List of Chinese Monarchs
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List of Chinese Monarchs

This list of Chinese monarchs includes rulers of China with various titles prior to the establishment of the Republic in 1912. From the Zhou dynasty until the Qin dynasty, rulers usually held the title "king" (Chinese: ?; pinyin: wáng). With the separation of China into different Warring States, this title had become so common that the unifier of China, the first Qin Emperor Qin Shihuang created a new title for himself, that of "emperor" (pinyin: huángdì). The title of Emperor of China continued to be used for the remainder of China's imperial history, right down to the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912.

While many other monarchs existed in and around China throughout its history, this list covers only those with a quasi-legitimate claim to the majority of China, or those who have traditionally been named in king-lists. The following list of Chinese monarchs is in no way comprehensive.

Chinese sovereigns were known by many different names, and how they should be identified is often confusing. Sometimes the same emperor is commonly known by two or three separate names, or the same name is used by emperors of different dynasties. The tables below do not necessarily include all of an emperor's names - for example, posthumous names could run to more than twenty characters and were rarely used in historical writing - but, where possible, the most commonly used name or naming convention has been indicated. Scholars also often use common terms to refer to some monarchs with special circumstances -- "Modi" (; "last emperor"), "Mozhu" (; "last lord"), "Houzhu" (; "last lord"), "Shaodi" (; "young emperor"), "Shaozhu" (; "young lord"), "Feidi" (; "deposed emperor"), etc.; these terms are not temple names, posthumous names or regnal names.

In some cases, the regnal or era name is changed in the same year as the death of the previous sovereign; in other cases, the name change occurs in the subsequent year. Thus, the date given for the beginning of a reign may actually refer to the first full year of the sovereign's reign.

These tables may not necessarily represent the most recently updated information on Chinese monarchs; please check the page for the relevant dynasty for possible additional information.

Follow these links to see how they are related:

Family tree of Chinese monarchs (ancient) -> Family tree of Chinese monarchs (Warring States period) -> Chinese emperors family tree (early) -> Chinese emperors family tree (middle) -> Chinese emperors family tree (late)

Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (?) (2852-2070 BCE)

Although it is ingrained in Chinese mythology that the earliest mythological rulers of China included three huáng (?, generally translated "sovereign" or "august one") and five (?, generally translated "emperor"), both terms denoting demigod status, their identities have differed between different sources, with some individuals, such as the Yellow Emperor, being regarded as either sovereign or emperor, depending on the source. The two characters would later be taken together by Qin Shi Huang to form the new title huángdì (, emperor), thus claiming legendary status for himself.

Note: These figures are considered to be legendary.

Title Name by which most commonly known Reign (according to tradition) In Chinese Other names
Huang1,4,5 / Di3 Youchao 3162-2962 BCE Y?ucháo -
Huang/ Di3 Suiren 2962-2852 BCE Suìrén -
Huang4 / Di3 Fuxi 2852-2737 BCE Fúx? -
Huang1 / Di1 Yan Emperor and/or Shennong 2737-2698 BCE Yándì Shennong
Huang5 / Di1,2 Yellow Emperor 2698-2598 BCE Huángdì Xuanyuan
Di2 Shaohao 2597-2514 BCE Sh?ohào Jintian
Di1,2 Zhuanxu 2514-2436 BCE Zhu?nx? Gaoyang
Di1 Emperor Ku 2436-2366 BCE Dìkù Gaoxin
Di1 Emperor Zhi 2366-2358 BCE Dìzhì Qingyang
Di1 Emperor Yao (of Tang) 2356-2255 BCE Dìyáo or Táng Yáo / Yiqi, Taotang and Fangxun
Di1 Emperor Shun (of Yu) 2255-2208 BCE Dìshùn or Yú Shùn / Yao, Youyu and Chonghua ?
1 -- According to the Records of the Grand Historian.
2 -- According to the Chu Ci.
3 -- According to the Book of Rites.
4 -- According to the Shangshu dazhuan (?) and Baihu tongyi (?).
5 -- According to the Diwang shiji (?)

Xia dynasty () (2070-1600 BCE)

Chinese convention: use "Xia" + regnal name

Name by which most commonly known Reign (according to tradition) Regnal name1 Other names
Yu the Great 2150-2106 BCE Y? ? -
Qi of Xia 2106-2077 BCE Q? ? -
Tai Kang 2077-2048 BCE K?ng ? Tài K?ng
Zhong Kang 2048-2036 BCE K?ng ? Zhòng K?ng
Xiang of Xia 2036-2008 BCE Xi?ng ? -
Interregnum (about 40 years)
Shao Kang 1968-1946 BCE K?ng ? Shào K?ng
Zhu of Xia 1946-1929 BCE Zhù ? -
Huai of Xia 1929-1885 BCE Huái ? -
Mang of Xia 1885-1867 BCE Máng ? -
Xie of Xia 1867-1851 BCE Xiè ? -
Bu Jiang 1851-1792 BCE Jiàng ? -
Jiong of Xia 1792-1771 BCE Ji?ng ? -
Jin of Xia 1771-1750 BCE J?n ? Yìn Ji?
Kong Jia 1750-1719 BCE K?ng Ji? -
Gao of Xia 1719-1708 BCE G?o ? -
Fa of Xia 1708-1689 BCE F? ? Hou Jin
Jie of Xia 1689-1658 BCE Jié ? L? Gu?

Shang dynasty () (1600-1046 BCE)

Chinese convention: use "Shang" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign (according to tradition)1 Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Tang of Shang Zi Lü 1658-1629 BCE Ti?n Y? Tàizu
Wai Bing Zi Shèng 1629-1627 BCE Wài B?ng -
Zhong Ren Zi Y?ng 1627-1623 BCE Zhòng Rén -
Tai Jia Zi Zhì 1623-1611 BCE Tài Ji? Tàiz?ng
Wo Ding Zi Xuàn 1611-1592 BCE Wò D?ng -
Tai Geng Zi Biàn 1592-1567 BCE Tài G?ng -
Xiao Jia Zi G?o 1567-1550 BCE Xi?o Ji? -
Yong Ji Zi Zhòu 1550-1538 BCE Y?ng J? -
Tai Wu Zi Mì 1538-1463 BCE Tài Wù -
Zhong Ding Zi Zhu?ng 1463-1452 BCE Zhòng D?ng -
Wai Ren Zi F? 1452-1437 BCE Wài Rén -
He Dan Jia Zi Zh?ng 1437-1428 BCE Ji?n Ji? -
Zu Yi Zi Téng 1428-1409 BCE Z? Y? Zh?ngz?ng
Zu Xin Zi Dàn 1409-1393 BCE Z? X?n -
Wo Jia Zi Yú 1393-1368 BCE Wò Ji? -
Zu Ding Zi X?n 1368-1336 BCE Z? D?ng -
Nan Geng Zi G?ng 1336-1307 BCE Nán G?ng -
Yang Jia Zi Hé 1307-1290 BCE Yáng Ji? -
Pan Geng Zi Xún 1290-1262 BCE Pán G?ng -
Xiao Xin Zi Sòng 1262-1259 BCE Xi?o X?n -
Xiao Yi Zi Li?n 1259-1250 BCE Xi?o Y? -
Wu Ding Zi Zh?o 1250-1192 BCE W? D?ng G?oz?ng
Zu Geng Zi Yuè 1192-1185 BCE Z? G?ng -
Zu Jia Zi Zài 1185-1158 BCE Z? Ji? -
Lin Xin Zi Xi?n 1158-1152 BCE L?n X?n -
Kang Ding Zi Xi?o 1152-1147 BCE K?ng D?ng -
Wu Yi Zi Qú 1147-1112 BCE W? Y? -
Wen Ding Zi Tu? 1112-1102 BCE Wén D?ng3 -
Di Yi Zi Xiàn 1101-1076 BCE Dì Y? -
King Zhou of Shang Zi Shòu 1075-1046 BCE Di Xin -
1 -- The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.

2 -- The period of the Shang dynasty starting from Pan Geng is also frequently referred to as the Yin (?) dynasty. because he changed capital to Yin.

3 -- Also known as Tai Ding ().

Zhou dynasty () (1046-256 BCE)

Chinese convention: use "Zhou" + posthumous name ("Wang" is the chinese term for "King")

Note: The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC, the beginning of the Gonghe regency. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign1 Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Western Zhou () (1046-771 BCE)
King Wu of Zhou J? F? 1046-1043 BCE1 King W?
King Cheng of Zhou J? Sòng 1042-1021 BCE1 King Chéng
King Kang of Zhou J? Zh?o 1020-996 BCE1 King K?ng
King Zhao of Zhou J? Xiá 995-977 BCE1 King Zh?o
King Mu of Zhou J? M?n 976-922 BCE1 King Mù
King Gong of Zhou J? Y?hù 922-900 BCE1 King G?ng
King Yi of Zhou (Jian) J? Ji?n 899-892 BCE1 King Yì
King Xiao of Zhou J? Bìf?ng 891-886 BCE1 King Xiào
King Yi of Zhou (Xie) J? Xiè 885-878 BCE1 King Yí
King Li of Zhou J? Hú 877-841 BCE1 King Lì
Gonghe Regency () (841-827 BC)
King Xuan of Zhou J? Jìng 827-782 BCE King Xu?n
King You of Zhou J? G?ngsh?ng 781-771 BCE King Y?u
Eastern Zhou () (770-256 BCE)
Spring and Autumn period (?) (770-476 BCE)
King Ping of Zhou J? Yijiu 770-720 BCE King Ping
King Xie of Zhou (rival claimant) (J? Yuchen) (770-750 BCE) King Xie (or Xiehui) ?(?)?
King Huan of Zhou J? Lin 719-697 BCE King Huan
King Zhuang of Zhou J? Tuo 696-682 BCE King Zhuang
King Xi of Zhou J? Huqi 681-677 BCE King Xi
King Hui of Zhou J? Lang 676-652 BCE King Hui
King Xiang of Zhou J? Zheng 651-619 BCE King Xiang
King Qing of Zhou J? Renchen 618-613 BCE King Qing
King Kuang of Zhou J? Ban 612-607 BCE King Kuang
King Ding of Zhou J? Yu 606-586 BCE King Ding
King Jian of Zhou J? Yi 585-572 BCE King Jian
King Ling of Zhou J? Xiexin 571-545 BCE King Ling
King Jing of Zhou (Gui) J? Gui 544-521 BCE King Jing
King Dao of Zhou J? Meng 520 BCE King Dao
King Jing of Zhou (Gai) J? Gai 519-476 BCE King Jing
Warring States period (?) (475-221 BCE)
King Yuan of Zhou J? Ren 475-469 BCE King Yuan
King Zhending of Zhou J? Jie 468-442 BCE King Zhending
King Ai of Zhou J? Quji 441 BCE King Ai
King Si of Zhou J? Shu 441 BCE King Si
King Kao of Zhou J? Wei 440-426 BCE King Kao
King Weilie of Zhou J? Wu 425-402 BCE King Weilie
King An of Zhou J? Jiao 401-376 BCE King An
King Lie of Zhou J? Xi 375-369 BCE King Lie
King Xian of Zhou J? Bian 368-321 BCE King Xian
King Shenjing of Zhou J? Ding 320-315 BCE King Shenjing
King Nan of Zhou J? Yan 314-256 BCE King Nan
1 -- The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.

After King Nan was deposed by Qin, Ji Jie (), Duke Wen of the vassal duchy of Eastern Zhou was proclaimed the new king of Zhou and claimed the title until his death in 249 BCE. However, the King of Qin had taken possession of the Nine Tripod Cauldrons (), and Ji Jie's reign was not widely recognized. Historians generally considered the title of Son of Heaven to be vacant from 256 to 221 BCE.

