List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom
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List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom

painting of Robert Walpole
painting of William Pitt the Younger
photograph of Benjamin Disraeli
photograph of Henry Campbell-Bannerman

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the Government of the United Kingdom, and chairs Cabinet meetings. There is no specific date for when the office of prime minister first appeared, as the role was not created but rather evolved over a period of time through a merger of duties.[1] However, the term was regularly if informally used of Walpole by the 1730s.[2] It was used in the House of Commons as early as 1805,[3] and it was certainly in parliamentary use by the 1880s.[4] In 1905 the post of prime minister was officially given recognition in the order of precedence.[5] Modern historians generally consider Sir Robert Walpole, who led the government of Great Britain for over twenty years from 1721,[6] as the first prime minister. Walpole is also the longest-serving British prime minister by this definition.[7] However, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman was the first and Margaret Thatcher the longest-serving prime minister officially referred to as such in the order of precedence.[8] The first to use the title in an official act was Benjamin Disraeli, who signed the Treaty of Berlin as "Prime Minister of her Britannic Majesty" in 1878.[9]

Strictly, the first prime minister of the United Kingdom (of Great Britain and Ireland) was William Pitt the Younger.[10] The first prime minister of the current United Kingdom, i.e. the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, was Bonar Law,[11] although the country was not renamed officially until 1927, when Stanley Baldwin was the serving prime minister.[12]

Due to the gradual evolution of the post of prime minister, the title is applied to early prime ministers only retrospectively;[13] this has sometimes given rise to academic dispute. Lord Bath and Lord Waldegrave are sometimes listed as prime ministers.[14] Bath was invited to form a ministry by when Henry Pelham resigned in 1746,[15] as was Waldegrave in 1757 after the dismissal of William Pitt the Elder,[16] who dominated the affairs of government during the Seven Years' War. Neither was able to command sufficient parliamentary support to form a government; Bath stepped down after two days,[14] and Waldegrave after three.[16] Modern academic consensus does not consider either man to have held office as prime minister,[17] and they are therefore not listed.

Before 1721

Prior to the Georgian era, the Treasury of England was led by the Lord High Treasurer.[18] By the late Tudor period, the Lord High Treasurer was regarded as one of the Great Officers of State,[18] and was often (though not always) the dominant figure in government: Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (Lord High Treasurer, 1547-1549),[19] served as Lord Protector to his prepubescent nephew ;[19]William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (Lord High Treasurer, 1572-1598),[20] was the dominant minister to ;[20] Burghley's son Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, succeeded his father as chief minister to (1598-1603) and was eventually appointed by as Lord High Treasurer (1608-1612).[21]

By the late Stuart period, the Treasury was often run not by a single individual, i.e. Lord High Treasurer, but by a commission of Lords of the Treasury,[22] led by the First Lord of the Treasury. The last Lords High Treasurer, Lord Godolphin (1702-1710) and Lord Oxford (1711-1714),[23] ran the government of Queen Anne.[24]

After the succession of in 1714, the arrangement of a commission of Lords of the Treasury (as opposed to a single Lord High Treasurer) became permanent.[25] For the next three years, the government was headed by Lord Townshend, who was appointed Secretary of State for the Northern Department.[26] Subsequently, Lord Stanhope and Lord Sunderland ran the government jointly,[27] with Stanhope managing foreign affairs and Sunderland domestic.[27] Stanhope died in February 1721 and Sunderland resigned two months later;[27] Townshend and Robert Walpole were then invited to form the next government.[28] From that point, the holder of the office of First Lord also usually (albeit unofficially) held the status of prime minister. It was not until the Edwardian era that the title prime minister was constitutionally recognised.[13] The prime minister still holds the office of First Lord by constitutional convention,[29] the only exceptions being Lord Chatham (1766-1768) and Lord Salisbury (1885-1886, 1887-1892, 1895-1902).[30]

