List of Chinese Monarchs
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List of Chinese Monarchs

This list of Chinese monarchs includes rulers of China with various titles prior to the establishment of the Republic in 1912. From the Zhou dynasty until the Qin dynasty, rulers usually held the title "king" (Chinese: ?; pinyin: wáng). With the separation of China into different Warring States, this title had become so common that the unifier of China, the first Qin Emperor Qin Shihuang created a new title for himself, that of "emperor" (pinyin: huángdì). The title of Emperor of China continued to be used for the remainder of China's imperial history, right down to the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912. While many other monarchs existed in and around China throughout its history, this list covers only those with a quasi-legitimate claim to the majority of China, or those who have traditionally been named in king-lists. The following list of Chinese monarchs is in no way comprehensive. Chinese sovereigns were known by many different names, and how they should be identified is often confusing. Sometimes the same emperor is commonly known by two or three separate names, or the same name is used by emperors of different dynasties. The tables below do not necessarily include all of an emperor's names - for example, posthumous names could run to more than twenty characters and were rarely used in historical writing - but, where possible, the most commonly used name or naming convention has been indicated. In some cases, the regnal or era name is changed in the same year as the death of the previous sovereign; in other cases, the name change occurs in the subsequent year. Thus, the date given for the beginning of a reign may actually refer to the first full year of the sovereign's reign.

These tables may not necessarily represent the most recently updated information on Chinese monarchs; please check the page for the relevant dynasty for possible additional information.

Follow these links to see how they are related:

Family tree of ancient Chinese emperors -> Chinese emperors family tree (early) -> Chinese emperors family tree (middle) -> Chinese emperors family tree (late)

Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (?)

Although it is ingrained in Chinese mythology that the earliest mythological rulers of China included three huáng (?, generally translated "sovereign" or "august one", denoting demigod status) and five (?, generally translated "emperor", but denoting much more reverential status than the modern term "emperor"), their identities have differed between different sources, with some individuals, such as the Yellow Emperor, being regarded as either sovereign or emperor, depending on the source. The two characters would later be taken together by Qin Shi Huang to form the new title huángdì (, emperor), thus claiming legendary status for himself.

Note: These figures are considered to be legendary.

Title Name by which most commonly known Reign (according to tradition) Regnal name Other names
Sovereign1,4,5 / Emperor3 Youchao Y?ucháo -
Sovereign / Emperor3 Suiren Suìrén -
Sovereign4 / Emperor3 Fuxi Fúx? -
Yan Emperor and/or Shennong 2737-2699 BCE Yándì Shennong
Sovereign5 / Emperor1,2 Yellow Emperor 2699-2588 BCE Huángdì Gongsun Xuanyuan ?
Emperor2 Shaohao 2587-2491 BCE Sh?ohào Jintian Shi
Emperor1,2 Zhuanxu 2490-2413 BCE Zhu?nx? Gaoyang
Emperor1 Emperor Ku 2412-2343 BCE Dìkù Gaoxin Shi
Emperor1 Emperor Zhi 2343-2333 BCE Dìzhì Qingyang Shi
Emperor1 Emperor Yao (of Tang) 2333-2234 BCE Dìyáo or Táng Yáo / Yi Qi,Taotang and Fangxun
Emperor1 Emperor Shun (of Yu) 2233-2184 BCE Dìshùn or Yú Shùn / Yao,Youyu and Chonghua ?
1 -- According to the Records of the Grand Historian.
2 -- According to the Chu Ci.
3 -- According to the Book of Rites.
4 -- According to the Shangshu dazhuan (?) and Baihu tongyi (?).
5 -- According to the Diwang shiji (?)

Xia dynasty () (c. 2070 - c. 1600 BCE)

Chinese convention: use "Xia" + regnal name

Name by which most commonly known Reign (according to tradition) Regnal name1 Other names
Yu the Great 2150-2106 BCE Y? ? -
Qi of Xia 2106-2077 BCE Q? ? -
Tai Kang 2077-2048 BCE K?ng ? Tài K?ng
Zhong Kang 2048-2036 BCE K?ng ? Zhòng K?ng
Xiang of Xia 2036-2008 BCE Xi?ng ? -
Interregnum (about 40 years)
Shao Kang 1968-1946 BCE K?ng ? Shào K?ng
Zhu of Xia 1946-1929 BCE Zhù ? -
Huai of Xia 1929-1885 BCE Huái ? -
Mang of Xia 1885-1867 BCE Máng ? -
Xie of Xia 1867-1851 BCE Xiè ? -
Bu Jiang 1851-1792 BCE Jiàng ? -
Jiong of Xia 1792-1771 BCE Ji?ng ? -
Jin of Xia 1771-1750 BCE J?n ? Yìn Ji?
Kong Jia 1750-1719 BCE K?ng Ji?
Gao of Xia 1719-1708 BCE G?o ? -
Fa of Xia 1708-1689 BCE F? ? Hou Jin
Jie of Xia 1689-1658 BCE Jié ? L? Gu?

Shang dynasty () (c. 1600 - c. 1046 BCE)

Chinese convention: use "Shang" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign (according to tradition)1 Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Tang of Shang Zi Lü 1658-1629 BCE Ti?n Y? Tàizu
Wai Bing Zi Shèng 1629-1627 BCE Wài B?ng -
Zhong Ren Zi Y?ng 1627-1623 BCE Zhòng Rén -
Tai Jia Zi Zhì 1623-1611 BCE Tài Ji? Tàiz?ng
Wo Ding Zi Xuàn 1611-1592 BCE Wò D?ng -
Tai Geng Zi Biàn 1592-1567 BCE Tài G?ng -
Xiao Jia Zi G?o 1567-1550 BCE Xi?o Ji? -
Yong Ji Zi Zhòu 1550-1538 BCE Y?ng J? -
Tai Wu Zi Mì 1538-1463 BCE Tài Wù -
Zhong Ding Zi Zhu?ng 1463-1452 BCE Zhòng D?ng -
Wai Ren Zi F? 1452-1437 BCE Wài Rén -
He Dan Jia Zi Zh?ng 1437-1428 BCE Ji?n Ji? -
Zu Yi Zi Téng 1428-1409 BCE Z? Y? Zh?ngz?ng
Zu Xin Zi Dàn 1409-1393 BCE Z? X?n -
Wo Jia Zi Yú 1393-1368 BCE Wò Ji? -
Zu Ding Zi X?n 1368-1336 BCE Z? D?ng -
Nan Geng Zi G?ng 1336-1307 BCE Nán G?ng -
Yang Jia Zi Hé 1307-1290 BCE Yáng Ji? -
Pan Geng Zi Xún 1290-1262 BCE Pán G?ng -
Xiao Xin Zi Sòng 1262-1259 BCE Xi?o X?n -
Xiao Yi Zi Li?n 1259-1250 BCE Xi?o Y? -
Wu Ding Zi Zh?o 1250-1192 BCE W? D?ng G?oz?ng
Zu Geng of Shang Zi Yuè 1192-1185 BCE Z? G?ng -
Zu Jia Zi Zài 1185-1158 BCE Z? Ji? -
Lin Xin Zi Xi?n 1158-1152 BCE L?n X?n -
Kang Ding Zi Xi?o 1152-1147 BCE K?ng D?ng -
Wu Yi of Shang Zi Qú 1147-1112 BCE W? Y? -
Wen Ding Zi Tu? 1112-1102 BCE Wén D?ng3 -
Di Yi Zi Xiàn 1101-1076 BCE Dì Y? -
King Zhou of Shang Zi Shòu 1075-1046 BCE Di Xin -
1 -- The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.

2 -- The period of the Shang dynasty starting from Pan Geng is also frequently referred to as the Yin (?) dynasty. because he changed capital to Yin.

3 -- Also known as Tai Ding ().

Zhou dynasty () (c. 1046 - 256 BCE)

Chinese convention: use "Zhou" + posthumous name ("Wang" is the chinese term for "King")

Note: The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC, the beginning of the Gonghe regency. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign1 Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Western Zhou dynasty (c. 1046 - 771 BC)
King Wu of Zhou J? F? 1046-1043 BCE1 King W?
King Cheng of Zhou J? Sòng 1042-1021 BCE1 King Chéng
King Kang of Zhou J? Zh?o 1020-996 BCE1 King K?ng
King Zhao of Zhou J? Xiá 995-977 BCE1 King Zh?o
King Mu of Zhou J? M?n 976-922 BCE1 King Mù
King Gong of Zhou J? Y?hù 922-900 BCE1 King G?ng
King Yi of Zhou (Jian) J? Ji?n 899-892 BCE1 King Yì
King Xiao of Zhou J? Bìf?ng 891-886 BCE1 King Xiào
King Yi of Zhou (Xie) J? Xiè 885-878 BCE1 King Yí
King Li of Zhou J? Hú 877-841 BCE1 King Lì
Gonghe Regency () (841-827 BC)
King Xuan of Zhou J? Jìng 827-782 BCE King Xu?n
King You of Zhou J? G?ngsh?ng 781-771 BCE King Y?u
Eastern Zhou dynasty (770-256 BC)
Spring and Autumn period (770-476 BC)
King Ping of Zhou J? Yijiu 770-720 BCE King Ping
King Huan of Zhou J? Lin 719-697 BCE King Huan
King Zhuang of Zhou J? Tuo 696-682 BCE King Zhuang
King Xi of Zhou J? Huqi 681-677 BCE King Xi
King Hui of Zhou J? Lang 676-652 BCE King Hui
King Xiang of Zhou J? Zheng 651-619 BCE King Xiang
King Qing of Zhou J? Renchen 618-613 BCE King Qing
King Kuang of Zhou J? Ban 612-607 BCE King Kuang
King Ding of Zhou J? Yu 606-586 BCE King Ding
King Jian of Zhou J? Yi 585-572 BCE King Jian
King Ling of Zhou J? Xiexin 571-545 BCE King Ling
King Jing of Zhou (Gui) J? Gui 544-521 BCE King Jing
King Dao of Zhou J? Meng 520 BCE King Dao
King Jing of Zhou (Gai) J? Gai 519-476 BCE King Jing
Warring States period (475-221 BC)
King Yuan of Zhou J? Ren 475-469 BCE King Yuan
King Zhending of Zhou J? Jie 468-442 BCE King Zhending
King Ai of Zhou J? Quji 441 BCE King Ai
King Si of Zhou J? Shu 441 BCE King Si
King Kao of Zhou J? Wei 440-426 BCE King Kao
King Weilie of Zhou J? Wu 425-402 BCE King Weilie
King An of Zhou J? Jiao 401-376 BCE King An
King Lie of Zhou J? Xi 375-369 BCE King Lie
King Xian of Zhou J? Bian 368-321 BCE King Xian
King Shenjing of Zhou J? Ding 320-315 BCE King Shenjing
King Nan of Zhou J? Yan 314-256 BCE King Nan
1 -- The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.