Qin dynasty () (221-207 BCE)

Chinese convention: use regnal name

Note: The State of Qin was founded in the 9th century BCE as a vassal of the Zhou dynasty. In 325 BCE, the Duke of Qing, Ying Si (), declared himself king and was given the regnal name King Huiwen of Qin (?). In 256 BCE, King Zhaoxiang of Qin ended the Zhou dynasty, and in 221 BCE, Ying Zheng completed the conquest of the other states (kingdoms) and declared himself Qin Shi Huang, or "First Emperor of Qin." The unification of China under the Qin dynasty in 221 BCE is usually considered to be the beginning of Imperial China.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Regnal name
(King Zhaoxiang of Qin)1 Yíng Zé (Yíng Jì) () (306)1 (255-251 BCE) Zhaoxiang of Qin ?
(King Xiaowen of Qin)1 Yíng Zhù (250 BCE) Xiaowen of Qin ?
(King Zhuangxiang of Qin)1 Yíng Z?ch? (249-247 BCE) Zhuangxiang of Qin ?
Qin Shi Huang1,2 Yíng Zhèng (246)2 221-210 BCE Qin Shi Huang
Qin Er Shi Yíng Húhài 209-207 BCE Qin Er Shi
Ziying3 Yíng Z?y?ng 207 BCE Qin San Shi
1 -- Zhaoxiang's reign as king of the State of Qin began in 306 BCE before the fall of Zhou. Subsequently, in the absence of a Son of Heaven, historians conventionally used Qin regnal dates to refer to the years 255 to 222 BCE.

2 -- Qin Shi Huang began his reign as king of Qin 246 BCE, but did not unite China and proclaim himself "Emperor" until 221 BCE.

3 -- Ziying is often referred to by his personal name and as king, rather than emperor, of Qin (?).

Han dynasty () (202 BCE-9 CE, 25-220 CE)

Chinese convention: use "Han" + posthumous name (apart from Liu Bang, who is known as "Han Gaozu")
Note that the posthumous names of many Han monarchs bear the character "xiao" (?; "filial"), but this character is usually omitted by scholars when they are used (i.e. "Emperor Xiaowu" is normally known as "Emperor Wu")

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Western Han () (202 BCE-9 CE)
Emperor Gaozu of Han Liu Bang 202-195 BC - Emperor Gao Taizu
Emperor Hui of Han Liu Ying 195-188 BC (Empress Lü regency)1 Emperor Xiaohui ? -
Emperor Qianshao of Han1 Liu Gong 188-184 BC (Empress Lü regency)1 - -
Emperor Houshao of Han1 Liu Hong 184-180 BC (Empress Lü regency)1 - -
Emperor Wen of Han Liu Heng 179-157 BC Hòuyuán 163-156 BCE Emperor Xiaowen ? Taizong
Emperor Jing of Han Liu Qi 156-141 BC Zh?ngyuán 149-143 BCE Emperor Xiaojing ? -
Hòuyuán 143-141 BCE
Emperor Wu of Han Liu Che 140-87 BC Jiànyuán 140-135 BCE Emperor Xiaowu ? Shizong
Yuángu?ng 134-129 BCE
Yuánshuò 128-123 BCE
Yuánshòu 122-117 BCE
Yuánd?ng 116-111 BCE
Yuánf?ng 110-105 BCE
Tàich? 104-101 BCE
Ti?nhàn 100-97 BCE
Tàish? 96-93 BCE
Zh?nghé 92-89 BCE
Hòuyuán 88-87 BCE
Emperor Zhao of Han Liu Fuling 86-74 BC Sh?yuán 86-80 BCE Emperor Xiaozhao ?
Yuánfèng 80-75 BCE
Yuánpíng 74 BCE
Marquis of Haihun Liu He 74 BC - -
Emperor Xuan of Han Liu Xun 73-49 BC B?nsh? 73-70 BCE Emperor Xiaoxuan ? Zhongzong
Dìjié 69-66 BCE
Yuánk?ng 65-61 BCE
Shénjué 61-58 BCE
W?fèng 57-54 BCE
G?nlù 53-50 BCE
Huánglóng 49 BCE
Emperor Yuan of Han Liu Shi 48-33 BC Ch?yuán 48-44 BCE Emperor Xiaoyuan ? Gaozong3 3
Y?nggu?ng 43-39 BCE
Jiànzh?o 38-34 BCE
Jìngníng 33 BCE
Emperor Cheng of Han Liu Ao 32-7 BC Jiànsh? 32-28 BCE Emperor Xiaocheng ? Tongzong3 3
Hépíng 28-25 BCE
Yángshuò 24-21 BCE
Hóngji? 20-17 BCE
Y?ngsh? 16-13 BCE
Yuányán 12-9 BCE
Su?hé 8-7 BCE
Emperor Ai of Han Liu Xin 6-1 BC Jiànpíng 6-3 BCE Emperor Xiao'ai ? -
Yuánshòu 2-1 BCE
Emperor Ping of Han Liu Kan 1 BC - 5 AD Yuánsh? 1 BCE - 5 CE Emperor Xiaoping ? Yuanzong3 3
Ruzi Ying2 Liu Ying 6-8 Jùshè 6 CE - Oct. 8 CE - -
Ch?sh? Nov. 8 CE - Dec. 8 CE
Interregnum (9 CE - 23 CE)
Gengshi Emperor Liu Xuan 23-25 G?ngsh? 23-25 CE - -
Eastern Han () (25-220 CE)
Emperor Guangwu of Han Liu Xiu 25-57 Jiànw? 25-56 CE Emperor Guangwu ? Shizu
Jiànw?zh?ngyuán ? 56-57 CE
Emperor Ming of Han Liu Zhuang 58-75 Y?ngpíng 58-75 CE Emperor Xiaoming ? Xianzong
Emperor Zhang of Han Liu Da 76-88 Jiànch? 76-84 CE Emperor Xiaozhang ? Suzong
Yuánhé 84-87 CE
Zh?nghé 87-88 CE
Emperor He of Han Liu Zhao 89-105 Y?ngyuán 89-105 CE Emperor Xiaohe ? Muzong3 3
Yuánx?ng 105 CE
Emperor Shang of Han Liu Long 106 Yánpíng 9 months in 106 CE Emperor Xiaoshang ? -
Emperor An of Han Liu Hu 106-125 Y?ngch? 107-113 CE Emperor Xiao'an ? Gongzong3 3
Yuánch? 114-120 CE
Y?ngníng 120-121 CE
Jiàngu?ng 121-122 CE
Yángu?ng 122-125 CE
Marquess of Beixiang Liu Yi 125 - -
Emperor Shun of Han Liu Bao 125-144 Y?ngjiàn 126-132 CE Emperor Xiaoshun ? Jingzong3 3
Yángji? 132-135 CE
Y?nghé 136-141 CE
Hàn'?n 142-144 CE
Jiànk?ng 144 CE
Emperor Chong of Han Liu Bing 144-145 Y?ngx? 145 CE Emperor Xiaochong ? -
Emperor Zhi of Han Liu Zuan 145-146 B?nch? 146 CE Emperor Xiaozhi ? -
Emperor Huan of Han Liu Zhi 146-168 Jiànhé 147-149 CE Emperor Xiaohuan ? Weizong3 3
Hépíng 150 CE
Yuánji? 151-153 CE
Y?ngx?ng 153-154 CE
Y?ngshòu 155-158 CE
Yánx? 158-167 CE
Y?ngk?ng 167 CE
Emperor Ling of Han Liu Hong 168-189 Jiànníng 168-172 CE Emperor Xiaoling ? -
X?píng 172-178 CE
Gu?nghé 178-184 CE
Zh?ngpíng 184-189 CE
Prince of Hongnong Liu Bian 189 Gu?ngx? 189 CE - -
Zhàoníng 189 CE
Emperor Xian of Han Liu Xie 189-220 Y?nghàn 189 CE Emperor Xiaoxian ? -
Ch?píng 190-193 CE
X?ngpíng 194-195 CE
Jiàn'?n 196-220 CE
Yánk?ng 220 CE
1 -- Emperors Qianshao and Houshao reigned as children and were subsequently deposed. Their reigns were completely dominated by Empress Dowager Lü (, personal name: Lü Zhi, ), who is often listed in their place on lists of Han rulers and Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian.

2 -- Ruzi was prince, rather than emperor of Han. Officially, the throne of emperor of Han was vacant during 6AD to 9AD.

3 -- Temple name was subsequently withdrew.

Xin dynasty () (9-23 CE)

Chinese convention: use personal name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Wang Mang Wang Mang 9-23 Sh?jiànguó 9-13 CE - -
Ti?nf?ng 14-19 CE
Dìhuáng 20-23 CE

Three Kingdoms () (220-280 CE)

Chinese convention: use personal name

Cao Wei () (220-266 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Courtesy name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Cao Pi Cáo P? Zihuan 220-226 Huángch? 220-226 Emperor Wen
Cao Rui Cáo Ruì Yuanzhong 226-239 Tàihé 227-233 Emperor Ming
Q?nglóng 233-237
J?ngch? 237-239
Cao Fang Cáo F?ng Lanqing 239-254 Zhèngsh? 240-249 Duke Li
Ji?píng 249-254
Cao Mao Cáo Máo Yanshi 254-260 Zhèngyuán 254-256 -
G?nlù 256-260
Cao Huan Cáo Huàn Jingming 260-266 J?ngyuán 260-264 Emperor Yuan
Xiánx? 264-266

Shu Han () (221-263 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Courtesy name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Liu Bei Liú Bèi Xuande 221-223 Zh?ngw? 221-223 Emperor Zhaolie ?
Liu Shan Liú Shàn Gongsi 223-263 Jiànx?ng 223-237 Emperor Xiaohuai ?
Yánx? 238-257
J?ngyào 258-263
Yánx?ng 263

Eastern Wu () (222-280 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Courtesy name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Sun Quan S?n Quán Zhongmou 222-252 Huángw? 222-229 Emperor Da
Huánglóng 229-231
Ji?hé 232-238
Chìw? 238-251
Tàiyuán 251-252
Shénfèng 252
Sun Liang S?n Liàng Ziming 252-258 Jiànx?ng 252-253 -
W?fèng 254-256
Tàipíng 256-258
Sun Xiu S?n Xi? Zilie 258-264 Y?ng?n 258-264 Emperor Jing
Sun Hao S?n Hào Yuanzong 264-280 Yuánx?ng 264-265 -
G?nlù 265-266
B?od?ng 266-269
Jiànhéng 269-271
Fènghuáng 272-274
Ti?ncè 275-276
Ti?nx? 276
Ti?njì 277-280

Jin dynasty () (266-420 CE)

Chinese convention: Use "Jin" + posthumous name

Note that the posthumous names of some Jin monarchs bore the character "xiao" (?; "filial"), but this character is usually omitted by scholars when referencing these monarchs by their posthumous names (i.e. "Emperor Xiaohui" is normally known as "Emperor Hui")

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao )
and their corresponding range of years
Posthumous name
(Shi Hao )
Temple name (Miao Hao )
Western Jin () (266-316 CE)
Emperor Wu of Jin S?m? Yán 266-290 Tàish? 266-274 Emperor Wu Shizu
Xiánníng 275-280
Tàik?ng 280-289
Tàix? 290
Emperor Hui of Jin S?m? Zh?ng 290-306 Y?ngx? 290 Emperor Xiaohui ? -
Y?ngp?ng 291
Yuánk?ng 291-299
Y?ngk?ng 300-301
Y?ngníng 301-302
Tài?n 302-303
Y?ng?n 304
Jiànw? 304
Y?ng?n 304
Y?ngx?ng 304-306
Gu?ngx? 306
Emperor Huai of Jin S?m? Chì 307-313 Y?ngji? 307-313 Emperor Xiaohuai ? -
Emperor Min of Jin S?m? Yè 313-317 Jiànx?ng 313-317 Emperor Xiaomin ? -
Eastern Jin () (317-420 CE)
Emperor Yuan of Jin S?m? Ruì 317-322 Jiànw? 317-318 Emperor Yuan Zh?ngz?ng
Dàx?ng 318-321
Y?ngch?ng 321-322
Emperor Míng of Jin S?m? Shào 322-325 Y?ngch?ng 322-323 Emperor Ming Suzu
Tàiníng 323-325
Emperor Cheng of Jin S?m? Y?n 325-342 Tàiníng 325 Emperor Cheng Xianzong
Xiánhé 326-334
Xiánk?ng 335-342
Emperor Kang of Jin S?m? Yuè 342-344 Jiànyuán 343-344 Emperor Kang -
Emperor Mu of Jin Sima D?n 345-361 Y?nghé 345-356 Emperor Mu Xianzong
Sh?ngpíng 357-361
Emperor Ai of Jin S?m? P? 361-365 Lónghé 362-363 Emperor Ai -
X?ngníng 363-365
Emperor Fei of Jin S?m? Yì 365-371 Tàihé 365-371 - -
Emperor Jianwen of Jin S?m? Yù 371-372 Xián?n 371-372 Emperor Jianwen ? Taizong
Emperor Xiaowu of Jin S?m? Yào 372-396 Níngk?ng 373-375 Emperor Xiaowu ? Lièz?ng
Tàiyuán 376-396
Emperor An of Jin S?m? Déz?ng ? 396-418 Lóng?n 397-401 Emperor An -
Yuánx?ng 402-404
Yìx? 405-418
Emperor Gong of Jin S?m? Déwén ? 419-420 Yuánx? 419-420 Emperor Gong -

