Under the present Constitution of the Philippines, the president of the Philippines (Filipino: Pangulo ng Pilipinas) is both the head of state and the head of government, and serves as the commander-in-chief of the country's armed forces. The president is directly elected by qualified voters of the population to a six-year term and must be "a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election". Any person who has served as president for more than four years is barred from running for the position again. Upon an incumbent president's death, permanent disability, resignation, or removal from office, the vice president assumes the post.
Sixteen people have been sworn into office as president. Following the ratification of the Malolos Constitution in 1899, Emilio Aguinaldo became the inaugural president of the Malolos Republic, considered the First Philippine Republic.[note 2] He held that office until 1901 when he was captured by United States forces during the Philippine-American War (1899-1902). The American colonization of the Philippines abolished the First Republic, which led to an American governor-general exercising executive power.
In 1935, the United States, pursuant to its promise of full Philippine sovereignty, established the Commonwealth of the Philippines following the ratification of the 1935 Constitution, which also restored the presidency. The first national presidential election was held,[note 3] and Manuel L. Quezon (1935-44) was elected to a six-year term, with no provision for re-election, as the second Philippine president and the first Commonwealth president.[note 2] In 1940, however, the Constitution was amended to allow re-election but shortened the term to four years. A change in government occurred three years later when the Second Philippine Republic was organized with the enactment of the 1943 Constitution, which Japan imposed after it occupied the Philippines in 1942 during World WarII.José P. Laurel acted as puppet president of the new Japanese-sponsored government; his de facto presidency, not legally recognized until the 1960s, overlapped with that of the president of the Commonwealth, which went into exile. The Second Republic was dissolved after Japan surrendered to the Allies in 1945; the Commonwealth was restored in the Philippines in the same year with Sergio Osmeña (1944-46) as president.
Manuel Roxas (1946-1948) followed Picar when he won the first post-war election in 1946. He became the first president of the independent Philippines when the Commonwealth ended on July4 of that year. The Third Republic was ushered in and would cover the administrations of the next five presidents, the last of which was Ferdinand Marcos (1965-86), who performed a self-coup by imposing martial law in 1972. The dictatorship saw the birth of Marcos' New Society and the Fourth Republic. His tenure lasted until 1986 when he was deposed in the People Power Revolution. The current constitution came into effect in 1987, marking the beginning of the Fifth Republic.
Of the individuals elected as president, three died in office: two of natural causes (Manuel L. Quezon and Manuel Roxas) and one in a plane crash (Ramon Magsaysay, 1953-57). The longest-serving president is Ferdinand Marcos with 20 years and 57 days in office; he is the only president to have served more than two terms. The shortest is Sergio Osmeña, who spent 1 year and 300 days in office.
Two women have held the office: Corazon Aquino (1986-92), who ascended to the presidency upon the successful People Power Revolution of 1986, and Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (2001-10), who, as Vice President, ascended to the presidency upon Estrada's resignation and was elected to a full six-year term in 2004.
|Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas||Association for Service to the New Philippines||KALIBAPI|
|Kilusang Bagong Lipunan||New Society Movement||KBL|
|Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino||Struggle of the Patriotic Filipino Masses||LAMMP|
|Lakas ng Tao-Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino-Christian Muslim Democrats||People Power-Partner of the Free Filipino-Christian Muslim Democrats||Lakas-Kampi-CMD|
|Lakas ng Tao-National Union of Christian Democrats||People Power-National Union of Christian Democrats||Lakas-NUCD|
|Nacionalista Party||Nationalist Party||Nacionalista|
|Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan||Philippine Democratic Party-People's Power||PDP-Laban|
|United Nationalist Democratic Organization||UNIDO|
|#||President||Term of service||Party||Election||Vice President||Period|
|1||Emilio Aguinaldo||January 23, 1899||March 23, 1901||Nonpartisan||1899||None||First Republic|
|American Governor-Generals, appointed by the President of the United States, governed the Philippines as an Insular Area.|
|2||Manuel L. Quezon
||November 15, 1935||August 1, 1944||Nacionalista||1935||Sergio Osmeña||Commonwealth|
|3||Jose P. Laurel
||October 14, 1943||August 17, 1945||KALIBAPI||1943||None||Second Republic|
||August 1, 1944||May 28, 1946||Nacionalista||1941||Vacant||Commonwealth|
||May 28, 1946||April 15, 1948||Liberal||1946||Elpidio Quirino|
||April 17, 1948||December 30, 1953||Liberal||Vacant|
||December 30, 1953||March 17, 1957||Nacionalista||1953||Carlos P. Garcia|
|8||Carlos P. Garcia
||March 18, 1957||December 30, 1961||Nacionalista||Vacant|
||December 30, 1961||December 30, 1965||Liberal||1961||Emmanuel Pelaez|
||December 30, 1965||February 25, 1986||Nacionalista||1965||Fernando Lopez|
||February 25, 1986||June 30, 1992||UNIDO||1986||Salvador Laurel|
|12||Fidel V. Ramos
||June 30, 1992||June 30, 1998||Lakas||1992||Joseph Estrada|
||June 30, 1998||January 20, 2001||LAMMP||1998||Gloria Macapagal Arroyo|
|14||Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
||January 20, 2001||June 30, 2010||Lakas||Vacant|
|Teofisto Guingona Jr.|
|2004||Noli de Castro|
|15||Benigno Aquino III
||June 30, 2010||June 30, 2016||Liberal||2010||Jejomar Binay|
||June 30, 2016||Present||PDP-Laban||2016||Leni Robredo|
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