After King Nan was deposed by Qin, Ji Jie (), Duke Wen of the vassal duchy of Eastern Zhou was proclaimed the new king of Zhou and claimed the title until his death in 249 BCE. However, the King of Qin had taken possession of the Nine Tripod Cauldrons (), and Ji Jie's reign was not widely recognized. Historians generally considered the title of Son of Heaven to be vacant from 256 to 221 BCE.

Qin dynasty () (221-207 BCE)

Chinese convention: use regnal name

Note: The State of Qin was founded in the 9th century BCE as a vassal of the Zhou dynasty. In 325 BCE, the Duke of Qing, Ying Si (), declared himself king and was given the regnal name King Huiwen of Qin (?). In 256 BCE, King Zhaoxiang of Qin ended the Zhou dynasty, and in 221 BCE, Ying Zheng completed the conquest of the other states (kingdoms) and declared himself Qin Shi Huang, or "First Emperor of Qin." The unification of China under the Qin dynasty in 221 BCE is usually considered to be the beginning of Imperial China.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Regnal name
(King Zhaoxiang of Qin)1 Yíng Zé (Yíng Jì) () (306)1 (255-251 BCE) Zhaoxiang of Qin ?
(King Xiaowen of Qin)1 Yíng Zhù (250 BCE) Xiaowen of Qin ?
(King Zhuangxiang of Qin)1 Yíng Z?ch? (249-247 BCE) Zhuangxiang of Qin ?
Qin Shi Huang1,2 Yíng Zhèng (246)2 221-210 BCE Qin Shi Huang
Qin Er Shi Yíng Húhài 209-207 BCE Qin Er Shi
Ziying3 Yíng Z?y?ng 207 BCE Qin San Shi
1 -- Zhaoxiang's reign as king of the State of Qin began in 306 BCE before the fall of Zhou. Subsequently, in the absence of a Son of Heaven, historians conventionally used Qin regnal dates to refer to the years 255 to 222 BCE.

2 -- Qin Shi Huang began his reign as king of Qin 246 BCE, but did not unite China and proclaim himself "Emperor" until 221 BCE.

3 -- Ziying is often referred to by his personal name and as king, rather than emperor, of Qin (?).

Han dynasty () (202 BCE - 220 CE)

Chinese convention: use "Han" + posthumous name (apart from Emperor Gaozu, who is known as "Han Gaozu")

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Western Han (202 BCE - 8 CE)
Emperor Gaozu of Han Liu Bang 202-195 BC - Emperor Gaohuang Taizu / Gaozu /
Emperor Hui of Han Liu Ying 195-188 BC (Empress Lü regency)1 Emperor Hui -
Emperor Qianshao of Han1 Liu Gong 188-184 BC (Empress Lü regency)1 - -
Emperor Houshao of Han1 Liu Hong 184-180 BC (Empress Lü regency)1 - -
Emperor Wen of Han Liu Heng 179-157 BC Hòuyuán 163-156 BCE Emperor Wen Taizong
Emperor Jing of Han Liu Qi 156-141 BC Zh?ngyuán 149-143 BCE Emperor Jing -
Hòuyuán 143-141 BCE
Emperor Wu of Han Liu Che 140-87 BC Jiànyuán 140-135 BCE Emperor Wu Shizong
Yuángu?ng 134-129 BCE
Yuánshuò 128-123 BCE
Yuánshòu 122-117 BCE
Yuánd?ng 116-111 BCE
Yuánf?ng 110-105 BCE
Tàich? 104-101 BCE
Ti?nhàn 100-97 BCE
Tàish? 96-93 BCE
Zh?nghé 92-89 BCE
Hòuyuán 88-87 BCE
Emperor Zhao of Han Liu Fuling 86-74 BC Sh?yuán 86-80 BCE Emperor Zhao
Yuánfèng 80-75 BCE
Yuánpíng 74 BCE
Marquis of Haihun Liu He 74 BC Marquis of Haihun -
Emperor Xuan of Han Liu Xun 73-49 BC B?nsh? 73-70 BCE Emperor Xuan Zhongzong
Dìjié 69-66 BCE
Yuánk?ng 65-61 BCE
Shénjué 61-58 BCE
W?fèng 57-54 BCE
G?nlù 53-50 BCE
Huánglóng 49 BCE
Emperor Yuan of Han Liu Shi 48-33 BC Ch?yuán 48-44 BCE Emperor Yuan -
Y?nggu?ng 43-39 BCE
Jiànzh?o 38-34 BCE
Jìngníng 33 BCE
Emperor Cheng of Han Liu Ao 32-7 BC Jiànsh? 32-28 BCE Emperor Cheng -
Hépíng 28-25 BCE
Yángshuò 24-21 BCE
Hóngji? 20-17 BCE
Y?ngsh? 16-13 BCE
Yuányán 12-9 BCE
Su?hé 8-7 BCE
Emperor Ai of Han Liu Xin 6-1 BC Jiànpíng 6-3 BCE Emperor Ai -
Yuánshòu 2-1 BCE
Emperor Ping of Han Liu Kan 1 BC - 5 AD Yuánsh? 1 BCE - 5 CE Emperor Ping -
Ruzi Ying2 Liu Ying 6-8 Jùshè 6 CE - Oct. 8 CE Ruzi Ying -
Ch?sh? Nov. 8 CE - Dec. 8 CE
Interregnum (9 CE - 23 CE)
Gengshi Emperor Liu Xuan 23-25 G?ngsh? 23-25 CE Prince Wushun of Huaiyang -
Eastern Han (25 CE - 220 CE)
Emperor Guangwu of Han Liu Xiu 25-57 Jiànw? 25-56 CE Emperor Guangwu Shizu
Jiànw?zh?ngyuán ? 56-57 CE
Emperor Ming of Han Liu Zhuang 58-75 Y?ngpíng 58-75 CE Emperor Ming Xíanz?ng
Emperor Zhang of Han Liu Da 76-88 Jiànch? 76-84 CE Emperor Zhang Suzong
Yuánhé 84-87 CE
Zh?nghé 87-88 CE
Emperor He of Han Liu Zhao 89-105 Y?ngyuán 89-105 CE Emperor He Muzong
Yuánx?ng 105 CE
Emperor Shang of Han Liu Long 106 Yánpíng 9 months in 106 CE Emperor Shang -
Emperor An of Han Liu Hu 106-125 Y?ngch? 107-113 CE Emperor An Gongzong
Yuánch? 114-120 CE
Y?ngníng 120-121 CE
Jiàngu?ng 121-122 CE
Yángu?ng 122-125 CE
Marquess of Beixiang Liu Yi 125 Emperor Shao -
Emperor Shun of Han Liu Bao 125-144 Y?ngjiàn 126-132 CE Emperor Shun Jingzong
Yángji? 132-135 CE
Y?nghé 136-141 CE
Hàn'?n 142-144 CE
Jiànk?ng 144 CE
Emperor Chong of Han Liu Bing 144-145 Y?ngx? 145 CE Emperor Chong -
Emperor Zhi of Han Liu Zuan 145-146 B?nch? 146 CE Emperor Zhi -
Emperor Huan of Han Liu Zhi 146-168 Jiànhé 147-149 CE Emperor Huan Weizong
Hépíng 150 CE
Yuánji? 151-153 CE
Y?ngx?ng 153-154 CE
Y?ngshòu 155-158 CE
Yánx? 158-167 CE
Y?ngk?ng 167 CE
Emperor Ling of Han Liu Hong 168-189 Jiànníng 168-172 CE Emperor Ling -
X?píng 172-178 CE
Gu?nghé 178-184 CE
Zh?ngpíng 184-189 CE
Prince of Hongnong Liu Bian 189 Gu?ngx? 189 CE Emperor Shao -
Zhàoníng 189 CE
Emperor Xian of Han Liu Xie 189-220 Y?nghàn 189 CE Emperor Xian -
Ch?píng 190-193 CE
X?ngpíng 194-195 CE
Jiàn'?n 196-220 CE
Yánk?ng 220 CE
1 -- Emperors Qianshao and Houshao reigned as children and were subsequently deposed. Their reigns were completely dominated by Empress Dowager Lü (, personal name: Lü Zhi, ), who is often listed in their place on lists of Han rulers and Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian.

2 -- Ruzi was prince, rather than emperor of Han. Officially, the throne of emperor of Han was vacant during 6AD to 9AD.

Xin dynasty () (9-23 CE)

Chinese convention: use personal name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Wang Mang Wang Mang 9-23 Sh?jiànguó 9-13 CE - -
Ti?nf?ng 14-19 CE
Dìhuáng 20-23 CE

Three Kingdoms () (220-280)

Chinese convention: use personal name

Cao Wei () (220-266)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Courtesy name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Cao Pi Cáo P? Zihuan 220-226 Huángch? 220-226 Emperor Wen
Cao Rui Cáo Ruì Yuanzhong 226-239 Tàihé 227-233 Emperor Ming
Q?nglóng 233-237
J?ngch? 237-239
Cao Fang Cáo F?ng Lanqing 239-254 Zhèngsh? 240-249 Duke Li of Shaoling ?
Ji?píng 249-254
Cao Mao Cáo Máo Yanshi 254-260 Zhèngyuán 254-256 -
G?nlù 256-260
Cao Huan Cáo Huàn Jingming 260-266 J?ngyuán 260-264 Emperor Yuan
Xiánx? 264-266

Shu Han () (221-263)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Courtesy name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Liu Bei Liú Bèi Xuande 221-223 Zh?ngw? 221-223 Emperor Zhaolie
Liu Shan Liú Shàn Gongsi 223-263 Jiànx?ng 223-237 Emperor Xiaohuai
Yánx? 238-257
J?ngyào 258-263
Yánx?ng 263