Sixteen Kingdoms () (304-439 CE)

Chinese convention: use personal name

Han Zhao () (304-329 CE)

Note: addressed separately in traditional texts as Han (?) and Qian (Former) Zhao ()

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Northern Han () (304-318 CE)
Liu Yuan 304-310 Jiànx?ng 304-307 Emperor Guangwen ? Gao Zu
Y?ngfèng 308
Héruì 309
Gu?ngx?ng 310
Liu He 7 days in 310 - -
Liu Cong 310-318 Emperor Zhaowu ? Lie Zong
Ji?píng 311-315
Jiànyuán 316
Línji? 317-318
Liu Can a month and some days in 318 Hànch?ng (until renaming as Former Zhao) 318 Emperor Yin -
Former Zhao () (318-329 CE)
Liu Yao 318-329 Gu?ngch? (until conquest by Later Zhao) 318-329 - -

Cheng Han () (304-347 CE)

Note: addressed separately in traditional texts as Cheng (?) and Han (?)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Cheng (?) (304-338 CE)
Li Te 303 Jiànch?

or

J?ngch?

or

303 Emperor Jing Sh?zu
or
Shìzu

or

Li Liu several months in 303 Prince Wen of Qin -
Li Xiong 303-334 Emperor Wu Taizong
Jiànx?ng 304-305
Yànp?ng 306-310
Yùhéng 311-334
Li Ban 7 months in 334 Emperor Ai -
Li Qi 334-338 Hànx?ng 337-338 Duke You -
Han (?) (338-347 CE)
Li Shou 338-343 Hànx?ng () 338-343 (continuation) 338-343 (continuation) Emperor Zhaowen ? Zhongzong
Li Shi 343-347 Tàihé 344-345 - -
Ji?níng 346-347 (until conquest by Eastern Jin)

Later Zhao () (319-351 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Shi Le 319-333 Prince Zhao 319-327 Emperor Ming Gaozu
Tàihé 328-329
Jiànpíng 330-332
Yánx? 333
Shi Hong 333-334 Yánx? 333 - -
Jiànw? 334
Shi Hu 334-349 Jiànw? 335-348 Emperor Wu Taizu
Taìníng 349
Shi Shi 73 days in 349 - -
Shi Zun 183 days in 349 - -
Shi Jian 103 days within 349-350 Q?nglóng (changed mid-year) - -
Shi Zhi 350-351 Y?ngníng 350-351 (until Ran Min's coup) - -

Former Liang () (320-376 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Zhang Mao 320-324 Jianxing 320-354 Prince Cheng -
Zhang Jun 324-346 Prince Wen -
Zhang Chonghua 346-353 Prince Huan -
Zhang Yaoling 3 months (the ninth to the twelfth month) in 353 Duke Ai -
Zhang Zuo 353-355 Prince Wei -
Heping 354-355
Zhang Xuanjing 355-363 Jianxing 355-361 Duke Jingdao
or
Prince Chong

or

-
Shengping 361-376
Zhang Tianxi 364-376 Duke Dao -

Former Yan () (337-370 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Murong Huang 337-348 Yànwáng 337-348 Emperor Wenming ? Taizu
Murong Jun 348-360 Yànyuán 349-351 Emperor Jingzhao ? Liezong
Yuánx? 352-357
Sh?ngpíng 357 (as vassal of Jin)
Gu?ngshòu 357-359
Murong Wei 360-370 Jiànx? 359-365 Emperor You -
Jiànyuán 366-370

Former Qin () (351-394 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Fu Jian 351-355 Huangshi 351-355 Emperor Jingming ? Gaozu
Fu Sheng 355-357 Shouguang 355-357 Prince Li -
Fu Jian 357-385 Yongxing 357-359 Emperor Xuanzhao ? Shizu
Ganlu 359-364
Jianyuan 365-385
Fu Pi 385-386 Taian 385-386 Emperor Aiping ? -
Fu Deng 386-394 Taichu 385-394 Emperor Gao Taizong
Fu Chong several months in 394 Yanchu 394 - -

Later Yan () (384-409 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Murong Chui 384-396 Yànwáng 384-385 Emperor Chengwu ? Shizu
Jianxing 386-396
Murong Bao 396-398 Yongkang 396-398 Emperor Huimin ? Liezong
Murong Sheng 398-401 Jianping 398 Emperor Zhaowu ? Zhongzong
Changle 399-401
Murong Xi 401-407 Guangshi 401-406 Emperor Zhaowen ? -
Jianshi 407

Later Qin () (384-417 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Yao Chang 384-393 Baique 384-386 Emperor Wuzhao ? Taizu
Jianchu 386-393
Yao Xing 394-416 Huangchu 394-399 Emperor Wenhuan ? Gaozu
Hongshi 399-416
Yao Hong 416-417 Yonghe 416-417 - -

Western Qin () (385-400 CE, 409-431 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Qifu Guoren ? 385-388 Jianyi 385-388 Prince Xuanlie Liezu
Qifu Qiangui ? 388-400 Taichu 388-400 Prince Wuyuan Gaozu
409-412 Gengshi 409-412
Qifu Chipan ? 412-428 Yongkang 412-419 Prince Wenzhao Taizu
Jianhong 420-428
Qifu Mumo ? 428-431 Yonghong 428-431 - -

Later Liang () (386-403 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Lü Guang 386-399 Taian 386-389 Emperor Yiwu ? Taizu
Linjia 389-396
Longfei 396-399
Lü Shao 399 Prince Yin -
Lü Zuan 399-401 Xianning 399-401 Emperor Ling -
Lü Long 401-403 Shending 401-403 - -

Southern Liang () (397-414 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Tufa Wugu ? 397-399 Taichu 397-399 Prince Wu Liezu
Tufa Lilugu 399-402 Jianhe 399-402 Prince Kang -
Tufa Rutan ? 402-414 Hongchang 402-404 Prince J?ng -
Jiaping ) 409-414

Northern Liang () (397-439 CE)

Note: The Northern Liang was re-established at Gaochang in 442 CE.

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Duan Ye 397-401 Shenxi 397-399 - -
Tianxi 399-401
Juqu Mengxun ? 401-433 Yongan 401-412 Prince Wuxuan Taizu
Xuanshi 412-428
Chengxuan 428-430
Yihe 430-433
Juqu Mujian ? 433-439 Yonghe 433-439 Prince Ai -
Juqu Wuhui ? 442-444 Chengping 442-443 - -
Qianshou 443-444
Juqu Anzhou ? 444-460 Chengping 444-460 - -

Southern Yan () (398-410 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Murong De 398-405 Yanwang 398-400 Emperor Xianwu ? Shizong
Jianping 400-405
Murong Chao 405-410 Taishang 405-410 - -

Western Liang () (400-421 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Li Gao 400-417 Gengzi 400-405 Prince Wuzhao Taizu
Jianchu 406-416
Li Xin 417-420 Jiaxing 417-420 - -
Li Xun 420-421 Yongjian 420-421 - -

Hu Xia () (407-431 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Helian Bobo ? 407-425 Longsheng 407-413 Emperor Wulie ? Shizu
Fengxiang 413-418
Changwu 418-419
Zhenxing 419-425
Helian Chang 425-428 Chengguang 425-428 - -
Helian Ding 428-431 Shengguang 425-428 - -

Northern Yan () (407-436 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Gao Yun / 407-409 Zhengshi 407-409 Emperor Huiyi ? -
Feng Ba 409-430 Taiping 409-430 Emperor Wencheng ? Taizu
Feng Hong 430-436 Daxing 430-436 Emperor Zhaocheng ? -

Other sovereignties traditionally not counted among the Sixteen Kingdoms

Convention: use personal name

Ran Wei () (350-352 CE)

Note: addressed as Wei in traditional texts

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Ran Min 350-352 Yongxing 350-352 Heavenly King Wudao
or
Emperor Ping
?
or

Western Yan () (384-394 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Murong Hong 384 Yanxing 384-385 Emperor Liewen ?
Murong Chong 384-386
Gengshi 385-386 Emperor Wei
Duan Sui 386 Changping 386 -
Murong Yi 386 Jianming 386 -
Murong Yao 386 Jianping 386 -
Murong Zhong 386 Jianwu 386 -
Murong Yong 386-394 Zhongxing 386-394 -

Western Shu () (405-413 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Qiao Zong 405-413 - -

Tiefu tribe ( ) (mid 3rd century-391 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Liu Qubei mid-3rd century - -
Liu Gaoshengyuan ? mid-3rd century - late 3rd century - -
Liu Hu early 4th century (309?) - 341 - -
Liu Wuheng 341-356 - -
Liu Eloutou ? 356-358 - -
Liu Xiwuqi ? 358-359 - -
Liu Weichen 359-391 - -

Yuwen tribe ( ) (late 3rd century-345 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Yuwen Mohuai ? late 3rd century - 293 - -
Yuwen Puhui
or
Yuwen Pubo
?

or

?

293 - late 3rd century - -
Yuwen Qiubuqin late 3rd century - -
Yuwen Mogui ? late 3rd century (299?) - early 4th century (302?) - -
Yuwen Xiduguan early 3rd century - -
Yuwen Qidegui early 3rd century - 333 - -
Yuwen Yidougui 333-345 - -

Duan tribe ( ) (303-338 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Duan Wuwuchen ? 303 - 310 or 311 - -
Duan Jilujuan ? 310 or 311 - 318 - -
Duan Shefuchen ? 318 - -
Duan Pidi 318-321 - -
Duan Mopei 318-325 - -
Duan Ya 325 - -
Duan Liao 326-338 - -

Chouchi () (296-371 CE, 385-443 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Former Chouchi () (296-371 CE)
Yang Teng late 2nd century - early 3rd century - -
Yang Ju early 3rd century - -
Yang Qianwan early 3rd century - mid-3rd century - -
Yang Feilong mid-3rd century - late 3rd century - -
Yang Maosou late 3rd century - 317 - -
Yang Nandi 317-334 - -
Yang Yi 334-337 - -
Yang Chu 337-355 - -
Yang Guo 355-356 - -
Yang Jun 356-360 - -
Yang Shi 360-370 - -
Yang Cuan 370-371 - -
Later Chouchi () (385-473 CE)
Yang Ding 385-394 - King W?
Yang Sheng 394-425 - King Huìwén
Yang Xuan 425-429 - King Xiàozh?o
Yang Baozong 429 and 443 - -
Yang Nandang 429-441 Jianyi 436-440 -
Yang Baochi 442-443 - -
Yang Wende 443-454 - -
Yang Yuanhe 455-466 - -
Yang Sengsi 466-473 - -

Wuxing () (473-506 CE, 534-555 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Yang Wendu 473-477 - -
Yang Wenhong 477-482 - -
Yang Houqi 482-486 - -
Yang Jishi 482-503 - King An
Yang Shaoxian 503-506, 534-535 - -
Yang Zhihui1 535-545 - -
Yang Bixie1 545-553 - -
1 -- Yang Zhihui and Yang Bixie could be the same person.