From 1721

     Whig (17)      Tory (11)      Conservative (19)      Peelite (1)      Liberal (7)      Labour (6)      National Labour (1)
Title
Prime Minister
Office
(Birth-Death)
Term of office & mandate[a]
Duration in years and days
Ministerial offices
held as prime minister
Party Government Monarch
(Reign)
Ref.
painting The Right Honourable
Sir Robert Walpole
KGKBPC
MP for King's Lynn[§]
(1676-1745)
1722 Whig
Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg
(1714-1727)
[31]
1727
Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg
(1727-1760)
1734 Walpole
1741
20 years and 315 days
painting The Right Honourable
Spencer Compton
1st Earl of Wilmington
KGKBPC
(1673-1743)
-- Whig Carteret [32]
1 year and 137 days[+]
painting The Right Honourable
Henry Pelham
FRS
MP for Sussex
(1694-1754)
-- Whig [33]
Broad Bottom I
1747 Broad Bottom II
10 years and 192 days[+]
painting His Grace
Thomas Pelham-Holles
1st Duke of Newcastle
KGPCFRS
(1693-1768)
1754 Whig Newcastle I [34]
2 years and 241 days
painting His Grace
William Cavendish
4th Duke of Devonshire
KGPC
(1720-1764)
-- Whig Pitt-Devonshire [35]
1757 Caretaker
226 days
painting His Grace
Thomas Pelham-Holles
1st Duke of Newcastle
KGPCFRS
(1693-1768)
1761 Whig Pitt-Newcastle [36]

Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1801-1816).svg
(1760-1820)
[b]
Bute-Newcastle
(Tory-Whig)
4 years and 332 days
painting The Right Honourable
John Stuart
3rd Earl of Bute
KGPC
(1713-1792)
-- Tory Bute [37]
318 days
painting The Right Honourable
George Grenville
MP for Buckingham
(1712-1770)
-- Whig
(Grenvillite)
Grenville
(mainly Whig)
[38]
2 years and 86 days
painting The Most Honourable
Charles Watson-Wentworth
2nd Marquess of Rockingham
KGPCFRS
(1730-1782)
-- Whig
(Rockinghamite)
Rockingham I [39]
1 year and 18 days
painting The Right Honourable
William Pitt
1st Earl of Chatham
PCFRS
MP for Bath (1766)[§]
(1708-1778)
1768 Whig
(Chathamite)
Chatham [40]
2 years and 77 days
painting His Grace
Augustus FitzRoy
3rd Duke of Grafton
KGPC
(1735-1811)
-- Whig
(Chathamite)
Grafton [41]
1 year and 107 days
painting The Right Honourable
Frederick North
Lord North
KG
MP for Banbury
(1732-1792)
1774 Tory
(Northite)
North [42]
1780
12 years and 59 days
painting The Most Honourable
Charles Watson-Wentworth
2nd Marquess of Rockingham
KGPCFRS
(1730-1782)
-- Whig
(Rockinghamite)
Rockingham II [39]
97 days[+]
painting The Right Honourable
William Petty
2nd Earl of Shelburne
KGPC
(1737-1805)
-- Whig
(Chathamite)
Shelburne [43]
266 days
painting His Grace
William Cavendish-Bentinck
3rd Duke of Portland
PCFRS
(1738-1809)
-- Whig Fox-North [44]
261 days
painting The Right Honourable
William Pitt the Younger
MP for Appleby (1784)->
Cambridge University[?]

