List of Presidents of the Philippines
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List of Presidents of the Philippines

Malacañang Palace in Manila is the official residence of the President.[note 1] Built in 1750, it has become a prominent symbol of and metonym for the office.
Coat of arms of the Philippines.svg

politics and government of
the Philippines

Under the present Constitution of the Philippines, the president of the Philippines (Filipino: Pangulo ng Pilipinas) is both the head of state and the head of government, and serves as the commander-in-chief of the country's armed forces.[4] The president is directly elected by qualified voters of the population to a six-year term and must be "a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election". Any person who has served as president for more than four years is barred from running for the position again. Upon an incumbent president's death, permanent disability, resignation, or removal from office, the vice president assumes the post.[5]

Sixteen people have been sworn into office as president. Following the ratification of the Malolos Constitution in 1899, Emilio Aguinaldo became the inaugural president of the Malolos Republic, considered the First Philippine Republic.[6][note 2] He held that office until 1901 when he was captured by United States forces during the Philippine-American War (1899-1902).[4] The American colonization of the Philippines abolished the First Republic,[7] which led to an American governor-general exercising executive power.[8]

In 1935, the United States, pursuant to its promise of full Philippine sovereignty,[9] established the Commonwealth of the Philippines following the ratification of the 1935 Constitution, which also restored the presidency. The first national presidential election was held,[note 3] and Manuel L. Quezon (1935-44) was elected to a six-year term, with no provision for re-election,[12] as the second Philippine president and the first Commonwealth president.[note 2] In 1940, however, the Constitution was amended to allow re-election but shortened the term to four years.[4] A change in government occurred three years later when the Second Philippine Republic was organized with the enactment of the 1943 Constitution, which Japan imposed after it occupied the Philippines in 1942 during World WarII.[13]José P. Laurel acted as puppet president of the new Japanese-sponsored government;[14] his de facto presidency,[15] not legally recognized until the 1960s,[16] overlapped with that of the president of the Commonwealth, which went into exile. The Second Republic was dissolved after Japan surrendered to the Allies in 1945; the Commonwealth was restored in the Philippines in the same year with Sergio Osmeña (1944-46) as president.[4]

Manuel Roxas (1946-1948) followed Picar when he won the first post-war election in 1946. He became the first president of the independent Philippines when the Commonwealth ended on July4 of that year. The Third Republic was ushered in and would cover the administrations of the next five presidents, the last of which was Ferdinand Marcos (1965-86),[4] who performed a self-coup by imposing martial law in 1972.[17] The dictatorship saw the birth of Marcos' New Society and the Fourth Republic. His tenure lasted until 1986 when he was deposed in the People Power Revolution. The current constitution came into effect in 1987, marking the beginning of the Fifth Republic.[4]

Of the individuals elected as president, three died in office: two of natural causes (Manuel L. Quezon[18] and Manuel Roxas[19]) and one in a plane crash (Ramon Magsaysay, 1953-57[20]). The longest-serving president is Ferdinand Marcos with 20 years and 57 days in office; he is the only president to have served more than two terms. The shortest is Sergio Osmeña, who spent 1 year and 300 days in office.

Two women have held the office: Corazon Aquino (1986-92), who ascended to the presidency upon the successful People Power Revolution of 1986, and Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (2001-10), who, as Vice President, ascended to the presidency upon Estrada's resignation and was elected to a full six-year term in 2004.


The colors indicate the political party affiliation of each individual.

Party English name Abbreviation
Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas Association for Service to the New Philippines KALIBAPI
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan New Society Movement KBL
Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino Struggle of the Patriotic Filipino Masses LAMMP
Lakas ng Tao-Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino-Christian Muslim Democrats People Power-Partner of the Free Filipino-Christian Muslim Democrats Lakas-Kampi-CMD
Lakas ng Tao-National Union of Christian Democrats People Power-National Union of Christian Democrats Lakas-NUCD
Liberal Party Liberal
Nacionalista Party Nationalist Party Nacionalista
Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan Philippine Democratic Party-People's Power PDP-Laban
United Nationalist Democratic Organization UNIDO
Non-partisan N/A
# President Term of service Party Election Vice President Period
Start End
1 Emilio Aguinaldo

Emilio Aguinaldo

January 23, 1899 March 23, 1901 Nonpartisan 1899 None First Republic
American Governor-Generals, appointed by the President of the United States, governed the Philippines as an Insular Area.
2 Manuel L. Quezon