Yinping () (477-mid-6th century CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Yang Guangxiang 477-483? - -
Yang Jiong 483-495 - -
Yang Chongzu 495-before 502 - -
Yang Mengsun before 502-511 - -
Yang Ding 511- ? - -

Tuoba tribe ( ) (219-376 CE) & Dai (?) (310-376 CE)

Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Tuoba Liwei3 ? 219-277 - Emperor Shényuán ?
Tuoba Xilu ? 277-286 - Emperor Zh?ng
Tuoba Chuo 286-293 - Emperor Píng
Tuoba Fu 293-294 - Emperor S?
Tuoba Luguan ? 294-307 - Emperor Zh?o
Tuoba Yituo ? 295-305 - Emperor Huán
Tuoba Yilu ? 295-316 - Emperor Mù
Tuoba Liugen ? 316 - -
Tuoba Pugen ? 316 - -
Tuoba Shisheng ? 316 - -
Tuoba Yulü ? 316-321 - Emperor Píngwén ?
Tuoba Heru ? 321-325 - Emperor Huì
Tuoba Hena ? 325-329 and 335-337 - Emperor Yáng
Tuoba Yihuai ? 329-335 and 337-338 - Emperor Liè
Tuoba Shiyijian 338-376 Jianguo 338-376 Emperor Zh?ochéng ?
1 -- All chieftains were revered as emperors in Weishu and Beishi which they never were. They were denoted here as king (wáng) (?) which was inherited by all successors of Tuoba Yi Lu.

2 -- The Tuoba clan was the ruling family of Northern Wei dynasty, founded by Tuoba Gui. Hence the Table of Northern Wei dynasty will start with him, not as a continuation of this table.

3 -- Tuoba Liwei had the temple name Shizu (). He was the only chieftain before Tuoba Gui revered with a temple name

Northern and Southern Dynasties () (386-589 CE)

Northern dynasties () (386-581 CE)

Chinese convention: use dynasty name + posthumous name

Northern Wei () (386-535 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei Tuoba Gui 386-409 Dengguo 386-396 Emperor Daowu ?
Huangsh 396-398
Tianxing 398-404
Tianci 404-409
Emperor Mingyuan of Northern Wei Tuoba Si 409-423 Yongxing 409-413 Emperor Mingyuan ?
Shenrui 414-416
Taichang 416-423
Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei Tuoba Tao 424-452 Shiguang 424-428 Emperor Taiwu ?
Shenjia 428-431
Yanhe 432-434
Taiyan 435-440
Taipingzhenjun ? 440-451
Zhengping 451-452
Tuoba Yu Tuoba Yu 452 Chengping 452 Prince Yin
Emperor Wencheng of Northern Wei Tuoba Jun 452-465 Xingan 452-454 Emperor Wencheng ?
Xingguang 454-455
Tai'an 455-459
Heping 460-465
Emperor Xianwen of Northern Wei Tuoba Hong 466-471 Tian'an 466-467 Emperor Xianwen ?
Huangxing 467-471
Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei Yuan1 Hong (Tuoba Hong) () 471-499 Yanxing 471-476 Emperor Xiaowen ?
Chengming 476
Taihe 477-499
Emperor Xuanwu of Northern Wei Yuan Ke 499-515 Jingming 500-503 Emperor Xuanwu ?
Zhengshi 504-508
Yongping 508-512
Yanchang 512-515
Emperor Xiaoming of Northern Wei Yuan Xu 516-528 Xiping 516-518 Emperor Xiaoming ?
Shengui 518-520
Zhengguang 520-525
Xiaochang 525-527
Wutai 528
Yuan Zhao Yuan Zhao 528 - -
Emperor Xiaozhuang of Northern Wei Yuan Ziyou 528-530 Jianyi 528 Emperor Xiaozhuang ?
Yong'an 528-530
Yuan Ye Yuan Ye 530-531 Jianming () 530-531 530-531 -
Emperor Jiemin of Northern Wei Yuan Gong 531-532 Putai () 531-532 531-532 Emperor Jiemin ?
Yuan Lang Yuan Lang 531-532 Zhongxing () 531-532 531-532 -
Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei Yuan Xiu 532-535 Taichang 532 Emperor Xiaowu ?
Yongxing 532
Yongxi 532-535
1 - The Tuoba family changed their family name to ? (yuán) during the reign of the Emperor Xiaowen in 496 so that is reflected in the table as well.

Eastern Wei () (534-550 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei Yuan Shanjian 534-550 Tianping 534-537 Emperor Xiaojing ?
Yuanxiang 538-539
Xinghe 539-542
Wuding 543-550

Western Wei () (535-557 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Wen of Western Wei Yuan Baoju 535-551 Datong 535-551 Emperor Wen
Emperor Fei of Western Wei Yuan Qin 552-554 - -
Emperor Gong of Western Wei Tuoba Kuo 554-557 - Emperor Gong

Northern Qi () (550-577 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reigns Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi Gao Yang 550-559 Tianbao 550-559 Emperor Wenxuan ?
Emperor Fei of Northern Qi Gao Yin 559-560 Qianming 560 -
Emperor Xiaozhao of Northern Qi Gao Yan 560-561 Huangjian 560-561 Emperor Xiaozhao ?
Emperor Wucheng of Northern Qi Gao Zhan 561-565 Taining 561-562 Emperor Wucheng ?
Heqing 562-565
Gao Wei Gao Wei 565-577 Tiantong 565-569 -
Wuping 570-576
Longhua 576
Gao Heng Gao Heng 577 Chengguang 577 -
Gao Shaoyi Gao Shaoyi 577-579? - -

Northern Zhou () (557-581 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reigns Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou Yuwen Jue 557 - Emperor Xiaomin ?
Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yu 557-560 Wucheng 559-560 Emperor Ming
or
Emperor Xiaoming

or

?

Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yong 561-578 Baoding 560-565 Emperor Wu
Tianhe 566-572
Jiande 572-578
Xuanzheng 578
Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yun 578-579 Dacheng 579 Emperor Xuan
Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou Yuwen Chan 579-581 Daxiang 579-581 Emperor Jing
Dading 581

Southern dynasties () (420-589 CE)

Chinese convention: use dynasty name + posthumous name

Liu Song () (420-479 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Wu of Liu Song Liu Yu 420-422 Yongchu 420-422 Emperor Wu
Emperor Shao of Liu Song Liu Yifu 423-424 Jingping 423-424 -
Emperor Wen of Liu Song Liu Yilong 424-453 Yuanjia 424-453 Emperor Wen
Emperor Xiaowu of Liu Song Liu Jun 454-464 Xiaojian 454-456 Emperor Xiaowu ?
Daming 457-464
Emperor Qianfei of Liu Song Liu Ziye 465 Yongguang 465 -
Jinghe 465
Emperor Ming of Liu Song Liu Yu 465-472 Taishi 465-471 Emperor Ming
Taiyu 472
Emperor Houfei of Liu Song Liu Yu 473-477 Yuanhui 473-477 Prince Cangwu
Emperor Shun of Liu Song Liu Zhun 477-479 Shengming 477-479 Emperor Shun

Southern Qi () (479-502 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Gao of Southern Qi Xiao Daocheng 479-482 Jianyuan 479-482 Emperor Gao
Emperor Wu of Southern Qi Xiao Ze 482-493 Yongming 483-493 Emperor Wu
Xiao Zhaoye Xiao Zhaoye 493-494 Longchang 494 -
Xiao Zhaowen Xiao Zhaowen 494 Yanxing 494 Prince Gong
Emperor Ming of Southern Qi Xiao Luan 494-498 Jianwu 494-498 Emperor Ming
Yongtai 498
Xiao Baojuan Xiao Baojuan 499-501 Yongyuan 499-501 Marquess Yang
Emperor He of Southern Qi Xiao Baorong 501-502 Zhongxing 501-502 Emperor He

Liang dynasty () (502-557 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Wu of Liang Xiao Yan 502-549 Tianjian 502-519 Emperor Wu
Putong 520-527
Datong 527-529
Zhongdatong 529-534
Datong 535-546
Zhongdatong 546-547
Taiqing 547-549
Emperor Jianwen of Liang Xiao Gang 549-551 Dabao 550-551 Emperor Jianwen ?
Xiao Dong Xiao Dong 551-552 Tianzheng 551-552 -
Emperor Yuan of Liang Xiao Yi 552-555 Chengsheng 552-555 Emperor Xiaoyuan ?
Xiao Yuanming Xiao Yuanming 555 Tiancheng 555 Emperor Min
Emperor Jing of Liang Xiao Fangzhi 555-557 Shaotai 555-556 Emperor Jing
Taiping 556-557
Western Liang () (555-587 CE)
Emperor Xuan of Western Liang Xiao Cha 555-562 Dading 555-562 Emperor Xuan
Emperor Ming of Western Liang Xiao Kui 562-585 Tianbao 562-585 Emperor Xiaoming ?
Emperor Jing of Western Liang Xiao Cong 585-587 Guangyun 562-585 Emperor Xiaojing ?

Chen dynasty () (557-589 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Wu of Chen Chen Baxian 557-559 Yongding 557-559 Emperor Wu
Emperor Wen of Chen Chen Qian 559-566 Tianjia 560-566 Emperor Wen
Tiankang 566
Emperor Fei of Chen Chen Bozong 566-568 Guangda 566-568 -
Emperor Xuan of Chen Chen Xu 569-582 Taijian 569-582 Emperor Xiaoxuan ?
Chen Shubao Chen Shubao 583-589 Zhide 583-586 -
Zhenming 587-589

Sui dynasty () (581-619 CE)

Chinese convention: use "Sui" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and the corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao )
Emperor Wen of Sui Yáng Ji?n 581-604 K?ihuáng 581-600 Emperor Wen
Rénshòu 601-604
Emperor Yang of Sui Yáng Gu?ng 605-617 Dàyè 605-617 Emperor Yang
Yang You1 Yáng Yòu 617-618 Yìníng 617-618 Emperor Gong
Yang Hao2 Yáng Hào 618 Huángtài 618-619 -
Yang Tong3 Yáng Tóng 618-619 Emperor Gong

1 -- Declared emperor by Li Yuan (the later Emperor Gaozu of Tang), implying a retirement for Emperor Yang (whom he "honoured" as Taishang Huang, or retired emperor) at the western capital Daxing (Chang'an), but only the commanderies under Li's control recognized this change; for the other commanderies under Sui control, Emperor Yang was still regarded as emperor, not as retired emperor. Now generally regarded as a legitimate emperor, due to his recognition by Li Yuan.

2 -- Declared emperor by Yuwen Huaji, the general under whose leadership the plot to kill Emperor Yang was carried out, but killed by him later in 618; Yuwen Huaji then declared himself emperor of a brief Xu (?) state. As Yang Hao was completely under Yuwen's control and only "reigned" briefly, he is not usually regarded as a legitimate emperor.

3 -- After news of Emperor Yang's death in 618 reached Daxing and the eastern capital Luoyang, Li Yuan deposed Emperor Gong and took the throne himself, establishing Tang dynasty, but the Sui officials at Luoyang declared Emperor Gong's brother Yang Tong (later also known as Emperor Gong) emperor. The legitimacy of his reign is disputed.