(1759-1806)
1784 Tory
(Pittite)
Pitt I [45]
1790
1796
17 years and 86 days
painting The Right Honourable
Henry Addington
MP for Devizes
(1757-1844)
1801 Tory
(Addingtonian)
Addington [46]
1802
3 years and 55 days
painting The Right Honourable
William Pitt the Younger
MP for Cambridge University
(1759-1806)
-- Tory
(Pittite)
Pitt II [47]
1 year and 259 days[+]
painting The Right Honourable
William Grenville
1st Baron Grenville
PCPC (Ire)
(1759-1834)
1806 Whig All the Talents
(Whig-Tory)
[48]
1 year and 43 days
painting His Grace
William Cavendish-Bentinck
3rd Duke of Portland
KGPCFRS
(1738-1809)
1807 Tory
(Pittite)
Portland II [49]
2 years and 188 days
painting The Right Honourable
Spencer Perceval
KC
MP for Northampton
(1762-1812)
-- Tory
(Pittite)
Perceval [50]
2 years and 221 days[+]
painting The Right Honourable
Robert Jenkinson
2nd Earl of Liverpool
KGPCFRS
(1770-1828)
1812 Tory
(Pittite)
Liverpool [51]
1818
1820
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
(1820-1830)
1826
14 years and 306 days
painting The Right Honourable
George Canning
FRS
MP for Seaford
(1770-1827)
-- Tory
(Canningite)
Canning
(Canningite-Whig)
[52]
119 days[+]
painting The Right Honourable
Frederick John Robinson
1st Viscount Goderich
PC
(1782-1859)
-- Tory
(Canningite)
Goderich [53]
131 days
painting Field MarshalHis Grace
Arthur Wellesley
1st Duke of Wellington
KGGCBGCHPC
(1769-1852)
1830 Tory Wellington-Peel [54]
2 years and 299 days
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
(1830-1837)
painting The Right Honourable
Charles Grey
2nd Earl Grey
KGPC
(1764-1845)
1831 Whig Grey [55]
1832
3 years and 230 days
painting The Right Honourable
William Lamb
2nd Viscount Melbourne
PCPC (Ire)
(1779-1848)
-- Whig Melbourne I [56]
122 days
painting Field MarshalHis Grace
Arthur Wellesley
1st Duke of Wellington
KGGCBGCHPC
(1769-1852)
-- Tory Wellington Caretaker [57]
23 days
painting The Right Honourable
Sir Robert Peel
BtFRS
MP for Tamworth
(1788-1850)
-- Conservative Peel I [58]
120 days
painting The Right Honourable
William Lamb
2nd Viscount Melbourne
PCPC (Ire)FRS
(1779-1848)
1835 Whig Melbourne II [59]
1837 Victoria
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1837-1901)
6 years and 135 days
painting The Right Honourable
Sir Robert Peel
BtFRS
MP for Tamworth
(1788-1850)
1841 Conservative Peel II [58]
4 years and 304 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Lord John Russell
FRS
MP for the City of London
(1792-1878)
1847 Whig Russell I [60]
5 years and 237 days
engraving The Right Honourable
Edward Smith-Stanley
14th Earl of Derby
PCPC (Ire)
(1799-1869)
1852 Conservative Who? Who? [61]
299 days
engraving The Right Honourable
George Hamilton-Gordon
4th Earl of Aberdeen
KTFRSEFRSPCFSA Scot
(1784-1860)
-- Conservative
(Peelite)
Aberdeen
(Peelite-Whig-et al.)
[62]
2 years and 43 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Henry John Temple
3rd Viscount Palmerston
KGGCBPCFRS
MP for Tiverton
(1784-1865)
1857 Whig Palmerston I [63]
3 years and 14 days
engraving The Right Honourable
Edward Smith-Stanley
14th Earl of Derby
PCPC (Ire)
(1799-1869)
-- Conservative Derby-Disraeli II [64]
1 year and 112 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Henry John Temple
3rd Viscount Palmerston
KGGCBPCFRS
MP for Tiverton
(1784-1865)
1859 Liberal Palmerston II [65]
1865
6 years and 129 days[+]
photograph The Right Honourable
John Russell
1st Earl Russell
KGPCFRS
(1792-1878)
-- Liberal Russell II [60]
241 days
engraving The Right Honourable
Edward Smith-Stanley
14th Earl of Derby
KGPCPC (Ire)
(1799-1869)
-- Conservative Derby-Disraeli III [66]
1 year and 243 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Benjamin Disraeli
MP for Buckinghamshire
(1804-1881)
See also § Main articles:1 Conservative [67]
--
279 days
photograph The Right Honourable
William Ewart Gladstone
FSS
MP for Greenwich
(1809-1898)
See also § Main articles:2 Liberal Gladstone I [68]
1868
5 years and 77 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Benjamin Disraeli
1st Earl of Beaconsfield
KGPCFRS
MP for Buckinghamshire
[§]