Eastern Wu () (222-280)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Courtesy name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Sun Quan S?n Quán Zhongmou 222-252 Huángw? 222-229 Emperor Wu the Great
Huánglóng 229-231
Ji?hé 232-238
Chìw? 238-251
Tàiyuán 251-252
Shénfèng 252
Sun Liang S?n Liàng Ziming 252-258 Jiànx?ng 252-253 -
W?fèng 254-256
Tàipíng 256-258
Sun Xiu S?n Xi? Zilie 258-264 Y?ng?n 258-264 Emperor Jing
Sun Hao S?n Hào Yuanzong 264-280 Yuánx?ng 264-265 -
G?nlù 265-266
B?od?ng 266-269
Jiànhéng 269-271
Fènghuáng 272-274
Ti?ncè 275-276
Ti?nx? 276
Ti?njì 277-280

Jin dynasty () (266-420)

Chinese convention: Use "Jin" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao )
and their corresponding range of years
Posthumous name
(Shi Hao )
Temple name (Miao Hao )
Western Jin (265-317)
Emperor Wu of Jin S?m? Yán 266-290 Tàish? 266-274 Emperor Wu Shizu
Xiánníng 275-280
Tàik?ng 280-289
Tàix? 290
Emperor Hui of Jin S?m? Zh?ng 290-306 Y?ngx? 290 Emperor Hui -
Y?ngp?ng 291
Yuánk?ng 291-299
Y?ngk?ng 300-301
Y?ngníng 301-302
Tài?n 302-303
Y?ng?n 304
Jiànw? 304
Y?ng?n 304
Y?ngx?ng 304-306
Gu?ngx? 306
Emperor Huai of Jin S?m? Chì 307-313 Y?ngji? 307-313 Emperor Huai -
Emperor Min of Jin S?m? Yè 313-317 Jiànx?ng 313-317 Emperor Min -
Eastern Jin (317-420)
Emperor Yuan of Jin S?m? Ruì 317-322 Jiànw? 317-318 Emperor Yuan Zh?ngz?ng
Dàx?ng 318-321
Y?ngch?ng 321-322
Emperor Míng of Jin S?m? Shào 322-325 Y?ngch?ng 322-323 Emperor Ming Suzu
Tàiníng 323-325
Emperor Cheng of Jin S?m? Y?n 325-342 Tàiníng 325 Emperor Cheng Xianzong
Xiánhé 326-334
Xiánk?ng 335-342
Emperor Kang of Jin S?m? Yuè 342-344 Jiànyuán 343-344 Emperor Kang -
Emperor Mu of Jin Sima D?n 345-361 Y?nghé 345-356 Emperor Mu Xianzong
Sh?ngpíng 357-361
Emperor Ai of Jin S?m? P? 361-365 Lónghé 362-363 Emperor Ai -
X?ngníng 363-365
Emperor Fei of Jin S?m? Yì 365-371 Tàihé 365-371 Emperor Fei -
Emperor Jianwen of Jin S?m? Yù 371-372 Xián?n 371-372 Emperor Jianwen Taizong
Emperor Xiaowu of Jin S?m? Yào 372-396 Níngk?ng 373-375 Emperor Xiaowu Lièz?ng
Tàiyuán 376-396
Emperor An of Jin S?m? Déz?ng ? 396-418 Lóng?n 397-401 Emperor An -
Yuánx?ng 402-404
Yìx? 405-418
Emperor Gong of Jin S?m? Déwén ? 419-420 Yuánx? 419-420 Emperor Gong -

Sixteen Kingdoms () (304-439)

Chinese convention: use personal name

Cheng Han () (303-347)

Note: addressed separately in traditional texts as Cheng (?) and Han (?)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Cheng (?) (303-338)
Li Te 303 Jiànch?

or

J?ngch?

or

303 Emperor Jing Shízu
or
Shìzu

or

Li Liu several months in 303 Prince Qin Wen -
Li Xiong 303-334 Emperor Wu Taizong
Jiànx?ng 304-305
Yànp?ng 306-310
Yùhéng 311-334
Li Ban 7 months in 334 Emperor Ai -
Li Qi 334-338 Hànx?ng 337-338 Duke You -
Han (?) (338-347)
Li Shou 338-343 Hànx?ng () 338-343 (continuation) 338-343 (continuation) Emperor Zhaowen Zhongzong
Li Shi 343-347 Tàihé 344-345 Marquis Guiyi -
Ji?níng 346-347 (until conquest by Jin)

Han Zhao () (304-329)

Note: addressed separately in traditional texts as Han (?) and Qian (Former) Zhao ()

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Han (?) (304-318)
Liu Yuan 304-310 Jiànx?ng 304-307 Emperor Guangwen Gao Zu
Y?ngfèng 308
Héruì 309
Gu?ngx?ng 310
Liu He 7 days in 310 Prince Liang -
Liu Cong 310-318 Emperor Zhaowu Lie Zong
Ji?píng 311-315
Jiànyuán 316
Línji? 317-318
Liu Can a month and some days in 318 Hànch?ng (until renaming as Former Zhao) 318 Emperor Yin -
Qian (Former) Zhao () (318-329)
Liu Yao 318-329 Gu?ngch? (until conquest by Later Zhao) 318-329 Prince Hòu -
Hou (Later) Zhao () (329-351)
Shi Le 319-333 Prince Zhao 319-327 Emperor Ming Gaozu
Tàihé 328-329
Jiànpíng 330-332
Yánx? 333
Shi Hong 333-334 Yánx? 333 Prince Haiyang -
Jiànw? 334
Shi Hu 334-349 Jiànw? 335-348 Emperor Wu Taizu
Taìníng 349
Shi Shi 73 days in 349 Prince Qiao -
Shi Zun 183 days in 349 Prince Pangcheng -
Shi Jian 103 days within 349-350 Q?nglóng (changed mid-year) Prince Yiyang -
Shi Zhi 350-351 Y?ngníng 350-351 (until Ran Min's coup) Prince Xinxing -

Liang (?) (320-421)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Qian (Former) Liang () (320-376)
Zhang Mao 320-324 Jianxing 320-354 Duke Cheng -
Zhang Jun 324-346 Duke Zhongcheng -
Zhang Chonghua 346-353 Duke Huan -
Zhang Yaoling 3 months (the ninth to the twelfth month) in 353 Duke Ai -
Zhang Zuo 353-355 Prince Wei -
Heping 354-355
Zhang Xuanjing 355-363 Jianxing 355-361 Duke Jingdao
or
Duke Chong

or

-
Shengping 361-376
Zhang Tianxi 364-376 Duke Dao -
Hou (Later) Liang () (386-403)
Lü Guang 386-399 Taian 386-389 Prince Yiwu Taizu
Linjia 389-396
Longfei 396-399
Lü Shao 399 Prince Yin -
Lü Zuan 399-401 Xianning 399-401 Prince Ling -
Lü Long 401-403 Shending 401-403 Duke Shangshu
or
Duke Jiankang

or

-
Nan (Southern) Liang () (397-414)
Tufa Wugu ? 397-399 Taichu 397-399 Prince Wu Liezu
Tufa Lilugu 399-402 Jianhe 399-402 Prince Kang -
Tufa Rutan ? 402-414 Hongchang 402-404 Prince J?ng
or
Prince Jìng

or

-
Jiaping ) 409-414
Bei (Northern) Liang () (397-439) (as Kings of Gaochang (442-460))
Duan Ye 397-401 Shenxi 397-399 - -
Tianxi 399-401
Juqu Mengxun ? 401-433 Yongan 401-412 Prince Wuxuan Taizu
Xuanshi 412-428
Chengxuan 428-430
Yihe 430-433
Juqu Mujian ? 433-439 Yonghe 433-439 Prince Ai -
Juqu Wuhui ? 442-444 Chengping 442-443 - -
Qianshou 443-444
Juqu Anzhou ? 444-460 Chengping 444-460 - -
Xi (Western) Liang () (400-421)
Li Gao 400-417 Gengzi 400-405 Prince Wuzhao Taizu
Jianchu 406-416
Li Xin 417-420 Jiaxing 417-420 Prince Hòu -
Li Xun 420-421 Yongjian 420-421 Prince Hòu -

Yan (?) (337-436)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Qian (Former) Yan () (337-370)
Murong Huang 337-348 Yànwáng 337-348 Emperor Wenming Taizu
Murong Jun 348-360 Yànyuán 349-351 Emperor Jingzhao Liezong
Yuánx? 352-357
Sh?ngpíng 357 (as vassal of Jin)
Gu?ngshòu 357-359
Murong Wei 360-370 Jiànx? 359-365 Prince You -
Jiànyuán 366-370
Hou (Later) Yan () (384-407)
Murong Chui 384-396 Yànwáng 384-385 Emperor Wucheng Shizu
Jianxing 386-396
Murong Bao 396-398 Yongkang 396-398 Emperor Huimin Liezong
Murong Sheng 398-401 Jianping 398 Emperor Zhaowu Zhongzong
Changle 399-401
Murong Xi 401-407 Guangshi 401-406 Emperor Zhaowen -
Jianshi 407
Nan (Southern) Yan () (398-410)
Murong De 398-405 Yanwang 398-400 Emperor Xianwu Shizong
Jianping 400-405
Murong Chao 405-410 Taishang 405-410 Emperor Hòu -
Bei (Northern) Yan () (407-436)
Gao Yun / 407-409 Zhengshi 407-409 Emperor Huiyi -
Feng Ba 409-430 Taiping 409-430 Emperor Wencheng Taizu
Feng Hong 430-436 Daxing 430-436 Emperor Zhaocheng -

Qin (?) (351-431)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Qian (Former) Qin () (351-394)
Fu Jian 351-355 Huangshi () 351-355 351-355 Emperor Jingming Gaozu
Fu Sheng 355-357 Shouguang () 355-357 355-357 Prince Li -
Fu Jian 357-385 Yongxing 357-359 Emperor Xuanzhao Shizu
Ganlu 359-364
Jianyuan 365-385
Fu Pi 385-386 Taian 385-386 Emperor Aiping -
Fu Deng 386-394 Taichu 385-394 Emperor Gao Taizong
Fu Chong several months in 394 Yanchu 394 Prince Hòu -
Hou (Later) Qin () (384-417)
Yao Chang 384-393 Baique 384-386 Emperor Wuzhao Taizu
Jianchu 386-393
Yao Xing 394-416 Huangchu 394-399 Emperor Wenhuan Gaozu
Hongshi 399-416
Yao Hong 416-417 Yonghe 416-417 Prince Hòu -
Xi (Western) Qin () (385-400, 409-431)
Qifu Guoren ? 385-388 Jianyi 385-388 Prince Xuanlie Liezu
Qifu Gangui ? 388-400 Taichu 388-400 Prince Wuyuan Gaozu
409-412 Gengshi 409-412
Qifu Chipan ? 412-428 Yongkang 412-419 Prince Wenzhao Taizu
Jianhong 420-428
Qifu Mumo ? 428-431 Yonghong 428-431 Prince Hòu -

Xia (?) (407-431)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Helian Bobo ? 407-425 Longsheng 407-413 Emperor Wulie Shizu
Fengxiang 413-418
Changwu 418-419
Zhenxing 419-425
Helian Chang 425-428 Chengguang 425-428 Prince Qin -
Helian Ding 428-431 Shengguang 425-428 Prince Pingyuan -

Other sovereignties traditionally not counted in the Sixteen Kingdoms

Convention: use personal name

Ran Wei () (350-352)

Note: addressed as Wei in traditional texts)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Ran Min 350-352 Yongxing 350-352 Heavenly King Wudao ?