Tang dynasty () (618-690 CE, 705-907 CE)

Chinese convention: use "Tang" + temple name (except for Emperor Shang and Emperor Ai; Emperor Xuanzong () is sometimes referred as Emperor Ming of Tang Dynasty ())

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and the corresponding range of years) Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Emperor Gaozu of Tang L? Yu?n 618-626 Wude 618-626 Emperor Shenyao Dasheng Daguang Xiao Gaozu
Emperor Taizong of Tang L? Shìmín 627-649 Zhenguan 627-649 Emperor Wenwu Dasheng Daguang Xiao Taizong
Emperor Gaozong of Tang L? Zhì 650-683 Yonghui 650-655 Emperor Tianhuang Dasheng Dahong Xiao Gaozong
Xianqing 656-661
Longshuo 661-663
Linde 664-665
Qianfeng 666-668
Zongzhang 668-670
Xianheng 670-674
Shangyuan 674-676
Yifeng 676-679
Tiaolu 679-680
Yonglong 680-681
Kaiyao 681-682
Yongchun 682-683
Hongdao 683
Emperor Zhongzong of China Li Xian

or

Li Zhe

or

684

and

705-710

Sisheng 684 Emperor Dahe Dasheng Dazhao Xiao Zhongzong
Shenlong 705-707
Jinglong 707-710
Emperor Ruizong of Tang Li Dan 684-690

and

710-712

Wenming 684-690 Emperor Xuanzhen Dasheng Daxing Xiao Ruizong
Jingyun 710-711
Taiji 712
Yanhe 712
Interregnum (690-705)
Emperor Shang of Tang Li Chongmao 710 Tanglong 710 Emperor Shang -
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Li Longji 712-756 Xiantian 712-713 Emperor Zhidao Dasheng Daming Xiao Xuanzong
Kaiyuan 713-741
Tianbao 742-756
Emperor Suzong of Tang Li Heng 756-762 Jide 756-758 Emperor Wenming Wude Dasheng Daxuan Xiao Suzong
Qianyuan 758-760
Shangyuan 760-761
Emperor Daizong of Tang Li Yu 762-779 Baoying 762-763 Emperor Ruiwen Xiaowu Daizong
Guangde 763-764
Yongtai 765-766
Dali 766-779
Emperor Dezong of Tang Li Gua 780-805 Jianzhong 780-783 Emperor Shenwu Xiaowen Dezong
Xingyuan 784
Zhenyuan 785-805
Emperor Shunzong of Tang Li Song 805 Yongzhen 805 Emperor Zhide Hongdao Dasheng Da'an Xiao Shunzong
Emperor Xianzong of Tang Li Chun 806-820 Yuanhe 806-820 Emperor Zhaowen Zhangwu Dasheng Zhishen Xiao Xianzong
Emperor Muzong of Tang Li Heng 821-824 Changqing 821-824 Emperor Ruisheng Wenhui Xiao ? Muzong
Emperor Jingzong of Tang Li Zhan 824-826 Baoli 824-826 Emperor Ruiwu Zhaomin Xiao ? Jingzong
Emperor Wenzong of Tang Li Ang 826-840 Emperor Yuansheng Zhaoxian Xiao ? Wenzong
Dahe

or

Taihe

or

827-835
Kaicheng 836-840
Emperor Wuzong of Tang Li Yan 840-846 Huichang 841-846 Emperor Zhidao Zhaosu Xiao ? Wuzong
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Li Chen 846-859 Dachong 847-859 Emperor Yuansheng Zhiming Chengwu Xianwen Ruizhi Zhangren Shencong Yidao Daxiao Xuanzong
Emperor Yizong of Tang Li Cui 859-873 Emperor Zhaosheng Gonghui Xiao ? Yizong
Xiantong 860-874
Emperor Xizong of Tang Li Xuan 873-888 Emperor Huisheng Gongding Xiao ? Xizong
Qianfu 874-879
Guangming 880-881
Zhonghe 881-885
Guangqi 885-888
Wende 888
Emperor Zhaozong of Tang Li Ye 888-904 Longji 889 Emperor Shengmu Jingwen Xiao ? Zhaozong
Dashun 890-891
Jingfu 892-893
Qianning 894-898
Guanghua 898-901
Tianfu 901-904
Tianyou 904
Emperor Ai of Tang Li Zhu 904-907 Tianyou 904-907 Emperor Ai
or
Emperor Zhaoxuan Guanglie Xiao

or
?
Jingzong

Wu Zhou () (690-705 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Regnal name (Zun Hao ) Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Wu Zetian W? Zhào 690-705 Tianshou 690-692 Empress Regnant Tiance Jinlun Shengshen Empress Consort Zetian Shunsheng1 1 -
Ruyi 692
Changshou 692-694
Yanzai 694
Zhengsheng 695
Tiancewansui ? 695-696
Wansuidengfeng ? 696
Wansuitongtian ? 696-697
Shengong 697
Shengli 698-700
Jiushi 700
Dazu 701
Chang'an 701-705
1 -- While Wu Zetian was empress regnant from 690 to 705, she was posthumously honored as empress consort of the Emperor Gaozong of Tang.

Huang Qi () (881-884 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Huang Chao Huang Chao 881-884 Wángbà 878-880 -
J?nt?ng 881-884

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (?) (907-979 CE)

Five Dynasties () (907-960 CE)

Chinese convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name

Later Liang () (907-923 CE)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Zh? W?n 907-912 Emperor Shenwu Yuansheng Xiao ? Ka?píng 907-911 Taizu
Qiánhuà 911-912
Zhu Yougui 912-913 - Qiánhuà 912-913 -
Fengli 913
Zh? Zhèn 913-923 - Qiánhuà 913-915 -
Zh?nmíng 915-921
Lóngdé 921-923

Later Tang () (923-937 CE)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
L? Cúnxù 923-926 Emperor Guangsheng Shenmin Xiao ? Tongguang 923-926 Zhuangzong
L? Sìyuán

or

L? D?n

or

926-933 Emperor Shengde Hewu Qinxiao Tiancheng 926-930 Mingzong
Changxing 930-933
L? Cónghòu 933-934 Emperor Min Yingshun 933-934 -
L? Cóngk? 934-937 - Qingtai 934-936 -

Later Jin () (936-947 CE)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Shi Jingtang 936-942 Emperor Shengwen Zhangwu Mingde Xiao Tianfu 936-944 Gaozu
Shi Chonggui 942-947 Emperor Chu -
Kaiyun 944-947

Later Han () (947-951 CE)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Liu Zhiyuan 947-948 Emperor Ruiwen Shengwu Zhaosu Xiao Tianfu 947 Gaozu
Liu Chengyou 948-951 Emperor Yin Qianyou 948-951 -

Later Zhou () (951-960 CE)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Guo Wei 951-954 Emperor Shengshen Gongsu Wenwu Xiao Guangshun 951-954 Taizu
Chai Rong 954-959 Emperor Ruiwu Xiaowen Xiande 954-960 Shizong
Chai Zongxun 959-960 Emperor Gong -

Ten Kingdoms () (907-979 CE)

Chinese convention: use personal names, noted otherwise

Former Shu () (907-925 CE)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Wang Jian 907-918 Emperor Shenwu Shengwen Xiaode Minghui ? Tianfu 907 Gaozu
Wucheng 908-910
Yongping 911-915
Tongzheng 916
Tianhan 917
Guangtian 918
Wang Zongyan 918-925 - Qiande 918-925 -
Xiankang 925

Yang Wu () (907-937 CE)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Yang Xingmi 904-905 Emperor Wu Tianyou 904-919 Taizu
Yang Wo 905-908 Emperor Jing Liezong
Yang Longyan 908-921 Emperor Xuan Gaozu
Wuyi 919-921
Yang Pu 921-937 Emperor Rui Shunyi 921-927 -
Qianzhen 927-929
Dahe 929-935
Tianzuo 935-937

Ma Chu () (907-951 CE)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Ma Yin 897-930 King Wumu - -
Ma Xisheng 930-932 - - -
Ma Xifan 932-947 King Wenzhao - -
Ma Xiguang 947-950 - - -
Ma Xi'e 950 King Gongxiao - -
Ma Xichong 950-951 - - -

Wuyue () (907-978 CE)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Qian Liu 904-932 King Wusu Tianbao 908-923 Taizu
Baoda 923-925
Baozheng 925-932
Qian Yuanguan 932-941 King Wenmu - Shizong
Qian Hongzuo 941-947 King Zhongxian - Chengzong
Qian Hongzong 947 King Zhongxun - -
Qian Chu (Qian Hongchu) () 947-978 King Zhongyi - -

Min (?) (909-945 CE) & Yin (?) (943-945 CE)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Wang Shenzhi 909-925 Emperor Zhaowu Xiao - Taizu
Wang Yanhan 925-926 - - -
Wang Yanjun 926-935 Emperor Qisu Mingxiao Longqi 933-935 Huizong
Yonghe 935
Wang Jipeng 935-939 Emperor Shengshen Yingrui Wenming Guangwu Yingdao Dahong Xiao Tongwen 936-939 Kangzong
Wang Yanxi 939-944 Emperor Ruiwen Guangwu Mingsheng Yuande Longdao Daxiao Yonglong 939-944 Jingzong
Wang Yanzheng 943-945 Prince Gongyi Tiande 943-945 -

Southern Han () (917-971 CE)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Liú Yán
or
Liú Y?n

or

917-925 Emperor Tianhuang Da ? Qiánh?ng 917-925 Gaozu
Báilóng 925-928
Dày?u 928-941
Liú B?n 941-943 Emperor Shang Gu?ngti?n 941-943 -
Liú Shèng 943-958 Emperor Wenwu Guangsheng Mingxiao Yìngqián 943 Zhongzong
Qiánhé 943-958
Liú Ch?ng 958-971 - Dàb?o 958-971 -

Jingnan () (924-963 CE)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Gao Jixing 909-928 King Wuxin - -
Gao Conghui 928-948 King Wenxian - -
Gao Baorong 948-960 King Zhenyi - -
Gao Baoxu 960-962 - - -
Gao Jichong 962-963 - - -

Later Shu () (934-965 CE)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Meng Zhixiang 934 Emperor Wenwu Shengde Yinglie Mingxiao ? Mingde 934-938 Gaozu
Meng Chang 938-965 Prince Gongxiao Guangzheng 938-965 -

Southern Tang () (937-976 CE)

Chinese convention for this dynasty only: Use Nan (Southern) Tang + "Qianzhu" (lit. "first lord"), "Zhongzhu" (lit. "middle lord") or "Houzhu" (lit. "last lord").

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Li Bian 937-943 Emperor Guangwen Suwu Xiaogao Shengyuan 937-943 Liezu
Li Jing 943-961 Emperor Mingdao Chongde Wenxuan Xiao Baoda 943-958 Yuanzong
Jiaotai 958
Zhongxing 958
Li Yu 961-976 - - -

Northern Han () (951-979 CE)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Liu Min 951-954 Emperor Shenwu ? Qianyou 951-957 Shizu
Liu Chengjun 954-968 Emperor Xiaohe ? Ruizong
Tianhui 957-968
Liu Ji'en 970 - - -
Liu Jiyuan 970-982 Emperor Yingwu ? Guangyun 970-982 -

Independent regimes during Ten Kingdoms

(local independent regimes during Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period traditionally not counted in the Ten Kingdoms)

Qingyuan Jiedushi () (949-978 CE)

Personal name Name of posts Period on post
Liu Congxiao Commander-in-Chief of Quanzhang 945-962
Liu Shaozi Regent of Quanzhang ? 962
Zhang Hansi Military Commissioner of Quanzhang 962-963
Chen Hongjin 963-978

Wuping Jiedushi () (950-963 CE)

Personal name Name of posts Period on post
Liu Yan Military Commissioner of Wuping 950-953
Wang Kui

or

Wang Jinkui

or

953-956
Zhou Xingfeng Military Commissioner of Hunan 956-962
Zhou Baoquan 962-963

Liao dynasty () (916-1125 CE)

Chinese convention: use "Liao" + temple name except Liao Tianzuodi who is referred using "Liao" + regnal name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Emperor Taizu of Liao Y?l? ?b?oj? 916-926 Emperor Dasheng Daming Shenlie Tian Shence 916-922 Taizu
Tianzan 922-926
Tianxian 926
Emperor Taizong of Liao Y?l? Dégu?ng ? 926-947 Emperor Xiaowu Huiwen Tianxian 927-938 Taizong
Huitong 938-947
Datong 947
Emperor Shizong of Liao Y?l? Ru?n 947-951 Emperor Xiaohe Zhuangxian Tianlu 947-951 Shizong
Emperor Muzong of Liao Y?l? J?ng 951-969 Emperor Xiao'an Jingzheng Yingli 951-969 Muzong
Emperor Jingzong of Liao Y?l? Xián 969-982 Emperor Xiaocheng Kangjing Baoning 969-979 Jingzong
Qianheng 979-982
Emperor Shengzong of Liao Y?l? Lóngxù ? 982-1031 Emperor Wenwu Daxiao Xuan ? Qianheng 982 Shengzong
Tonghe 983-1012
Kaitai 1012-1021
Taiping 1021-1031
Emperor Xingzong Liao Y?l? Z?ngzh?n ? 1031-1055 Emperor Shensheng Xiaozhang Jingfu 1031-1032 Xingzong
Chongxi 1032-1055
Emperor Daozong of Liao Y?l? Hóngj? ? 1055-1101 Emperor Rensheng Daxiao Wen ? Qingning 1055-1064 Daozong
Xianyong 1065-1074
Taikang

or

Dakang

or

1075-1084
Da'an 1085-1094
Shouchang

or

Shoulong

or

1095-1101
Emperor Tianzuo of Liao1 Y?l? Yánx? ? 1101-1125 - Qiantong 1101-1110 -
Tianqing 1111-1120
Baoda 1121-1125
1 -- "Emperor Tianzuo" was the regnal name () of Yelü Yanxi.