(1804-1881)
See also § Main articles:1 Conservative Disraeli II [69]
1874
6 years and 62 days
photograph The Right Honourable
William Ewart Gladstone
FRSFSS
MP for Midlothian
(1809-1898)
See also § Main articles:2 Liberal Gladstone II [70]
1880
5 years and 48 days
photograph The Most Honourable
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
3rd Marquess of Salisbury
KGPCFRSDL
(1830-1903)
-- Conservative Salisbury I [71]
220 days
photograph The Right Honourable
William Ewart Gladstone
FRSFSS
MP for Midlothian
(1809-1898)
See also § Main articles:2 Liberal Gladstone III [70]
1885
170 days
photograph The Most Honourable
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
3rd Marquess of Salisbury
KGPCFRSDL
(1830-1903)
1886 Conservative Salisbury II [72]
6 years and 18 days
photograph The Right Honourable
William Ewart Gladstone
FRSFSS
MP for Midlothian
(1809-1898)
See also § Main articles:2 Liberal Gladstone IV [70]
1892
1 year and 200 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Archibald Primrose
5th Earl of Rosebery
KGPCFRS
(1847-1929)
-- Liberal Rosebery [73]
1 year and 110 days
photograph The Most Honourable
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
3rd Marquess of Salisbury
KGPCFRSDL
(1830-1903)
1895 Conservative Salisbury III
(Con.-Lib.U.)
[74]
1900 Salisbury IV
7 years and 17 days
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1901-1910)
photograph The Right Honourable
Arthur Balfour
FRSFBADL
MP for Manchester East
(1848-1930)
-- Conservative Balfour [75]
3 years and 146 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
GCB
MP for Stirling Burghs
(1836-1908)
1906 Liberal Campbell-Bannerman [76]
2 years and 121 days
photograph The Right Honourable
H. H. Asquith
KCFRS
MP for East Fife
(1852-1928)
-- Liberal Asquith I [77]
Jan.1910 Asquith II

Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1910-1936)
Dec.1910 Asquith III
-- Asquith Coalition
(Lib.-Con.-et al.)
8 years and 243 days
photograph The Right Honourable
David Lloyd George
OM
MP for Caernarvon Boroughs
(1863-1945)
-- Liberal Lloyd George War [78]
1918 Lloyd George II
(Lib.-Con.)
5 years and 318 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Bonar Law
MP for Glasgow Central
(1858-1923)
1922 Conservative
(Scot.U.)
Law [79]
210 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Stanley Baldwin
JP
MP for Bewdley
(1867-1947)
-- Conservative Baldwin I [80]
246 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Ramsay MacDonald
MP for Aberavon
(1866-1937)
1923 Labour MacDonald I [81]
288 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Stanley Baldwin
JPFRS
MP for Bewdley
(1867-1947)
1924 Conservative Baldwin II [82]
4 years and 213 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Ramsay MacDonald
FRS
MP for Seaham
(1866-1937)
1929 Labour MacDonald II [83]
-- National Labour National I
(N.Lab.-Con.-et al.)
1931 National II
6 years and 3 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Stanley Baldwin
JPFRS
MP for Bewdley
(1867-1947)
1935 Conservative National III [84]

Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1936)

Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1936-1952)
1 year and 356 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Neville Chamberlain
FRS
MP for Birmingham Edgbaston
(1869-1940)
-- Conservative National IV [85]
Chamberlain War
2 years and 349 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Winston Churchill
CHTDFRS
MP for Epping ->
Woodford[?] (1945)

(1874-1965)
-- Conservative Churchill War [86]
Churchill Caretaker
(Con.-L.Nat.)
5 years and 78 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Clement Attlee
CHFRS
MP for Limehouse ->
Walthamstow West[?]

(1883-1967)
1945 Labour Attlee I [87]
1950 Attlee II
6 years and 93 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Sir Winston Churchill
KGOMCHTDDLFRSRA
MP for Woodford
(1874-1965)
1951 Conservative Churchill III [88]
3 years and 162 days
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
(1952-present)
photograph The Right Honourable
Sir Anthony Eden
KGMC
MP for Warwick & Leamington
(1897-1977)
1955 Conservative Eden [89]
1 year and 279 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Harold Macmillan
FRS
MP for Bromley
(1894-1986)
-- Conservative Macmillan I [90]
1959 Macmillan II
6 years and 282 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Sir Alec Douglas-Home
KT
MP for Kinross & Western Perthshire[c]
(1903-1995)
-- Conservative
(Scot.U.)
Douglas-Home [91]
364 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Harold Wilson
OBEFRSFSS
MP for Huyton
(1916-1995)
1964 Labour Wilson I [92]
1966 Wilson II
5 years and 247 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Edward Heath
MBE
MP for Bexley ->
Sidcup[?] (1974)