Xi (Western) Yan () (384-394)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Murong Hong 384 Yanxing 384-385 Emperor Wei
Murong Chong 384-386
Gengshi 385-386 -
Duan Sui 386 Changping 386 -
Murong Yi 386 Jianming 386 -
Murong Yao 386 Jianping 386 -
Murong Zhong 386 Jianwu 386 -
Murong Yong 386-394 Zhongxing 386-394 -

Shu (?) (405-413)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Qiao Zong 405-413 - King Chengdu

Chieftains of Tiefu Tribe () (mid 3rd century - 391)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Liu Qubei mid-3rd century - -
Liu Gaoshengyuan ? mid-3rd century - late 3rd century - -
Liu Hu early 4th century (309?) - 341 - -
Liu Wuheng 341-356 - -
Liu Eloutou ? 356-358 - -
Liu Xiwuqi ? 358-359 - -
Liu Weichen 359-391 - -

Chieftains of Yuwen Tribe (?) (late 3rd century - 345)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Yuwen Mohuai ? late 3rd century - 293 - -
Yuwen Puhui
or
Yuwen Pubo
?

or

?

293 - late 3rd century - -
Yuwen Qiubuqin late 3rd century - -
Yuwen Mogui ? late 3rd century (299?) - early 4th century (302?) - -
Yuwen Xiduguan early 3rd century - -
Yuwen Qidegui early 3rd century - 333 - -
Yuwen Yidougui 333-345 - -

Dukes of Liaoxi () (303-338)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Duan Wuwuchen ? 303 - 310 or 311 - -
Duan Jilujuan ? 310 or 311 - 318 - -
Duan Shefuchen ? 318 - -
Duan Pidi 318-321 - -
Duan Mopei 318-325 - -
Duan Ya 325 - -
Duan Liao 326-338 - -

Chouchi () (late 2nd century - 473)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Qian (Former) Chouchi () (late 2nd century - 371)
Yang Teng late 2nd century - early 3rd century - -
Yang Ju early 3rd century - -
Yang Qianwan early 3rd century - mid-3rd century - -
Yang Feilong mid-3rd century - late 3rd century - -
Yang Maosou late 3rd century - 317 - -
Yang Nandi 317-334 - -
Yang Yi 334-337 - -
Yang Chu 337-355 - -
Yang Guo 355-356 - -
Yang Jun 356-360 - -
Yang Shi 360-370 - -
Yang Cuan 370-371 - -
Hou (Later) Chouchi () (385-473)
Yang Ding 385-394 - King W?
Yang Sheng 394-425 - King Huìwén
Yang Xuan 425-429 - King Xiàozh?o
Yang Baozong 429 and 443 - -
Yang Nandang 429-441 Jianyi 436-440 -
Yang Baochi 442-443 - -
Yang Wende 443-454 - -
Yang Yuanhe 455-466 - -
Yang Sengsi 466-473 - -

Kings of Wuxing () (473-506 and 534-555)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Yang Wendu 473-477 - -
Yang Wenhong 477-482 - -
Yang Houqi 482-486 - -
Yang Jishi 482-503 - King An
Yang Shaoxian 503-506, 534-535 - -
Yang Zhihui1 535-545 - -
Yang Bixie1 545-553 - -
1 -- Yang Zhihui and Yang Bixie could be the same person.

Kings of Yinping () (477 - mid-6th century)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Yang Guangxiang 477-483? - -
Yang Jiong 483-495 - -
Yang Chongzu 495-before 502 - -
Yang Mengsun before 502-511 - -
Yang Ding 511- ? - -

Chieftains of Tuoba Tribe () (219-377) (as Kings of Dai () (305?-377))

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Tuoba Liwei3 ? 219-277 - King Shényuán
Tuoba Xilu ? 277-286 - King Zh?ng
Tuoba Chuo 286-293 - King Píng
Tuoba Fu 293-294 - King S?
Tuoba Luguan ? 294-307 - King Zh?o
Tuoba Yituo ? 295-305 - Emperor Huán
Tuoba Yilu ? 295-316 - King Mù
Tuoba Liugen ? 316 - -
Tuoba Pugen ? 316 - -
Tuoba Shisheng ? 316 - -
Tuoba Yulü ? 316-321 - King Píngwén
Tuoba Heru ? 321-325 - King Huì
Tuoba Hena ? 325-329 and 335-337 - King Yáng
Tuoba Yihuai ? 329-335 and 337-338 - King Liè
Tuoba Shiyijian 338-377 Jianguo 338-377 King Zh?ochéng
1 -- All chieftains were revered as emperors in Weishu and Beishi which they never were. They were denoted here as king (wáng) (?) which was inherited by all successors of Tuoba Yi Lu.

2 -- The Tuoba clan was the ruling family of Northern Wei dynasty, founded by Tuoba Gui. Hence the Table of Northern Wei dynasty will start with him, not as a continuation of this table.

3 -- Tuoba Liwei had the temple name Shizu (). He was the only chieftain before Tuoba Gui revered with a temple name

Northern and Southern Dynasties () (386-589)

Northern dynasties () (386-581)

Chinese convention: use dynasty name + posthumous name

Bei (Northern) Wei () (386-550)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei Tuoba Gui 386-409 Dengguo 386-396 Emperor Daowu
Huangsh 396-398
Tianxing 398-404
Tianci 404-409
Emperor Mingyuan of Northern Wei Tuoba Si 409-423 Yongxing 409-413 Emperor Mingyuan
Shenrui 414-416
Taichang 416-423
Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei Tuoba Tao 424-452 Shiguang 424-428 Emperor Taiwu
Shenjia 428-431
Yanhe 432-434
Taiyan 435-440
Taipingzhenjun ? 440-451
Zhengping 451-452
Tuoba Yu Tuoba Yu 452 Chengping 452 Prince Nan'an
Emperor Wencheng of Northern Wei Tuoba Jun 452-465 Xingan 452-454 Emperor Wencheng
Xingguang 454-455
Tai'an 455-459
Heping 460-465
Emperor Xianwen of Northern Wei Tuoba Hong 466-471 Tian'an 466-467 Emperor Xianwen
Huangxing 467-471
Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei Yuan1 Hong (Tuoba Hong) () 471-499 Yanxing 471-476 Emperor Xiaowen
Chengming 476
Taihe 477-499
Emperor Xuanwu of Northern Wei Yuan Ke 499-515 Jingming 500-503 Emperor Xuanwu
Zhengshi 504-508
Yongping 508-512
Yanchang 512-515
Emperor Xiaoming of Northern Wei Yuan Xu 516-528 Xiping 516-518 Emperor Xiaoming
Shengui 518-520
Zhengguang 520-525
Xiaochang 525-527
Wutai 528
Yuan Zhao Yuan Zhao 528 - Prince Yòu
Emperor Xiaozhuang of Northern Wei Yuan Ziyou 528-530 Jianyi 528 Emperor Xiaozhuang
Yong'an 528-530
Yuan Ye Yuan Ye 530-531 Jianming () 530-531 530-531 Prince Changguang
Emperor Jiemin of Northern Wei Yuan Gong 531-532 Putai () 531-532 531-532 Emperor Jiemin
Yuan Lang Yuan Lang 531-532 Zhongxing () 531-532 531-532 Prince Anding
Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei Yuan Xiu 532-535 Taichang 532 Emperor Xiaowu
or
Emperor Chu

or

Yongxing 532
Yongxi 532-535
Dong (Eastern) Wei dynasty () (534-550)
Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei Yuan Shanjian 534-550 Tianping 534-537 Emperor Xiaojing
Yuanxiang 538-539
Xinghe 539-542
Wuding 543-550
Xi (Western) Wei dynasty () (535-556)
Emperor Wen of Western Wei Yuan Baoju 535-551 Datong 535-551 Emperor Wen
Emperor Fei of Western Wei Yuan Qin 552-554 - Emperor Fei
Emperor Gong of Western Wei Tuoba Kuo 554-556 - Emperor Gong
1 - The Tuoba family changed their family name to ? (yuán) during the reign of Xiaowen Di in 496 so that is reflected in the table as well.