Northern Liao () (1122-1123 CE)

Chinese convention: use personal name or "Northern Liao" + temple name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Yelü Chun Yelü Chun 1122 Emperor Xiaozhang ? Jianfu 1122 Xuanzong
Xiao Puxiannü
(regent)
Xiao Puxiannü ? 1122-1123 - Dexing 1122-1123 -

Western Liao () (1124-1218 CE)

Chinese convention: use personal name or "Western Liao" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Yelü Dashi Y?l? Dàshí

or

Y?l? Dáshí1

?

or

?

1124-1144 Emperor Tianyou Wulie Yanqing 1124 or 1125-1134 Dezong
Kangguo 1134-1144
Xiao Tabuyan
(regent)
Xi?o T?bùy?n ? 1144-1150 Empress Consort Gantian ? Xianqing 1144-1150 -
Yelü Yilie Y?l? Yíliè ? 1150-1164 - Shaoxing

or

Xuxing2

or

1150-1164 Renzong
Yelü Pusuwan
(regent)
Y?l? P?sùwán 1164-1178 Empress Dowager Chengtian ? Chongfu ( Chóngfú) 1164-1178 1164-1178 -
Yelü Zhilugu Y?l? Zhíl?g? 1178-1211 - Tianxi ( Ti?nx?) 1178-1218 1178-1218 -
Kuchlug Q?ch?l? 1211-1218 - - -
1 -- "Dashi" might be the Chinese title "Taishi", meaning "vizier"; or, it could mean "Stone" in Turkish, as the Chinese transliteration suggests.

2 -- Recently discovered Western Liao coins have the era name "Xuxing", suggesting that the era name "Shaoxing" recorded in Chinese sources may be incorrect.[1]

Dongdan () (926-952 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Yelü Bei Yelü Bei 926-930 Emperor Wenxian Qinyi Ganlu 926-936 Yizong
Empress Consort Duanshun Lady Xiao
(name unknown)
(regent)
930-940 Empress Consort Duanshun ? -
Emperor Shizong of Liao
(same person as the third Liao emperor)
Yelü Ruan 940-947 Emperor Xiaohe Zhuangxian - -
Yelü Anduan Yelü Anduan ? 947-952 - - -

Song dynasty () (960-1279 CE)

Chinese convention: use "Song" + temple name or posthumous name (except last emperor who was revered as Song Di Bing ( Sòng Dì B?ng))

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Northern Song () (960-1127 CE)
Emperor Taizu of Song Zhao Kuangyin 960-976 Emperor Qiyun Liji Yingwu Ruiwen Shende Shenggong Zhiming Daxiao Jianlong 960-963 Taizu
Qiande 963-968
Kaibao 968-976
Emperor Taizong of Song Zhao Kuangyi

or Zhao Guangyi

or

Zhao Jiong

or

or

976-997 Emperor Zhiren Yingdao Shengong Shengde Wenwu Ruilie Daming Guangxiao Taipingxingguo ? 976-984 Taizong
Yongxi 984-987
Duangong 988-989
Chunhua 990-994
Zhidao 995-997
Emperor Zhenzong of Song Zhao Heng 997-1022 Emperor Yingfu Jigu Shengong Rangde Wenming Wuding Zhangsheng Yuanxiao Xianping 998-1003 Zhenzong
Jingde 1004-1007
Dazhongxiangfu ? 1008-1016
Tianxi 1017-1021
Qianxing 1022
Emperor Renzong of Song Zhao Zhen 1022-1063 Emperor Titian Fadao Jigong Quande Shenwen Shengwu Ruizhe Mingxiao Tiansheng 1023-1032 Renzong
Mingdao 1032-1033
Jingyou 1034-1038
Baoyuan 1038-1040
Kangding 1040-1041
Qingli 1041-1048
Huangyou 1049-1054
Zhihe 1054-1056
Jiayou 1056-1063
Emperor Yingzong of Song Zhao Shu 1063-1067 Emperor Tiqian Yingli Longgong Shengde Xianwen Suwu Ruisheng Xuanxiao Zhiping 1064-1067 Yingzong
Emperor Shenzong of Song Zhao Xu 1067-1085 Emperor Tiyuan Xiandao Fagu Lixian Dide Wanggong Yingwen Liewu Qinren Shengxiao ? Xining 1068-1077 Shenzong
Yuanfeng 1078-1085
Emperor Zhezong of Song Zhao Xu 1085-1100 Emperor Xianyuan Jidao Shede Yanggong Qinwen Ruiwu Qisheng Zhaoxiao Yuanyou 1086-1094 Zhezong
Shaosheng 1094-1098
Yuanfu 1098-1100
Emperor Huizong of Song Zhao Ji 1100-1125 Emperor Tishen Hedao Junlie Xungong Shengwen Rende Cixian Xianxiao Jianzhongjingguo ? 1101 Huizong
Chongning 1102-1106
Daguan 1107-1110
Zhenghe 1111-1118
Chonghe 1118-1119
Xuanhe 1119-1125
Emperor Qinzong of Song Zhao Huan 1126-1127 Emperor Gongwen Shunde Renxiao Jingkang 1125-1127 Qinzong
Southern Song () (1127-1279 CE)
Emperor Gaozong of Song Zhao Gou 1127-1162 Emperor Shouming Zhongxing Quangong Zhide Shengshen Wuwen Zhaoren Xianxiao Jianyan 1127-1130 Gaozong
Shaoxing 1131-1162
Emperor Xiaozong of Song Zhao Shen 1162-1189 Emperor Shaotong Tongdao Guande Zhaogong Zhewen Shenwu Mingsheng Chengxiao Longxing 1163-1164 Xiaozong
Qiandao 1165-1173
Chunxi 1174-1189
Emperor Guangzong of Song Zhao Dun 1189-1194 Emperor Xundao Xianren Minggong Maode Wenwen Shunwu Shengzhe Cixiao Shaoxi 1190-1194 Guangzong
Emperor Ningzong of Song Zhao Kuo 1194-1224 Emperor Fatian Beidao Chunde Maogong Renwen Zhewu Shengrui Gongxiao Qingyuan 1195-1200 Ningzong
Jiatai 1201-1204
Kaixi 1205-1207
Jiading 1208-1224
Emperor Lizong of Song Zhao Yun 1224-1264 Emperor Jiandao Beide Dagong Fuxing Liewen Renwu Shengming Anxiao Baoqing 1225-1227 Lizong
Shaoding 1228-1233
Duanping 1234-1236
Jiaxi 1237-1240
Chunyou 1241-1252
Baoyou 1253-1258
Kaiqing 1259
Jingding 1260-1264
Emperor Duzong of Song Zhao Qi 1264-1274 Emperor Duanwen Mingwu Jingxiao Xianchun 1265-1274 Duzong
Emperor Gong of Song Zhao Xian 1274-1276 - Deyou 1275-1276 -
Emperor Duanzong of Song Zhao Shi 1276-1278 Emperor Yuwen Zhaowu Minxiao Jingyan 1276-1278 Duanzong
Zhao Bing Zhao Bing 1278-1279 - Xiangxing 1278-1279 -

Dali Kingdom () (937-1094 CE, 1096-1253 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Former Dali () (937-1094 CE)
Duan Siping Duan Siping 937-944 Emperor Shengshen Wenwu Wende 938-? Taizu
Shenwu ?-944
Duan Siying Duan Siying 944-945 - Wenjing 945 -
Duan Siliang Duan Siliang 945-952 Emperor Shengci Wenwu Zhizhi 946-951 -
Duan Sicong Duan Sicong 952-968 Emperor Zhidao Guangci Mingde 952-? -
Guangde ?-967
Shunde 968
Duan Sushun Duan Sushun 968-985 Emperor Yingdao ? Mingzheng 969-985 -
Duan Suying Duan Suying 985-1009 Emperor Zhaoming ? Guangming 986-? -
Mingying ?
Mingtong ?
Mingsheng ?
Mingzhi ?
Duan Sulian Duan Sulian 1009-1022 Emperor Xuansu ? Mingqi 1010-1022 -
Duan Sulong Duan Sulong 1022-1026 Emperor Bingyi ? Mingtong 1023-1026 -
Duan Suzhen Duan Suzhen 1026-1041 Emperor Shengde ? Zhengzhi 1027-1041 -
Duan Suxing Duan Suxing 1041-1044 - Shengming 1042-? -
Tianming ?-1044
Duan Silian Duan Silian 1044-1075 Emperor Xiaode ? Bao'an 1045-1052 Xingzong
Zheng'an 1053-?
Zhengde ?
Baode ?-1074
Minghou ?
Duan Lianyi Duan Lianyi 1075-1080 - Shangde 1076 -
Duan Shouhui Duan Shouhui 1080-1081 - Shangming 1081 -
Duan Zhengming Duan Zhengming 1081-1094 Emperor Baoding ? Baoli 1082 -
Jian'an 1083-1091
Tianyou 1091-1094
Later Dali () (1096-1253 CE)
Duan Zhengchun Duan Zhengchun 1096-1108 Emperor Wen'an ? Tianshou 1096 Zhongzong
Mingkai 1097-1103
Tianzheng 1103-1104
Wen'an 1104-1108
Duan Zhengyan Duan Zhengyan 1108-1147 Emperor Xuanren ? Rixin 1109-1110 Xianzong
Wenzhi 1110-?
Yongjia ?-1128
Baotian 1129-1137
Guangyun 1138-1147
Duan Zhengxing Duan Zhengxing 1147-1171 Emperor Zhengkang ? Yongzhen 1148 Jingzong
Dabao 1149-1156
Longxing 1157-1161
Shengming 1162-?
Jiande ?-1171
Duan Zhixing Duan Zhixing 1171-1200 Emperor Gongji ? Lizhen 1172-1174 Xuanzong
Shengde 1176-1180
Jiahui 1181-1184
Yuanheng 1185-1195
Ding'an 1195-1200
Duan Zhilian Duan Zhilian 1200-1204 Emperor Hengtian ? Fengli 1200-? Yingzong
Yuanshou ?-1204
Duan Zhixiang Duan Zhixiang 1204-1238 - Tiankai 1205-1225 Shenzong
Tianfu 1226
Tianshou 1227-1238
Duan Xiangxing Duan Xiangxing 1238-1251 Emperor Xiaoyi ? Daolong 1239-1251 -
Duan Xingzhi Duan Xingzhi 1251-1254 - Tianding 1251-1254 -


Western Xia () (1038-1227 CE)

Chinese convention: use "Western Xia" + temple name (or use personal name)

The Tangut names for about half of the Western Xia eras are known from Tangut texts or monumental inscriptions, or from Western Xia coins.