Manuel L. Quezon

November 15, 1935 August 1, 1944 Nacionalista 1935 Sergio Osmeña Commonwealth
3 Jose P. Laurel

José P. Laurel

October 14, 1943 August 17, 1945 KALIBAPI 1943 None Second Republic
4 Sergio Osmeña

Sergio Osmeña

August 1, 1944 May 28, 1946 Nacionalista 1941 Vacant Commonwealth
5 Manuel Roxas

Manuel Roxas

May 28, 1946 April 15, 1948 Liberal 1946 Elpidio Quirino
Third Republic
6 Elpidio Quirino

Elpidio Quirino

April 17, 1948 December 30, 1953 Liberal Vacant
1949 Fernando Lopez
7 Ramon Magsaysay

Ramon Magsaysay

December 30, 1953 March 17, 1957 Nacionalista 1953 Carlos P. Garcia
8 Carlos P. Garcia

Carlos P. Garcia

March 18, 1957 December 30, 1961 Nacionalista Vacant
1957 Diosdado Macapagal
9 Diosdado Macapagal

Diosdado Macapagal

December 30, 1961 December 30, 1965 Liberal 1961 Emmanuel Pelaez
10 Ferdinand Marcos

Ferdinand Marcos

December 30, 1965 February 25, 1986 Nacionalista 1965 Fernando Lopez
None Martial law
1981 Fourth Republic
11 Corazon Aquino

Corazon Aquino

February 25, 1986 June 30, 1992 UNIDO 1986 Salvador Laurel
Fifth Republic
12 Fidel V. Ramos

Fidel Ramos

June 30, 1992 June 30, 1998 Lakas 1992 Joseph Estrada
13 Joseph Estrada

Joseph Estrada

June 30, 1998 January 20, 2001 LAMMP 1998 Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
14 Gloria Macapagal Arroyo

Gloria Macapagal Arroyo

January 20, 2001 June 30, 2010 Lakas Vacant
Teofisto Guingona Jr.
2004 Noli de Castro
15 Benigno Aquino III

Benigno Aquino III

June 30, 2010 June 30, 2016 Liberal 2010 Jejomar Binay
16 Rodrigo Duterte

Rodrigo Duterte

June 30, 2016 Present PDP-Laban 2016 Leni Robredo


Rodrigo DuterteBenigno Aquino IIIGloria Macapagal ArroyoJoseph EstradaFidel RamosCorazon AquinoFerdinand MarcosDiosdado MacapagalCarlos P. GarciaRamon MagsaysayElpidio QuirinoManuel RoxasSergio OsmeñaJosé P. LaurelManuel L. QuezonEmilio Aguinaldo

See also


  1. ^ The President has three official residences, with the Malacañang Palace Complex as the principal abode and workplace.[1] The other two are Mansion House in Baguio, the official summer residence,[2] and Malacañang sa Sugbo (Malacañang of Cebu), the official residence in Cebu.[3]
  2. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Order was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ Emilio Aguinaldo, the official first president, was elected by the Malolos Congress and not by popular vote.[10][11]



  1. ^ Ortiguero, Romsanne (October 22, 2014). "TRAVEL Inside Malacañang Complex, 3 places to visit for a charming date with history". News5. TV5. Archived from the original on June 30, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  2. ^ "Mansion House". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved 2016.
  3. ^ Sisante, Jam (August 6, 2010). "Malacañang sa Sugbo still the president's official residence in Cebu". GMA News and Public Affairs. GMA Network. Retrieved 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Cite error: The named reference execbranch was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference 1987con was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ Tucker 2009, p. 8
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference FirstRep was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Agoncillo281 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference commonwealth was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ Cite error: The named reference PAguinaldo1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference PAguinaldo2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference 1941election was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference RicardoJose was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ Staff writer(s); no by-line. (September 3, 1945). "The Philippines: End of a Puppet". Time. Retrieved 2016.
  15. ^ Cite error: The named reference dejurefacto was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  16. ^ Cite error: The named reference 2ndrepog was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference martiallaw was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ Cite error: The named reference QuezonDeath was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference RoxasDeath was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ Cite error: The named reference MagsaysayDeath2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

Works cited

External links

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