Bei (Northern) Qi () (550-577)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reigns Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi Gao Yang 550-559 Tianbao 550-559 Emperor Wenxuan
Emperor Fei of Northern Qi Gao Yin 559-560 Qianming 560 Emperor Fei
Emperor Xiaozhao of Northern Qi Gao Yan 560-561 Huangjian 560-561 Emperor Xiaozhao
Emperor Wucheng of Northern Qi Gao Zhan 561-565 Taining 561-562 Emperor Wucheng
Heqing 562-565
Gao Wei Gao Wei 565-577 Tiantong 565-569 Prince Hòu
Wuping 570-576
Longhua 576
Gao Heng Gao Heng 577 Chengguang 577 Prince Yòu
Gao Shaoyi Gao Shaoyi 577-579? - Prince Fanyang

Bei (Northern) Zhou () (557-581)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reigns Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou Yuwen Jue 557 - Emperor Xiaomin
Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yu 557-560 Wucheng 559-560 Emperor Ming
or
Emperor Xiaoming

or

Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yong 561-578 Baoding 560-565 Emperor Wu
Tianhe 566-572
Jiande 572-578
Xuanzheng 578
Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yun 578-579 Dacheng 579 Emperor Xuan
Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou Yuwen Chan 579-581 Daxiang 579-581 Emperor Jing
Dading 581

Southern dynasties () (420-589)

Chinese convention: use dynasty name + posthumous name

Liu Song () (420-479)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Wu of Liu Song Liu Yu 420-422 Yongchu 420-422 Emperor Wu
Emperor Shao of Liu Song Liu Yifu 423-424 Jingping 423-424 Emperor Shao
Emperor Wen of Liu Song Liu Yilong 424-453 Yuanjia 424-453 Emperor Wen
Emperor Xiaowu of Liu Song Liu Jun 454-464 Xiaojian 454-456 Emperor Xiaowu
Daming 457-464
Emperor Qianfei of Liu Song Liu Ziye 465 Yongguang 465 Emperor Qianfei
Jinghe 465
Emperor Ming of Liu Song Liu Yu 465-472 Taishi 465-471 Emperor Ming
Taiyu 472
Emperor Houfei of Liu Song Liu Yu 473-477 Yuanhui 473-477 Emperor Houfei

or

Prince Cangwu

or

Emperor Shun of Liu Song Liu Zhun 477-479 Shengming 477-479 Emperor Shun

Nan (Southern) Qi () (479-502)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Gao of Southern Qi Xiao Daocheng 479-482 Jianyuan 479-482 Emperor Gao
Emperor Wu of Southern Qi Xiao Ze 482-493 Yongming 483-493 Emperor Wu
Xiao Zhaoye Xiao Zhaoye 493-494 Longchang 494 Prince of Yulin
Xiao Zhaowen Xiao Zhaowen 494 Yanxing 494 Prince of Hailing
Emperor Ming of Southern Qi Xiao Luan 494-498 Jianwu 494-498 Emperor Ming
Yongtai 498
Xiao Baojuan Xiao Baojuan 499-501 Yongyuan 499-501 Marquess of Donghun
Emperor He of Southern Qi Xiao Baorong 501-502 Zhongxing 501-502 Emperor He

Liang (?) (502-557)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Wu of Liang Xiao Yan 502-549 Tianjian 502-519 Emperor Wu
Putong 520-527
Datong 527-529
Zhongdatong 529-534
Datong 535-546
Zhongdatong 546-547
Taiqing 547-549
Emperor Jianwen of Liang Xiao Gang 549-551 Dabao 550-551 Emperor Jianwen
Xiao Dong Xiao Dong 551-552 Tianzheng 551-552 Prince of Yuzhang
Emperor Yuan of Liang Xiao Yi 552-555 Chengsheng 552-555 Emperor Yuan
Xiao Yuanming Xiao Yuanming 555 Tiancheng 555 Emperor Zhengyang
Emperor Jing of Liang Xiao Fangzhi 555-557 Shaotai 555-556 Emperor Jing
Taiping 556-557
Xi (Western) Liang () (555-587)
Emperor Xuan of Western Liang Xiao Cha 555-562 Dading 555-562 Emperor Xuan
Emperor Ming of Western Liang Xiao Kui 562-585 Tianbao 562-585 Emperor Xiaoming
Emperor Jing of Western Liang Xiao Cong 585-587 Guangyun 562-585 Emperor Xiaojing

or

Duke Ju

or

Chen (?) (557-589)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Wu of Chen Chen Baxian 557-559 Yongding 557-559 Emperor Wu
Emperor Wen of Chen Chen Qian 559-566 Tianjia 560-566 Emperor Wen
Tiankang 566
Emperor Fei of Chen Chen Bozong 566-568 Guangda 566-568 Emperor Fei
Emperor Xuan of Chen Chen Xu 569-582 Taijian 569-582 Emperor Xuan
Chen Shubao Chen Shubao 583-589 Zhide 583-586 Prince Hou
Zhenming 587-589

Sui dynasty () (581-618)

Chinese convention: use "Sui" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and the corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Wen of Sui Yáng Ji?n 581-604 K?ihuáng 581-600 Emperor Wen
Rénshòu 601-604
Emperor Yang of Sui Yáng Gu?ng 605-617 Dàyè 605-617 Emperor Yang
Yang You1 Yáng Yòu 617-618 Yìníng 617-618 Emperor Gong
Yang Hao2 Yáng Hào 618 Huángtài 618-619 Prince Qin
Yang Tong3 Yáng Tóng 618-619 Emperor Gong (Prince Huangtai) ()

1 -- Declared emperor by Li Yuan (the later Emperor Gaozu of Tang), implying a retirement for Emperor Yang (whom he "honoured" as Taishang Huang, or retired emperor) at the western capital Daxing (Chang'an), but only the commanderies under Li's control recognized this change; for the other commanderies under Sui control, Emperor Yang was still regarded as emperor, not as retired emperor. Now generally regarded as a legitimate emperor, due to his recognition by Li Yuan.

2 -- Declared emperor by Yuwen Huaji, the general under whose leadership the plot to kill Emperor Yang was carried out, but killed by him later in 618; Yuwen Huaji then declared himself emperor of a brief Xu (?) state. As Yang Hao was completely under Yuwen's control and only "reigned" briefly, he is not usually regarded as a legitimate emperor.

3 -- After news of Emperor Yang's death in 618 reached Daxing and the eastern capital Luoyang, Li Yuan deposed Emperor Gong and took the throne himself, establishing Tang dynasty, but the Sui officials at Luoyang declared Emperor Gong's brother Yang Tong (later also known as Emperor Gong) emperor. The legitimacy of his reign is disputed.

Tang dynasty () (618-907)

Chinese convention: use "Tang" + temple name (except for Emperor Shang and Emperor Ai; Emperor Xuanzong () is sometimes referred as Emperor Ming of Tang Dynasty ())

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and the corresponding range of years) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Emperor Gaozu of Tang L? Yu?n 618-626 Wude 618-626 Gaozu
Emperor Taizong of Tang L? Shìmín 627-649 Zhenguan 627-649 Taizong
Emperor Gaozong of Tang L? Zhì 650-683 Yonghui 650-655 Gaozong
Xianqing 656-661
Longshuo 661-663
Linde 664-665
Qianfeng 666-668
Zongzhang 668-670
Xianheng 670-674
Shangyuan 674-676
Yifeng 676-679
Tiaolu 679-680
Yonglong 680-681
Kaiyao 681-682
Yongchun 682-683
Hongdao 683
Emperor Zhongzong of China Li Xian

or

Li Zhe

or

684

and

705-710

Sisheng 684 Zhongzong
Shenlong 705-707
Jinglong 707-710
Emperor Ruizong of Tang Li Dan 684-690

and

710-712

Wenming 684-690 Ruizong
Jingyun 710-711
Taiji 712
Yanhe 712
Interregnum (690-705)
Emperor Shang of Tang Li Chongmao 710 Tanglong 710 -
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Li Longji 712-756 Xiantian 712-713 Xuanzong
Kaiyuan 713-741
Tianbao 742-756
Emperor Suzong of Tang Li Heng 756-762 Jide 756-758 Suzong
Qianyuan 758-760
Shangyuan 760-761
Emperor Daizong of Tang Li Yu 762-779 Baoying 762-763 Daizong
Guangde 763-764
Yongtai 765-766
Dali 766-779
Emperor Dezong of Tang Li Gua 780-805 Jianzhong 780-783 Dezong
Xingyuan 784
Zhenyuan 785-805
Emperor Shunzong of Tang Li Song 805 Yongzhen 805 Shunzong
Emperor Xianzong of Tang Li Chun 806-820 Yuanhe 806-820 Xianzong
Emperor Muzong of Tang Li Heng 821-824 Changqing 821-824 Muzong
Emperor Jingzong of Tang Li Zhan 824-826 Baoli 824-826 Jingzong
Emperor Wenzong of Tang Li Ang 826-840 Wenzong
Dahe

or

Taihe

or

827-835
Kaicheng 836-840
Emperor Wuzong of Tang Li Yan 840-846 Huichang 841-846 Wuzong
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Li Chen 846-859 Dachong 847-859 Xuanzong
Emperor Yizong of Tang Li Cui 859-873 Yizong
Xiantong 860-874
Emperor Xizong of Tang Li Xuan 873-888 Xizong
Qianfu 874-879
Guangming 880-881
Zhonghe 881-885
Guangqi 885-888
Wende 888
Emperor Zhaozong of Tang Li Ye 888-904 Longji 889 Zhaozong
Dashun 890-891
Jingfu 892-893
Qianning 894-898
Guanghua 898-901
Tianfu 901-904
Tianyou 904
Emperor Ai of Tang Li Zhu 904-907 Tianyou () 904-907 904-907 Zhaoxuan
1 -- Emperor Shao (), Emperor Ai (), and Emperor Zhaoxuan () are posthumous names, not temple names.

Wu Zhou () (690-705)

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Wu Zetian W? Zhào 690-705 Tianshou 690-692 -
Ruyi 692
Changshou 692-694
Yanzai 694
Zhengsheng 695
Tiancewansui ? 695-696
Wansuidengfeng ? 696
Wansuitongtian ? 696-697
Shengong 697
Shengli 698-700
Jiushi 700
Dazu 701
Chang'an 701-705

Kingdom of Qi () (881-884)

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Emperor Huang Chao Huang Chao 881-884 Wángbà 878-880 -
J?nt?ng 881-884

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (?) (907-960)

Five Dynasties ()

Chinese convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name

Hou (Later) Liang dynasty () (907-923)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Zh? W?n 907-912 Emperor Xianwu Ka?píng 907-911 Taizu
Qiánhuà 911-912
Zhu Yougui 912-913 - Qiánhuà 912-913 -
Fengli 913
Zh? Zhèn 913-923 Emperor Mo Qiánhuà 913-915 -
Zh?nmíng 915-921
Lóngdé 921-923

Hou (Later) Tang dynasty () (923-936)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
L? Cúnxù 923-926 - Tongguang 923-926 Zhuangzong
L? Sìyuán

or

L? D?n

or

926-933 - Tiancheng 926-930 Mingzong
Changxing 930-933
L? Cónghòu 933-934 Emperor Min Yingshun 933-934 -
L? Cóngk? 934-936 Emperor Mo Qingtai 934-936 -

Hou (Later) Jin dynasty () (936-947)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Shi Jingtang 936-942 - Tianfu 936-944 Gaozu
Shi Chonggui 942-947 Emperor Chu -
Kaiyun 944-947

Hou (Later) Han dynasty () (947-950)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Liu Zhiyuan 947-948 - Tianfu 947 Gaozu
Liu Chengyou 948-950 Emperor Yin Qianyou 948-950 -