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao )
Emperor J?ngz?ng of Western Xia L? Yuánhào 1032-1048 Emperor W?liè ? Xi?ndào 1032-1034 J?ngz?ng
K?iyùn 1034
Gu?ngpíng 1035-1036
Dàqìng 1036-1038
Ti?nshòul?f?yánzuò 1038-1048
Emperor Yìz?ng of Western Xia L? Liàngzuò 1048-1067 Emperor Zh?oy?ng ? Yánsìníngguó ? 1048-1049 Yìz?ng
Ti?nyòuchuíshèng ? 1050-1052
Fúshèngchéngdào ? 1053-1056
Du?d? 1057-1063
G?nghuà 1063-1067
Emperor Huìz?ng of Western Xia L? B?ngcháng 1067-1086 Emperor K?ngjìng ? Qiándào 1067-1069 Huìz?ng
Ti?ncìl?shèngguóqìng 1070-1074
Dà'?n
1075-1085
Ti?n'?nl?dìng ?
?
1085-1086
Emperor Chóngz?ng of Western Xia L? Qiánshùn 1086-1139 Emperor Shèngwén ? Ti?nyízhìpíng ? 1086-1089 Chóngz?ng
Ti?nyòumín'?n ?
?
1090-1097
Y?ng'?n 1098-1100
Zh?ngu?n
1101-1113
Y?ngníng
1114-1118
Yuándé
1119-1127
Zhèngdé
1127-1134
Dàdé
1135-1139
Emperor Rénz?ng of Western Xia L? Rénxiào 1139-1193 Emperor Shengde ? Dàqìng
1139-1143 Rénz?ng
Rénqìng
1144-1148
Ti?nshèng
1149-1170
Qiányòu
1170-1193
Emperor Huánz?ng of Western Xia L? Chúnyòu 1193-1206 Emperor Zh?oji?n ? Ti?nqìng
1193-1206 Huánz?ng
Emperor Xi?ngz?ng of Western Xia L? ?nquán 1206-1211 Emperor Jingmu ? Y?ngti?n 1206-1209 Xi?ngz?ng
Huángjiàn
1210-1211
Emperor Shénz?ng of Western Xia L? Z?nx? 1211-1223 Emperor Y?ngwén ? Gu?ngdìng
1211-1223 Shénz?ng
Emperor Xiànz?ng of Western Xia L? Déwàng 1223-1226 Emperor Xiao'ai ? Qiándìng 1223-1226 Xiànz?ng
Emperor Mò of Western Xia L? Xiàn 1226-1227 - B?oyì 1226-1227 -

Jin dynasty () (1115-1234 CE)

Chinese convention: use "Jin" + temple name or posthumous name in Chinese

Jin dynasty 1115-1234
Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Emperor Taizu of Jin ?g?d?
or
Wányán M?n

or
1115-1123 Sh?uguó 1115-1116 Emperor Yingqian Xingyun Zhaode Dinggong Renming Zhuangxiao Dasheng Wuyuan Tàiz?
Ti?nf? 1117-1123
Emperor Taizong of Jin Wúq?m?i
or
Wányán Shèng

or
1123-1134 Ti?nhuì 1123-1134 Emperor Tiyuan Yingyun Shide Zhaogong Zhehui Rensheng Wenlie ? Tàiz?ng
Emperor Xizong of Jin Hélá
or
Wányán D?n

or
1135-1149 Ti?nhuì 1135-1138 Emperor Hongji Zuanwu Zhuangjing Xiaocheng ? X?z?ng
Ti?njuàn 1138-1141
Huángt?ng 1141-1149
Wanyan Liang Díg?n?i
or
Wányán Liàng

or
1149-1161 Ti?ndé 1149-1153 Prince Yáng -
Zhènyuán 1153-1156
Zhènglóng 1156-1161
Emperor Shizong of Jin W?lù
or
Wányán Y?ng

or
1161-1189 Dàdìng 1161-1189 Emperor Guangtian Xingyun Wende Wugong Shengming Renxiao Shìz?ng
Emperor Zhangzong of Jin Mádág?
or
Wányán J?ng

or
1190-1208 Míngch?ng 1190-1196 Emperor Xiantian Guangyun Renwen Yiwu Shensheng Yingxiao Zh?ngz?ng
Chéng'?n 1196-1200
Tàihé 1200-1208
Wanyan Yongji Wányán Y?ngjì ? 1209-1213 Dà'?n 1209-1212 Prince Shào -
Chóngqìng 1212-1213
Zhìníng 1213
Emperor Xuanzong of Jin Wúdúb?
or
Wányán Xú

or
1213-1223 Zh?nyòu 1213-1217 Emperor Jitian Xingtong Shudao Qinren Yingwu Shengxiao Xu?nz?ng
X?ngdìng 1217-1222
Yuángu?ng 1222-1223
Emperor Aizong of Jin Níngji?sù
or
Wányán Sh?uxù

or
?
1224-1234 Zhèngdà 1224-1232 Emperor Zhuang ?iz?ng
K?ix?ng 1232
Ti?nx?ng 1232-1234
Emperor Mo of Jin H?d?n
or
Wányán Chénglín

or
?
1234 - - -

Yuan dynasty () (1271-1368 CE)

Chinese convention: for rulers before Kublai Khan use given name (e.g. Temüjin) or Khan names, use "Yuan" + temple name or posthumous name after

Note:
1) The Mongol Great Khans before Khublai were only declared Yuan emperors after the creation of Yuan dynasty in 1271
2) To non-Chinese readers, usually the khan names are the most familiar names.
3) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with Timur the lame (Tamerlane).

Khan Name Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Regnal name (Zun Hao ) Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Genghis Khan Borjigin Temüjin ? 1206-1227 - - Emperor Fatian Qiyun Shengwu Tàiz?
Tolui Borjigin Tolui 1228 - - Emperor Rensheng Jingxiang Ruìz?ng
Ögedei Khan Borjigin Ögedei ? 1229-1241 - - Emperor Yingwen ? Tàiz?ng
Güyük Khan Borjigin Güyük 1246-1248 - - Emperor Jianping ? Dìngz?ng
Möngke Khan Borjigin Möngke 1251-1259 - - Emperor Huansu ? Xiànz?ng
Kublai Khan Borjigin Kublai ? 1260-1294 Zh?ngt?ng 1260-1264 Emperor Xiantian Shudao Renwen Yiwu Daguang Xiao ? Emperor Shengde Shengong Wenwu Shìz?
Zhìyuán 1264-1294
Temür Khan Borjigin Temür ? 1294-1307 Yuánzh?n 1295-1297 - Emperor Qinming Guangxiao Chéngz?ng
1307-1308 Dàdé 1297-1307
Külüg Khan Borjigin Qayshan 1308-1311 Zhìdà 1308-1311 Emperor Tongtian Jisheng Qinwen Yingwu Dazhang Xiao ? Emperor Renhui Xuanxiao W?z?ng
Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan Borjigin Ayurparibhadra 1311-1320 Huángqìng 1312-1313 - Emperor Shengwen Qinxiao Rénz?ng
1320-1321 Yányòu 1314-1320
Gegeen Khan Borjigin Suddhipala 1321-1323 Zhìzhì 1321-1323 Emperor Jitian Tidao Jingwen Renwu Dazhao Xiao ? Emperor Ruisheng Wenxiao Y?ngz?ng
Yesün Temür1 Borjigin Yesün-Temür 1323-1328 Tàidìng 1324-1328 - - -
Zhìhé 1328
Ragibagh Khan1 Borjigin Arigaba 1328 Ti?nshùn 1328 - - -
Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür Borjigin Toq-Temür 1328-1329 and 1329-1332 Ti?nlì 1328-1330 Emperor Qintian Tongsheng Zhide Chenggong Dawen Xiao ? Emperor Shengming Yuanxiao Wénz?ng
Zhìshùn 1330-1332
Khutughtu Khan Kusala Borjigin Qoshila ? 1329 Emperor Shuntian Lidao Ruiwen Zhiwu Dasheng Xiao ? Emperor Yixian Jingxiao Míngz?ng
Rinchinbal Khan Borjigin Irinchibal 1332 - Emperor Chongsheng Sixiao Níngz?ng
Toghon Temür2 Borjigin Toghan-Temür 1333-1368 1333 - Emperor Xuanren Puxiao
or
Emperor Shun

or
Huìz?ng
Yuánt?ng 1333-1335
Zhìyuán 1335-1340
Zhìzhèng 1341-1368
Zhìyuán 1368-1370

1 -- Chinese convention: for these sovereigns only, use "Yuan" + era name (e.g. ? Yuán Tàidìng Dì).
2 -- Chinese convention: for this sovereign only, use "Yuan" + posthumous name.

Northern Yuan () (1368-1388 CE)

Retreat of the Yuan court to the Mongolian Plateau after being overthrown by the Ming dynasty in China proper in 1368 (1368 - early 15th century)

Convention: use khan names or birth names.

Khan Names Personal Name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Toghon Temür
(same person as the last Yuan emperor)
Borjigin Toghan-Temür 1368-1370 Zhìshùn 1333 Emperor Xuanren Puxiao
or
Emperor Shun

or
Huìz?ng
Yuánt?ng 1333-1335
Zhìyuán 1335-1340
Zhìzhèng 1341-1368
Zhìyuán 1368-1370
Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara Borjigin Ayushiridara ? 1370-1378 Xu?ngu?ng 1371-1378 Emperor Wucheng Hexiao Zh?oz?ng
Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür Borjigin Tögüs Temür ? 1378-1388 Ti?nyuán

or

Ti?ngu?ng1

or

1378-1388 Emperor Yisheng Ningxiao -
1 -- Recently discovered Northern Yuan coins have the era name "Tianguang", suggesting that the era name "Tianyuan" recorded in Chinese sources may be incorrect.[2]

Ming dynasty () (1368-1644 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name1 (Shi Hao ) Temple name1 (Miao Hao )
Hongwu Emperor Zh? Yuánzh?ng 1368-1398 Hóngw? 1368-1398 Emperor Kaitian Xingdao Zhaoji Liji Dasheng Zhishen Renwen Yiwu Junde Chenggong Gao Tàiz?
Jianwen Emperor Zh? Y?nwén 1398-1402 Jiànwén 1398-1402 Emperor Sitian Zhangdao Chengyi Yuangong Guanwen Yangwu Keren Duxiao Rang ? Huizong2
Yongle Emperor Zh? Dì 1402-1424 Y?nglè 1402-1424 Emperor Qitian Hongdao Gaoming Zhaoyun Shengwu Shengong Chunren Zhixiao Wen ? Chéngz? or Tàiz?ng /
Hongxi Emperor Zh? G?ochì 1424-1425 Hóngx? 1424-1425 Emperor Jingtian Tidao Chuncheng Zhide Hongwen Qinwu Zhangsheng Daxiao Zhao ? Rénz?ng
Xuande Emperor Zh? Zh?nj? 1425-1435 Xu?ndé 1425-1435 Emperor Xiantian Chongdao Yingming Shensheng Qintian Zhaowu Kuanren Chunxiao Zhang ? Xu?nz?ng
Emperor Yingzong of Ming Zh? Qízhèn 1435-1449

and

1457-1464³

Zhèngt?ng

and

Ti?nshùn

and

1435-1449

and

1457-1464

Emperor Fatian Lidao Renming Chengjing Zhaowen Xianwu Zhide Guangxiao Rui ? Y?ngz?ng
Jingtai Emperor Zh? Qíyù 1449-1457 J?ngtài 1449-1457 Emperor Futian Jiandao Gongren Kangding Longwen Buwu Xiande Chongxiao Jing ? Dàiz?ng
Chenghua Emperor Zh? Jiànsh?n 1464-1487 Chénghuà 1464-1487 Emperor Jitian Ningdao Chengming Renjing Chongwen Suwu Hongde Shengxiao Chun ? Xiànz?ng
Hongzhi Emperor Zh? Yòutáng 1487-1505 Hóngzhì 1487-1505 Emperor Jiantian Mingdao Chengchun Zhongzheng Shengwen Shenwu Zhiren Dade Jing ? Xiàoz?ng
Zhengde Emperor Zh? Hòuzhào 1505-1521 Zhèngdé 1505-1521 Emperor Chengtian Dadao Yingsu Ruizhe Zhaode Xiangong Hongwen Sixiao Yi ? W?z?ng
Jiajing Emperor Zh? Hòuc?ng 1521-1566 Ji?jìng 1521-1566 Emperor Qintian Lüdao Yingyi Shensheng Xuanwen Guangwu Hongren Daxiao Su ? Shìz?ng
Longqing Emperor Zh? Z?ihòu 1566-1572 Lóngqìng 1566-1572 Emperor Qitian Longdao Yuanyi Kuanren Xianwen Guangwu Chunde Hongxiao Zhuang ? Mùz?ng
Wanli Emperor Zh? Yìj?n 1572-1620 Wànlì 1572-1620 Emperor Fantian Hedao Zhesu Dunjian Guangwen Zhangwu Anren Zhixiao Xian ? Shénz?ng
Taichang Emperor Zh? Chángluò 1620 Tàich?ng 1620 Emperor Chongtian Qidao Yingrui Gongchun Xianwen Jingwu Yuanren Yixiao Zhen ? Gu?ngz?ng
Tianqi Emperor Zh? Yóujiào 1620-1627 Ti?nq? 1620-1627 Emperor Datian Chandao Dunxiao Duyou Zhangwen Xiangwu Jingmu Zhuangqin Zhe ? X?z?ng
Chongzhen Emperor Zh? Yóuji?n 1627-1644 Chóngzh?n 1627-1644 Emperor Shaotian Yidao Gangming Kejian Kuiwen Fenwu Dunren Maoxiao Lie ? S?z?ng or Yìz?ng /
1 -- As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Ming, to avoid confusion. For example, the Hongwu emperor is frequently referred to as Ming Taizu.

