. ^ Mont Blanc's summit is an ice cap which varies in height from year to year. It is now accurately remeasured every two years. In 2017 it was measured at 4808.72 metres.[8]
  3. ^ This relates to Mount Elbrus in the Caucasus, the nearest, next-highest mountain, which can be reached by descending to this height (108 metres above the sea).
  4. ^ The 4 meter higher Pointe Graham was reached a month later, 20 August 1882, by William Woodman Graham guided by Auguste Cupelin and Alphonse Payot, using the fixed ropes of the first party
  5. ^ Such as the one used in List of prominent mountains of the Alps above 3000 m

References

  1. ^ "Mountain Classification - UIAA". Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ Gor?czko, Marcin (31 December 2018). "Easy four-thousanders in the Alps: between alpinism and mass tourism". doi:10.5281/zenodo.2144166. Retrieved 2020. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ "Liv Sansoz completes 82 x 4000m peaks in the Alps". PlanetMountain.com. Retrieved 2020.
  4. ^ a b c "The 4000ers of the Alps: Official UIAA List" (PDF). UIAA-Bulletin (145). March 1994. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2010.
  5. ^ "List of Alpine four-thousanders". Peakbagger.com.
  6. ^ a b "Peakbagger". Retrieved 2009.
  7. ^ "Alpsgipfel & Erstbesteiger". Retrieved 2009.
  8. ^ "4808,72m: Mont Blanc's new height!". chamonix.net. Retrieved 2020.
  9. ^ a b http://questions.assemblee-nationale.fr/q13/13-76121QE.htm
  10. ^ IGN Map of France (1986). St-Gervais-les-Bains - Mont Blanc (Sheet 3531 ed.). France.
  11. ^ http://www.lastampa.it/2015/09/13/societa/montagna/italia-contro-francia-la-guerra-del-monte-bianco-G0Vg6Iu08jkWxJ6qNvoCVJ/pagina.html
  12. ^ http://www.corriere.it/cronache/15_settembre_08/italia-francia-duello-confini-cima-monte-bianco-5e90588c-5608-11e5-b0d4-d84dfde2e290.shtml
  13. ^ Brown, T. G. and de Beer, G. The First Ascent of Mont Blanc, 1957, p. 14
  14. ^ Alpine Journal, vol. XXV, p. 620
  15. ^ Gottlieb Studer, Über Eis und Schnee, Vol 2., p. 15
  16. ^ "Chronik zur Mont Blanc-Region". Retrieved 2009.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Hartmut Bielefeldt. "Viertausender d Alps". Retrieved 2009.
  18. ^ a b c d e ALPIN-Tourenbuch. "Hochtour: Mont Blanc Du Tacul". Retrieved 2009.
  19. ^ Gottlieb Studer, Über Eis und Schnee, Vol 2., p. 63
  20. ^ "Alpine 4000-meter Peaks". Peakbagger. Retrieved 2020.
  21. ^ Excluding the Mont Blanc Massif

Bibliography

  • Dumler, Helmut and Willi P. Burkhardt, The High Mountains of the Alps, Diadem, 1994 (ISBN 0906371430)
  • Goedeke, Richard, Alpine 4000m Peaks by the Classic Routes, (2nd ed.) Menasha Ridge Press, 1997 (ISBN 0897321111)
  • McLewin, Will, In Monte Viso's Horizon: Climbing All the Alpine 4000m Peaks, Ernest Press, 1991 (ISBN 0948153091)
  • Moran, Martin, The 4000m Peaks of the Alps: Selected Climbs, Alpine Club, 2007 (ISBN 0900523662)
  • Club 4000, Tutti i 4000 - L'aria sottile dell'alta quota, Vivalda Editori - CAI Torino, 2010 (ISBN 88-7480-135-1

External links


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