Hou (Later) Zhou dynasty () (951-960)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Guo Wei 951-954 - Guangshun 951-954 Taizu
Chai Rong 954-959 - Xiande 954-960 Shizong
Chai Zongxun 959-960 Emperor Gong -

Ten Kingdoms ()

Chinese convention: use personal names, noted otherwise

Wu Yue () (904-978)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Qian Liu 904-932 King Wusu Tianbao 908-923 Taizu
Baoda 923-925
Baozheng 925-932
Qian Yuanguan 932-941 King Wenmu - Shizong
Qian Hongzuo 941-947 King Zhongxian - Chengzong
Qian Hongzong 947 King Zhongxun - -
Qian Chu (Qian Hongchu) () 947-978 King Zhongyi - -

Min (?) (909-945) (including Yin (?) (943-945))

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Wang Shenzhi 909-925 King Zhongyi - Taizu
Wang Yanhan 925-926 - - -
Wang Yanjun 926-935 Emperor Hui Longqi 933-935 Taizong
Yonghe 935
Wang Jipeng 935-939 - Tongwen 936-939 Kangzong
Wang Yanxi 939-944 - Yonglong ) 939-944 Jingzong
Wang Yanzheng 943-945 Emperor Tiande
(as Emperor of Yin)
Tiande 943-945 -

Jingnan () (or Nanping ()) (906-963)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Gao Jixing 909-928 King Wuxin - -
Gao Conghui 928-948 King Wenxian - -
Gao Baorong 948-960 King Zhenyi - -
Gao Baoxu 960-962 Emperor Shizhong - -
Gao Jichong 962-963 - - -

Chu (?) (897-951)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Ma Yin 897-930 King Wumu - -
Ma Xisheng 930-932 King Hengyang - -
Ma Xifan 932-947 King Wenzhao - -
Ma Xiguang 947-950 King Fei - -
Ma Xi'e 950 King Gongxiao - -
Ma Xichong 950-951 - - -

Wu (?) (904-937)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Yang Xingmi 904-905 Emperor Xiaowu Tianyou 904-919 Taizu
Yang Wo 905-908 Emperor Jing Liezong
Yang Longyan 908-921 Emperor Xuan Gaozu
Wuyi 919-921
Yang Pu 921-937 Emperor Rui Shunyi 921-927 -
Qianzhen 927-929
Dahe 929-935
Tianzuo 935-937

Nan (Southern) Tang () (937-975)

Chinese convention for this kingdom only: Use Nan (Southern) Tang + posthumous names.

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Li Bian 937-943 - Shengyuan 937-943 Xianzhu

or Liezu

or

Li Jing 943-961 - Baoda 943-958 Zhongzhu

or Yuanzong

or

Jiaotai 958
Zhongxing 958
Li Yu (Li Houzhu) 961-975 King Wu - Houzhu

Nan (Southern) Han () (917-971)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Liú Yán
or
Liú Y?n

or

917-925 Emperor Tianhuang the Great ? Qiánh?ng 917-925 Gaozu
Báilóng 925-928
Dày?u 928-941
Liú B?n 941-943 Emperor Shang Gu?ngti?n 941-943 -
Liú Shèng 943-958 - Yìngqián 943 Zhongzong
Qiánhé 943-958
Liú Ch?ng 958-971 - Dàb?o 958-971 Houzhu

Bei (Northern) Han () (951-979)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Liu Min 951-954 Emperor Shenwu Qianyou 951-957 Shizu
Liu Chengjun 954-970 Emperor Xiaohe Ruizong
Tianhui 957-970
Liu Jien 970 - - Shaozhu
Liu Jiyuan 970-982 Emperor Yingwu Guangyun 970-982 -

Qian (Former) Shu () (907-925)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Wang Jian 907-918 - Tianfu 907 Gaozu
Wucheng 908-910
Yongping 911-915
Tongzheng 916
Tianhan 917
Guangtian 918
Wang Zongyan 918-925 - Qiande 918-925 Houzhu
Xiankang 925

Hou (Later) Shu () (934-965)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Meng Zhixiang 934 - Mingde () 934 934-938 Gaozu
Meng Chang 938-965 - Guangzheng 938-965 Houzhu

Independent regimes during Ten Kingdoms

(local independent regimes during Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period traditionally not counted in the Ten Kingdoms)

Military Commissioner of Wuping/Hunan (/)

Personal name Name of posts Period on post
Liu Yan Military Commissioner of Wuping 950-953
Wang Kui

or

Wang Jinkui

or

953-956
Zhou Xingfeng Military Commissioner of Hunan 956-962
Zhou Baoquan 962-963

Military Commissioner of Quanzhang ()

Personal name Name of posts Period on post
Liu Congxiao Commander-in-Chief of Quanzhang 945-962
Liu Shaozi Regent of Quanzhang ? 962
Zhang Hansi Military Commissioner of Quanzhang 962-963
Chen Hongjin 963-978

Liao dynasty () (907-1125)

Chinese convention: use "Liao" + temple name except Liao Tianzuodi who is referred using "Liao" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Emperor Taizu of Liao Y?l? ?b?oj? 907-926 - Shence 916-922 Taizu
Tianzan 922-926
Tianxian 926
Emperor Taizong of Liao Y?l? Dégu?ng ? 926-947 - Tianxian 927-938 Taizong
Huitong 938-947
Datong 947
Emperor Shizong of Liao Y?l? Ru?n 947-951 - Tianlu () 947-951 947-951 Shizong
Emperor Muzong of Liao Y?l? J?ng 951-969 - Yingli () 951-969 951-969 Muzong
Emperor Jingzong of Liao Y?l? Xián 969-982 - Baoning 969-979 Jingzong
Qianheng 979-982
Emperor Shengzong of Liao Y?l? Lóngxù ? 982-1031 - Qianheng 982 Shengzong
Tonghe 983-1012
Kaitai 1012-1021
Taiping 1021-1031
Emperor Xingzong Liao Y?l? Z?ngzh?n ? 1031-1055 - Jingfu 1031-1032 Xingzong
Chongxi 1032-1055
Emperor Daozong of Liao Y?l? Hóngj? ? 1055-1101 - Qingning 1055-1064 Daozong
Xianyong 1065-1074
Taikang

or

Dakang

or

1075-1084
Da'an 1085-1094
Shouchang

or

Shoulong

or

1095-1101
Emperor Tianzuo of Liao Y?l? Yánx? ? 1101-1125 Emperor Tianzuo Qiantong 1101-1110 -
Tianqing 1111-1120
Baoda 1121-1125

(Continued as Western Liao in Central Asia)

Western Liao () (1124-1218)

Chinese convention: use personal name or "Western Liao" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Yelü Dashi Y?l? Dàshí

or

Y?l? Dáshí1

?

or

?

1124-1144 Emperor Tianyou Wulie Yanqing 1124 or 1125-1134 Dezong
Kangguo 1134-1144
Xiao Tabuyan
(regent)
Xi?o T?bùy?n ? 1144-1150 Empress Gantian ? Xianqing 1144-1150 -
Yelü Yilie Y?l? Yíliè ? 1150-1164 - Shaoxing

or

Xuxing2

or

1150-1164 Renzong
Yelü Pusuwan
(regent)
Y?l? P?sùwán 1164-1178 Empress Dowager Chengtian ? Chongfu ( Chóngfú) 1164-1178 1164-1178 -
Yelü Zhilugu Y?l? Zhíl?g? 1178-1211 Lord Mo

or

Emperor Mo

or

Tianxi ( Ti?nx?) 1178-1218 1178-1218 -
Kuchlug Q?ch?l? 1211-1218 - - -
1 -- "Dashi" might be the Chinese title "Taishi", meaning "vizier"; or, it could mean "Stone" in Turkish, as the Chinese transliteration suggests.

2 -- Recently discovered Western Liao coins have the era name "Xuxing", suggesting that the era name "Shaoxing" recorded in Chinese sources may be incorrect.[1]

Song dynasty () (960-1279)

Chinese convention: use "Song" + temple name or posthumous name (except last emperor who was revered as Song Di Bing ( Sòng Dì B?ng))

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Bei (Northern) Song () (960-1127)
Emperor Taizu of Song Zhao Kuangyin 960-976 Emperor Xiao Jianlong 960-963 Taizu
Qiande 963-968
Kaibao 968-976
Emperor Taizong of Song Zhao Kuangyi

or Zhao Guangyi

or

Zhao Jiong

or

or

976-997 Emperor De Taipingxingguo ? 976-984 Taizong
Yongxi 984-987
Duangong 988-989
Chunhua 990-994
Zhidao 995-997
Emperor Zhenzong of Song Zhao Heng 997-1022 Emperor Zhang Xianping 998-1003 Zhenzong
Jingde 1004-1007
Dazhongxiangfu ? 1008-1016
Tianxi 1017-1021
Qianxing 1022
Emperor Renzong of Song Zhao Zhen 1022-1063 Emperor Wen Tiansheng 1023-1032 Renzong
Mingdao 1032-1033
Jingyou 1034-1038
Baoyuan 1038-1040
Kangding 1040-1041
Qingli 1041-1048
Huangyou 1049-1054
Zhihe 1054-1056
Jiayou 1056-1063
Emperor Yingzong of Song Zhao Shu 1063-1067 Emperor Xuan Zhiping 1064-1067 Yingzong
Emperor Shenzong of Song Zhao Xu 1067-1085 Emperor Qin Xining 1068-1077 Shenzong
Yuanfeng 1078-1085
Emperor Zhezong of Song Zhao Xu 1085-1100 Emperor Zhao Yuanyou 1086-1094 Zhezong
Shaosheng 1094-1098
Yuanfu 1098-1100
Emperor Huizong of Song Zhao Ji 1100-1125 Emperor Xian Jianzhongjingguo ? 1101 Huizong
Chongning 1102-1106
Daguan 1107-1110
Zhenghe 1111-1118
Chonghe 1118-1119
Xuanhe 1119-1125
Emperor Qinzong of Song Zhao Huan 1126-1127 Emperor Ren Jingkang 1125-1127 Qinzong
Nan (Southern) Song () (1127-1279)
Emperor Gaozong of Song Zhao Gou 1127-1162 Emperor Xian Jianyan 1127-1130 Gaozong
Shaoxing 1131-1162
Emperor Xiaozong of Song Zhao Shen 1162-1189 Emperor Cheng Longxing 1163-1164 Xiaozong
Qiandao 1165-1173
Chunxi 1174-1189
Emperor Guangzong of Song Zhao Dun 1189-1194 Emperor Ci Shaoxi 1190-1194 Guangzong
Emperor Ningzong of Song Zhao Kuo 1194-1224 Emperor Gong Qingyuan 1195-1200 Ningzong
Jiatai 1201-1204
Kaixi 1205-1207
Jiading 1208-1224
Emperor Lizong of Song Zhao Yun 1224-1264 Emperor An Baoqing 1225-1227 Lizong
Shaoding 1228-1233
Duanping 1234-1236
Jiaxi 1237-1240
Chunyou 1241-1252
Baoyou 1253-1258
Kaiqing 1259
Jingding 1260-1264
Emperor Duzong of Song Zhao Qi 1264-1274 Emperor Jing Xianchun 1265-1274 Duzong
Emperor Gongzong of Song Zhao Xian 1274-1276 Emperor Gong Deyou 1275-1276 Gongzong
Emperor Duanzong of Song Zhao Shi 1276-1278 - Jingyan 1276-1278 Duanzong
Zhao Bing Zhao Bing 1278-1279 Prince Wei Xiangxing 1278-1279 -

Western Xia () (1038-1227)

Chinese convention: use "Western Xia" + temple name (or use personal name)

The Tangut names for about half of the Western Xia eras are known from Tangut texts or monumental inscriptions, or from Western Xia coins.