2 -- The Yongle emperor assumed the throne of his nephew the Jianwen emperor, who was officially said to have died in a palace fire but who was suspected of escaping to live as a recluse. The Yongle emperor wiped out the record of his nephew's reign and no temple name was given him. In 1644 the Prince of Fu (), the new self-proclaimed emperor of the Southern Ming, conferred on Emperor Jianwen the temple name Huizong.

3 -- After listening to the poor advice of his eunuch advisers, the Zhengtong Emperor personally led a campaign in 1449 against the Mongols and was captured. His brother the Jingtai Emperor assumed the throne and as a hostage no longer of any value, the Mongols released the Zhengtong Emperor who returned to live in seclusion. However the Zhengtong Emperor was able to regain his position, choosing the reign name Tianshun.

Shun dynasty () (1644-1645 CE)

The Shun dynasty was an imperial dynasty created in the brief lapse from Ming to Qing rule in China. It was a state set up by the peasants' rebellion, in which they defeated the Ming forces, but former Ming general Wu Sangui led the Qing forces into Beijing and the Qing forces defeated the rebels.

Name most commonly known by Personal name Reign years Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Alternative title
Li Zicheng Li Zicheng 1644-1645 Yongchang 1644-1645 Chu?ng Wáng (The Dashing King)

Southern Ming () (1644-1662 CE)

The Southern Ming refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662. The regime was established by the princes of the already destroyed Ming dynasty. All of these monarchs had their regimes crushed by the Qing forces very quickly. Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) used the Ming dynasty's name and gathered forces before fleeing to Taiwan.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name (Shi Hao ) Temple name (Miao Hao )
Zhu Yousong Zh? Yóus?ng 1644-1645 Hónggu?ng 1644-1645 Emperor Fengtian Zundao Kuanhe Jingmu Xiuwen Buwu Wengong Renxiao Jian ? ?nz?ng
Zhu Yujian Zh? Yùjiàn 1645-1646 Lóngw? 1645-1646 Emperor Peitian Zhidao Hongyi Sumu Siwen Liewu Minren Guangxiao Xiang ? Shàoz?ng
Zhu Changfang Zh? Chángf?ng 1645 None given, but sometimes referred to as the "Regency of the Prince of Lu/Luh"
(Lù Wáng Lín Guó)
? 1646 Prince Min -
Zhu Yihai Zh? Y?h?i 1645-1653 - -
Zhu Yuyue Zh? Yùyuè 1646 Shàow? 1646 - -
Zhu Youlang Zh? Yóuláng 1646-1662 Y?nglì 1646-1662 Emperor Yingtian Tuidao Minyi Gongjian Jingwen Weiwu Liren Kexiao Kuang ? Zh?oz?ng

*The two characters are homonyms, both pronounced Lu; to distinguish them, one is usually kept as Lu and the other spelled differently. Luh is from Cambridge History of China; Lou is from A.C. Moule's Rulers of China (1957). When one irregular spelling is used, the other is kept as regular (Lu). The two systems are distinct and not used simultaneously.

Qing dynasty () (1636-1912 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name1 Reign Era names (Nian Hao ) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name2 (Shi Hao ) Temple name2 (Miao Hao )
Later Jin () (1616-1636 CE)
Nurhaci Nurhaci ? 1616-16263 Ti?nmìng Abkai fulingga 1616-1626 Emperor Chengtian Guangyun Shengde Shengong Zhaoji Liji Renxiao Ruiwu Duanyi Qin'an Hongwen Dingye Gao Tàiz?
Huang Taiji Hong Taiji4 1626-1636 Ti?nc?ng Abkai sure 1627-1636 Emperor Yingtian Xingguo Hongde Zhangwu Kuanwen Rensheng Ruixiao Jingmin Zhaoding Longdao Xiangong Wen ? Tàiz?ng
Qing dynasty () (1636-1912 CE)
Huang Taiji
(same person as the last Later Jin khan)
Hong Taiji4 1636-1643 Chóngdé Wesihun erdemungge 1636-1643 Emperor Yingtian Xingguo Hongde Zhangwu Kuanwen Rensheng Ruixiao Jingmin Zhaoding Longdao Xiangong Wen ? Tàiz?ng
Shunzhi Emperor Fúlín 1643-16615 Shùnzhì Ijish?n dasan 1643-1661 Emperor Titian Longyun Dingtong Jianji Yingrui Qinwen Xianwu Dade Honggong Zhiren Chunxiao Zhang ? Shìz?
Kangxi Emperor Xuányè 1661-1722 K?ngx? Elhe taifin 1661-1722 Emperor Hetian Hongyun Wenwu Ruizhe Gongjian Kuanyu Xiaojing Chengxin Zhonghe Gongde Dacheng Ren ? Shèngz?
Yongzheng Emperor Yìnzh?n 1722-1735 Y?ngzhèng H?waliyasun tob 1722-1735 Emperor Jingtian Changyun Jianzhong Biaozheng Wenwu Yingming Kuanren Xinyi Ruisheng Daxiao Zhicheng Xian ? Shìz?ng
Qianlong Emperor Hónglì 1735-17966 Qiánlóng Abkai wehiyehe 1735-1796 Emperor Fatian Longyun Zhicheng Xianjue Tiyuan Liji Fuwen Fenwu Qinming Xiaoci Shensheng Chun ? G?oz?ng
Jiaqing Emperor Yóngy?n 1796-1820 Ji?qìng Saicungga feng?en 1796-1820 Emperor Shoutian Xingyun Fuhua Suiyou Chongwen Jingwu Guangyu Xiaogong Qinjian Duanmin Yingzhe Rui ? Rénz?ng
Daoguang Emperor Mínníng 1820-1850 Dàogu?ng Doro eldengge 1820-1850 Emperor Xiaotian Fuyun Lizhong Tizheng Zhiwen Shengwu Zhiyong Renci Jianqin Xiaomin Kuanding Cheng ? Xu?nz?ng
Xianfeng Emperor Yìzh? 1850-1861 Xiánf?ng Gubci elgiyengg 1850-1861 Emperor Xietian Yiyun Zhizhong Chuimo Maode Zhenwu Shengxiao Yuangong Duanren Kuanmin Zhuangjian Xian ? Wénz?ng
Tongzhi Emperor Z?ichún 1861-18757 Tóngzhì Yooningga dasan 1861-1875 Emperor Jitian Kaiyun Shouzhong Juzheng Baoda Dinggong Shengzhi Chengxiao Xinmin Gongkuan Mingsu Yi ? Mùz?ng
Guangxu Emperor Z?itián 1875-19087 Gu?ngxù Badarangga doro 1875-1908 Emperor Tongtian Chongyun Dahong Zhizheng Jingwen Weiwu Renxiao Ruizhi Duanjian Kuanqin Jing Déz?ng
Xuantong Emperor P?yí
(also known as Henry)
1908-191210 Xu?nt?ng Gehungge yoso 1908-1912 Emperor Peitian Tongyun Fagu Shaotong Cuiwen Jingfu Kuanrui Zhengmu Tiren Lixiao Min8, 9 8, 9 G?ngz?ng9 9

1 -- The Qing imperial family name was Aisin Gioro (? aixin jueluo), but it was not common Manchu practice to include the family or clan name in an individual's personal name.

2 -- As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Qing, to avoid confusion. For example, the Qianlong emperor is frequently referred to as Qing Gaozong.

3 -- Nurhaci founded the Jin (?) or Later Jin () dynasty in 1616, but it was his son Hong Taiji who changed the name of the dynasty to Qing in 1636. Nurhaci adopted the reign name Tianming but his Qing titles were all conferred posthumously.

4 -- Hong Taiji is referred to erroneously in some historical literature as Abahai ().

5 -- The Shunzhi emperor was the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper following the occupation of Beijing in 1644.

6 -- The Qianlong emperor officially retired in 1796, taking the title Emperor Emeritus (?). This was an act of filial piety to ensure that he would not reign longer than his illustrious grandfather, the Kangxi emperor. However, he remained the ultimate authority until his death in 1799, at which point his son, the Jiaqing emperor, began to exercise the power that had been his in name only from 1796.

7 -- The Empress Dowager Cixi, concubine of the Xianfeng emperor, mother of the Tongzhi emperor, and adoptive mother of the Guangxu emperor, used her considerable skills of political manipulation to act as the power behind the throne or on the throne from 1861 until her death in 1908. She acted as a regent during the minorities of the two young emperors and confined the Guangxu emperor in the Summer Palace after he attempted to introduce reforms in 1898. The death of the Guangxu emperor was announced the day before her own.

8 -- Xundi ("The Abdicated Emperor") is the common name by which mainland China and Taiwan's history books refer to Puyi.

9 -- In 2004 the descendants of the Qing imperial family have conferred a posthumous name and temple name upon the late Puyi. Posthumous name: Emperor Min (). Temple name: Gongzong (). Both titles are not commonly used in academia to refer to this sovereign.

10 -- The Xinhai Revolution started on October 10, 1911. The last emperor, Puyi, abdicated officially on February 12, 1912. The Qing dynasty was overthrown with his abdication on that day. However, that same day the Chinese Republic granted the "Articles of Favourable Treatment of the Emperor of the Great Qing after his Abdication" () which allowed Puyi to retain his imperial title and stated that he should be treated by the government of the Republic of China with the protocol attached to a foreign monarch. These articles were revised on November 5, 1924, after the coup by General Feng Yuxiang: the revised articles stated that Puyi was losing his imperial title and henceforth becoming a regular citizen of the Republic. Puyi was expelled from the Forbidden City that same day. Thus, Puyi was ruling emperor until February 12, 1912 (and also briefly between July 1 and July 12, 1917 in the Manchu Restoration), and non-ruling emperor between February 12, 1912 and November 5, 1924. Puyi also later became the puppet leader of Japanese-controlled Manchukuo under the reign name Datong () (1932-1934), then the puppet emperor of Manchukuo under the reign name Kangde () (1934-1945).

Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (?) (1851-1864 CE)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era name (Nian Hao )
Hong Xiuquan Hong Xiuquan 11 January 1851 - 1 June 1864 Taiping Tianguo ?
Hong Tianguifu Hong Tianguifu ? 6 June 1864 - 18 November 1864

Empire of China (?) (1915-1916 CE)

A short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai who attempted to establish himself as emperor in 1915, but his rule was universally accepted as inauthentic. After 83 days, his reign ended.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era name (Nian Hao )
Yuan Shikai Yuan Shikai 22 December 1915 - 22 March 1916 Hóngxiàn

See also

References

  1. ^ Belyaev, V.A.; Nastich, V.N.; Sidorovich, S.V. (2012). "The coinage of Qara Khitay: a new evidence (on the reign title of the Western Liao Emperor Yelü Yilie)". Proceedings of the 3rd Simone Assemani Symposium, September 23-24, 2011, Rome.
  2. ^ http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_ac349fd50102xfdr.html

External links


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