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Emperor J?ngz?ng of Western Xia L? Yuánhào 1032-1048 Emperor W?liè Xi?ndào 1032-1034 J?ngz?ng
K?iyùn 1034
Gu?ngpíng 1035-1036
Dàqìng 1036-1038
Ti?nshòul?f?yánzuò 1038-1048
Emperor Yìz?ng of Western Xia L? Liàngzuò 1048-1067 Emperor Zh?oy?ng Yánsìníngguó ? 1048-1049 Yìz?ng
Ti?nyòuchuíshèng ? 1050-1052
Fúshèngchéngdào ? 1053-1056
Du?d? 1057-1063
G?nghuà 1063-1067
Emperor Huìz?ng of Western Xia L? B?ngcháng 1067-1086 Emperor K?ngjìng Qiándào 1067-1069 Huìz?ng
Ti?ncìl?shèngguóqìng 1070-1074
Dà'?n
1075-1085
Ti?n'?nl?dìng ?
?
1085-1086
Emperor Chóngz?ng of Western Xia L? Qiánshùn 1086-1139 Emperor Shèngwén Ti?nyízhìpíng ? 1086-1089 Chóngz?ng
Ti?nyòumín'?n ?
?
1090-1097
Y?ng'?n 1098-1100
Zh?ngu?n
1101-1113
Y?ngníng
1114-1118
Yuándé
1119-1127
Zhèngdé
1127-1134
Dàdé
1135-1139
Emperor Rénz?ng of Western Xia L? Rénxiào 1139-1193 Emperor Shèngzh?n Dàqìng
1139-1143 Rénz?ng
Rénqìng
1144-1148
Ti?nshèng
1149-1170
Qiányòu
1170-1193
Emperor Huánz?ng of Western Xia L? Chúnyòu 1193-1206 Emperor Zh?oji?n Ti?nqìng
1193-1206 Huánz?ng
Emperor Xi?ngz?ng of Western Xia L? ?nquán 1206-1211 Emperor J?ngw? Y?ngti?n 1206-1209 Xi?ngz?ng
Huángjiàn
1210-1211
Emperor Shénz?ng of Western Xia L? Z?nx? 1211-1223 Emperor Y?ngwén Gu?ngdìng
1211-1223 Shénz?ng
Emperor Xiànz?ng of Western Xia L? Déwàng 1223-1226 - Qiándìng 1223-1226 Xiànz?ng
Emperor Mòzh? of Western Xia L? Xiàn 1226-1227 - B?oyì 1226-1227 Mòzh?

Jin dynasty () (1115-1234)

Chinese convention: use "Jin" + temple name or posthumous name in Chinese

Jin dynasty 1115-1234
Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Emperor Taizu of Jin ?g?d?
or
Wányán M?n

or
1115-1123 Sh?uguó 1115-1116 - Tàiz?
Ti?nf? 1117-1123
Emperor Taizong of Jin Wúq?m?i
or
Wányán Shèng

or
1123-1134 Ti?nhuì 1123-1134 - Tàiz?ng
Emperor Xizong of Jin Hélá
or
Wányán D?n

or
1135-1149 Ti?nhuì 1135-1138 - X?z?ng
Ti?njuàn 1138-1141
Huángt?ng 1141-1149
Wanyan Liang Díg?n?i
or
Wányán Liàng

or
1149-1161 Ti?ndé 1149-1153 Prince Yáng of H?ilíng
or
Prince of H?ilíng
?
or
-
Zhènyuán 1153-1156
Zhènglóng 1156-1161
Emperor Shizong of Jin W?lù
or
Wányán Y?ng

or
1161-1189 Dàdìng 1161-1189 - Shìz?ng
Emperor Zhangzong of Jin Mádág?
or
Wányán J?ng

or
1190-1208 Míngch?ng 1190-1196 - Zh?ngz?ng
Chéng'?n 1196-1200
Tàihé 1200-1208
Wanyan Yongji Wányán Y?ngjì ? 1209-1213 Dà'?n 1209-1212 Prince Shào of Weì
or
Prince of Weì

or
-
Chóngqìng 1212-1213
Zhìníng 1213
Emperor Xuanzong of Jin Wúdúb?
or
Wányán Xú

or
1213-1223 Zh?nyòu 1213-1217 - Xu?nz?ng
X?ngdìng 1217-1222
Yuángu?ng 1222-1223
Emperor Aizong of Jin Níngji?sù
or
Wányán Sh?uxù

or
?
1224-1234 Zhèngdà 1224-1232 - ?iz?ng
K?ix?ng 1232
Ti?nx?ng 1232-1234
Emperor Mo of Jin H?d?n
or
Wányán Chénglín

or
?
1234 - Emperor Mò -

Yuan dynasty () (1271-1368)

Chinese convention: for rulers before Kublai Khan use given name (e.g. Temüjin) or Khan names, use "Yuan" + temple name or posthumous name after

Note:
1) The Mongol Great Khans before Khublai were only declared Yuan emperors after the creation of Yuan dynasty in 1271
2) To non-Chinese readers, usually the khan names are the most familiar names.
3) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with Timur the lame (Tamerlane).

Khan Name Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Genghis Khan Borjigin Temüjin ? 1206-1227 - - Tàiz?
Tolui Borjigin Tolui 1228 - - Ruìz?ng
Ögedei Khan Borjigin Ögedei ? 1229-1241 - - Tàiz?ng
Güyük Khan Borjigin Güyük 1246-1248 - - Dìngz?ng
Möngke Khan Borjigin Möngke 1251-1259 - - Xiànz?ng
Kublai Khan Borjigin Kublai ? 1260-1294 Zh?ngt?ng 1260-1264 - Shìz?
Zhìyuán 1264-1294
Temür Khan Borjigin Temür ? 1294-1307 Yuánzh?n 1295-1297 - Chéngz?ng
1307-1308 Dàdé 1297-1307
Külüg Khan Borjigin Qayshan 1308-1311 Zhìdà 1308-1311 - W?z?ng
Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan Borjigin Ayurparibhadra 1311-1320 Huángqìng 1312-1313 - Rénz?ng
1320-1321 Yányòu 1314-1320
Gegeen Khan Borjigin Suddhipala 1321-1323 Zhìzhì 1321-1323 - Y?ngz?ng
Yesün Temür1 Borjigin Yesün-Temür 1323-1328 Tàidìng 1324-1328 Emperor Tàidìng2 -
Zhìhé 1328
Ragibagh Khan1 Borjigin Arigaba 1328 Ti?nshùn 1328 Emperor Ti?nshùn2 -
Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür Borjigin Toq-Temür 1328-1329 and 1329-1332 Ti?nlì 1328-1330 - Wénz?ng
Zhìshùn 1330-1332
Khutughtu Khan Kusala Borjigin Qoshila ? 1329 - Míngz?ng
Rinchinbal Khan Borjigin Irinchibal 1332 - Níngz?ng
Toghon Temür1 Borjigin Toghan-Temür 1333-1368 1333 Emperor Shundi Huìz?ng
Yuánt?ng 1333-1335
Zhìyuán 1335-1340
Zhìzhèng 1341-1368
Zhìyuán 1368-1370

1 -- Chinese convention: for these sovereigns only, use "yuan" + posthumous name (e.g. ? Yuán Tàidìng Dì). 2 -- Not actually a posthumous name, but adopted from era name.

Note:

1) To non-Chinese readers, usually the khan names are the most familiar names.

2) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with the Timur (Timurlane or Tamerlane) who attempted to restore the Mongolian Empire in Central Asia.

Convention: for the following sovereign only, use "yuan" + posthumous name.

Northern Yuan () (1368 - early 15th century)

Retreat of the Yuan court to the Mongolian Plateau after being overthrown by the Ming dynasty in China proper in 1368 (1368 - early 15th century)

Convention: use khan names or birth names.

Khan Names Personal Name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Toghon Temür

(same person as the last Yuan emperor)

Borjigin Toghan-Temür 1368-1370 Zhìshùn 1333 Emperor Shundi Huìz?ng
Yuánt?ng 1333-1335
Zhìyuán 1335-1340
Zhìzhèng 1341-1368
Zhìyuán 1368-1370
Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara Borjigin Ayushiridara ? 1370-1378 Xu?ngu?ng 1371-1378 - Zhàoz?ng
Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür Borjigin Tögüs Temür ? 1378-1388 Ti?nyuán

or

Ti?ngu?ng1

or

1378-1388 - -
1 -- Recently discovered Northern Yuan coins have the era name "Tianguang", suggesting that the era name "Tianyuan" recorded in Chinese sources may be incorrect.[2]

Ming dynasty () (1368-1644)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name1 (Shi Hao ) Temple name1 (Miao Hao )
Hongwu Emperor Zh? Yuánzh?ng 1368-1398 Hóngw? 1368-1398 Emperor G?o Tàiz?
Jianwen Emperor Zh? Y?nwén 1398-1402 Jiànwén 1398-1402 Emperor Huì Huizong²
Yongle Emperor Zh? Dì 1402-1424 Y?nglè 1402-1424 Emperor W?n Chéngz? or Tàiz?ng /
Hongxi Emperor Zh? G?ochì 1424-1425 Hóngx? 1424-1425 Emperor Zh?o Rénz?ng
Xuande Emperor Zh? Zh?nj? 1425-1435 Xu?ndé 1425-1435 Emperor Zh?ng Xu?nz?ng
Emperor Yingzong of Ming Zh? Qízhèn 1435-1449

and

1457-1464³

Zhèngt?ng

and

Ti?nshùn

and

1435-1449

and

1457-1464

Emperor Ruì Y?ngz?ng
Jingtai Emperor Zh? Qíyù 1449-1457 J?ngtài 1449-1457 Emperor J?ng Dàiz?ng
Chenghua Emperor Zh? Jiànsh?n 1464-1487 Chénghuà 1464-1487 Emperor Chún Xiànz?ng
Hongzhi Emperor Zh? Yòutáng 1487-1505 Hóngzhì 1487-1505 Emperor Jìng Xiàoz?ng
Zhengde Emperor Zh? Hòuzhào 1505-1521 Zhèngdé 1505-1521 Emperor Yì W?z?ng
Jiajing Emperor Zh? Hòuc?ng 1521-1566 Ji?jìng 1521-1566 Emperor Sù Shìz?ng
Longqing Emperor Zh? Z?ihòu 1566-1572 Lóngqìng 1566-1572 Emperor Zhu?ng Mùz?ng
Wanli Emperor Zh? Yìj?n 1572-1620 Wànlì 1572-1620 Emperor Xi?n Shénz?ng
Taichang Emperor Zh? Chángluò 1620 Tàich?ng 1620 Emperor Zh?n Gu?ngz?ng
Tianqi Emperor Zh? Yóujiào 1620-1627 Ti?nq? 1620-1627 Emperor Zhé X?z?ng
Chongzhen Emperor Zh? Yóuji?n 1627-1644 Chóngzh?n 1627-1644 Emperor Zhu?nglièm?nhuáng S?z?ng or Yìz?ng /
1 -- As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Ming, to avoid confusion. For example, the Hongwu emperor is frequently referred to as Ming Taizu.

2 -- The Yongle emperor assumed the throne of his nephew the Jianwen emperor, who was officially said to have died in a palace fire but who was suspected of escaping to live as a recluse. The Yongle emperor wiped out the record of his nephew's reign and no temple name was given him. In 1644 the Prince of Fu (), the new self-proclaimed emperor of the Southern Ming, conferred on Emperor Jianwen the temple name Huizong.

3 -- After listening to the poor advice of his eunuch advisers, the Zhengtong Emperor personally led a campaign in 1449 against the Mongols and was captured. His brother the Jingtai Emperor assumed the throne and as a hostage no longer of any value, the Mongols released the Zhengtong Emperor who returned to live in seclusion. However the Zhengtong Emperor was able to regain his position, choosing the reign name Tianshun.

Shun dynasty () (1644-1645)

The Shun dynasty was an imperial dynasty created in the brief lapse from Ming to Qing rule in China. It was a state set up by the peasants' rebellion, in which they defeated the Ming forces, but former Ming general Wu Sangui led the Qing forces into Beijing and the Qing forces defeated the rebels.

Name most commonly known by Personal name Reign years Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Alternative title
Li Zicheng Li Zicheng 1644-1645 Yongchang 1644-1645 Chu?ng Wáng (The Dashing King)

Southern Ming () (1644-1662)

The Southern Ming dynasty refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662. The regime was established by the princes of the already destroyed Ming dynasty. All of these monarchs had their regimes crushed by the Qing forces very quickly. Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) used the Ming dynasty's name and gathered forces before fleeing to Taiwan.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Zhu Yousong Zh? Yóus?ng 1644-1645 Hónggu?ng 1644-1645 ?nz?ng
Zhu Yujian Zh? Yùjiàn 1645-1646 Lóngw? 1645-1646 Shàoz?ng
Zhu Changfang Zh? Chángf?ng 1645 None given, but sometimes referred to as the "Regency of the Prince of Lu/Luh"
(Lù Wáng Lín Guó)
? 1646 -
Zhu Yihai Zh? Y?h?i 1645-1653 -
Zhu Yuyue Zh? Yùyuè 1646 Shàow? 1646 Wénz?ng
Zhu Youlang Zh? Yóuláng 1646-1662 Y?nglì 1646-1662 Zh?oz?ng

*The two characters are homonyms, both pronounced Lu; to distinguish them, one is usually kept as Lu and the other spelled differently. Luh is from Cambridge History of China; Lou is from A.C. Moule's Rulers of China (1957). When one irregular spelling is used, the other is kept as regular (Lu). The two systems are distinct and not used simultaneously.

Qing dynasty () (1636-1912)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name1 Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name2 (Shi Hao ) Temple name2 (Miao Hao )
Nurhaci Nurhaci ? 1616-16263 Ti?nmìng Abkai fulingga 1616-1626 Emperor G?o Tàiz?
Huang Taiji Hong Taiji4 1626-1643 Ti?nc?ng Abkai sure 1627-1636 Emperor Wén Tàiz?ng
Chóngdé Wesihun erdemungge 1636-1643
Shunzhi Emperor Fúlín 1643-16615 Shùnzhì Ijish?n dasan 1643-1661 Emperor Zh?ng Shìz?
Kangxi Emperor Xuányè 1661-1722 K?ngx? Elhe taifin 1661-1722 Emperor Rén Shèngz?
Yongzheng Emperor Yìnzh?n 1722-1735 Y?ngzhèng H?waliyasun tob 1722-1735 Emperor Xiàn Shìz?ng
Qianlong Emperor Hónglì 1735-17966 Qiánlóng Abkai wehiyehe 1735-1796 Emperor Chún G?oz?ng
Jiaqing Emperor Yóngy?n 1796-1820 Ji?qìng Saicungga feng?en 1796-1820 Emperor Ruì Rénz?ng
Daoguang Emperor Mínníng 1820-1850 Dàogu?ng Doro eldengge 1820-1850 Emperor Chéng Xu?nz?ng
Xianfeng Emperor Yìzh? 1850-1861 Xiánf?ng Gubci elgiyengg 1850-1861 Emperor Xi?n Wénz?ng
Tongzhi Emperor Z?ichún 1861-18757 Tóngzhì Yooningga dasan 1861-1875 Emperor Yì Mùz?ng
Guangxu Emperor Z?itián 1875-19087 Gu?ngxù Badarangga doro 1875-1908 Emperor J?ng Déz?ng
Xuantong Emperor P?yí
(also known as Henry)
1908-191210 Xu?nt?ng Gehungge yoso 1908-1912 Emperor M?ndì officially9, but commonly called Emperor Xùn in prensent-day China8 / G?ngz?ng9

1 -- The Qing imperial family name was Aisin Gioro (? aixin jueluo), but it was not common Manchu practice to include the family or clan name in an individual's personal name.

2 -- As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Qing, to avoid confusion. For example, the Qianlong emperor is frequently referred to as Qing Gaozong.

3 -- Nurhaci founded the Jin (?) or Later Jin () dynasty in 1616, but it was his son Hong Taiji who changed the name of the dynasty to Qing in 1636. Nurhaci adopted the reign name Tianming but his Qing titles were all conferred posthumously.

4 -- Hong Taiji is referred to erroneously in some historical literature as Abahai ().

5 -- The Shunzhi emperor was the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper following the occupation of Beijing in 1644.

6 -- The Qianlong emperor officially retired in 1796, taking the title Emperor Emeritus (?). This was an act of filial piety to ensure that he would not reign longer than his illustrious grandfather, the Kangxi emperor. However, he remained the ultimate authority until his death in 1799, at which point his son, the Jiaqing emperor, began to exercise the power that had been his in name only from 1796.

7 -- The Empress Dowager Cixi, concubine of the Xianfeng emperor, mother of the Tongzhi emperor, and adoptive mother of the Guangxu emperor, used her considerable skills of political manipulation to act as the power behind the throne or on the throne from 1861 until her death in 1908. She acted as a regent during the minorities of the two young emperors and confined the Guangxu emperor in the Summer Palace after he attempted to introduce reforms in 1898. The death of the Guangxu emperor was announced the day before her own.

8 -- Xundi ("The Abdicated Emperor") is the posthumous name given by mainland China and Taiwan's history books to Puyi.

9 -- In 2004 the descendants of the Qing imperial family have conferred a posthumous name and temple name upon the late Puyi. Posthumous name: Mindi (). Temple name: Gongzong (). Both titles are not commonly used in academia to refer to this sovereign.

10 -- The Xinhai Revolution started on October 10, 1911. The last emperor, Puyi, abdicated officially on February 12, 1912. The Qing dynasty was overthrown with his abdication on that day. However, that same day the Chinese Republic granted the "Articles of Favourable Treatment of the Emperor of the Great Qing after his Abdication" () which allowed Puyi to retain his imperial title and stated that he should be treated by the government of the Republic of China with the protocol attached to a foreign monarch. These articles were revised on November 5, 1924, after the coup by General Feng Yuxiang: the revised articles stated that Puyi was losing his imperial title and henceforth becoming a regular citizen of the Republic. Puyi was expelled from the Forbidden City that same day. Thus, Puyi was ruling emperor until February 12, 1912 (and also briefly between July 1 and July 12, 1917 in the Manchu Restoration), and non-ruling emperor between February 12, 1912 and November 5, 1924. Puyi also later became the puppet leader of Japanese-controlled Manchukuo under the reign name Datong () (1932-1934), then the puppet emperor of Manchukuo under the reign name Kangde () (1934-1945).

Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (?) (1851-1864)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era name (Nian Hao )
Hong Xiuquan Hong Xiuquan 11 January 1851 - 1 June 1864 Yuánnián
Hong Tianguifu Hong Tianguifu ? 6 June 1864 - 18 November 1864 -

Empire of China (?) (1915-1916)

A short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai who attempted to establish himself as emperor in 1915, but his rule is universally accepted as inauthentic. After 83 days, his reign ended.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era name (Nian Hao )
Yuan Shikai Yuan Shikai 22 December 1915 - 22 March 1916 Hóngxiàn

See also

References

  1. ^ Belyaev, V.A.; Nastich, V.N.; Sidorovich, S.V. (2012). "The coinage of Qara Khitay: a new evidence (on the reign title of the Western Liao Emperor Yelü Yilie)". Proceedings of the 3rd Simone Assemani Symposium, September 23-24, 2011, Rome.
  2. ^ http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_ac349fd50102xfdr.html

External links


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