(1916-2005)
1970 Conservative Heath [93]
3 years and 259 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Harold Wilson
OBEFRSFSS
MP for Huyton
(1916-1995)
Feb.1974 Labour Wilson III [92]
Oct.1974 Wilson IV
2 years and 33 days
photograph The Right Honourable
James Callaghan
MP for Cardiff South East
(1912-2005)
-- Labour Callaghan [94]
3 years and 30 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Margaret Thatcher
FRSHonFRSC
MP for Finchley
(1925-2013)
See also § Main articles:3 Conservative Thatcher I [95]
1979
1983 Thatcher II
1987 Thatcher III
11 years and 209 days
photograph The Right Honourable
John Major
MP for Huntingdon
(born1943)
-- Conservative Major I [96]
1992 Major II
6 years and 156 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Tony Blair
MP for Sedgefield
(born1953)
See also § Main articles:4 Labour Blair I [97]
1997
2001 Blair II
2005 Blair III
10 years and 57 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Gordon Brown
MP for Kirkcaldy & Cowdenbeath
(born1951)
See also § Main articles:5 Labour Brown [98]
--
2 years and 319 days
photograph The Right Honourable
David Cameron
MP for Witney
(born1966)
See also § Main articles:6 Conservative Cameron-Clegg
(Con.-L.D.)
[99]
2010
2015 Cameron II
6 years and 64 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Theresa May
MP for Maidenhead
(born1956)
See also § Main articles:7 Conservative May I [100]
--
2017 May II
3 years and 12 days
photograph The Right Honourable
Boris Johnson
MP for Uxbridge & South Ruislip
(born1964)
See also § Main articles:8 Conservative Johnson
--
122 days
Title
Prime Minister
Office
(Birth-Death)
Term of office & mandate Ministerial offices Party Government Monarch Ref.

Living former officeholders

As of November 2019, there are five living former British prime ministers. The most recent to die was Margaret Thatcher (1979-1990), on 8 April 2013.

See also

Main articles

Notes

  •  Elevated to the British peerage
  • ^+ Died in office
  • ^? Elected to a new constituency in a general election
  1. ^ Legend for cells listed in the sixth column from right:
    • e.g.  1722  and  1841 --coloured containing a linked year
      indicates a general election won by the government (e.g. 1722) or one that led to its formation (e.g. 1841);
    • e.g.  1830 --shaded grey containing a linked year
      indicates an election resulting in no single party winning a Commons majority;
    • e.g.  -- --coloured containing a dash
      indicates the formation of a majority government without an election;
    • e.g.  -- --shaded grey containing a dash
      indicates the formation of a minority or coalition government during a hung parliament.
  2. ^ George III did not appoint his final prime minister. His son George, Prince of Wales, who served as regent from 1811, appointed Liverpool in 1812 (Englefield et al. 1995, pp. 102, 363).
  3. ^ Douglas Home disclaimed his peerage as the Earl of Home on 23 October 1963. He was elected an MP on 7 November.

References

Citations

  1. ^ Hennessy 2001, pp. 39-40.
  2. ^ Stephen Taylor ODNB
  3. ^ Castlereagh 1805.
  4. ^ Eardley-Wilmot 1885; Macfarlane 1885.
  5. ^ Marriott 1923, p. 83.
  6. ^ Clarke 1999, p. 266; Hennessy 2001, pp. 39-40.
  7. ^ BBC News 1998.
  8. ^ Mackay 1987; Marriott 1923, p. 83.
  9. ^ Bogdanor 1997.
  10. ^ Burt 1874, p. 106; Castlereagh 1805.
  11. ^ Law 1922.
  12. ^ Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927.
  13. ^ a b Leonard 2010, p. 1.
  14. ^ a b Carpenter 1992, p. 37.
  15. ^ Leonard 2010, p. 47.
  16. ^ a b Leonard 2010, p. 65.
  17. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography 2011.
  18. ^ a b Chisholm 1911f.
  19. ^ a b Pollard 1904.
  20. ^ a b Chisholm 1911a.
  21. ^ Chisholm 1911c.
  22. ^ Chapman 2002.
  23. ^ Fisher Russell Barker 1890; Stephen 1890.
  24. ^ Morrill 2018.
  25. ^ Chapman 2002, p. 15.
  26. ^ McMullen Rigg 1899.
  27. ^ a b c Chisholm 1911d; Chisholm 1911e.
  28. ^ Chisholm 1911b; McMullen Rigg 1899.
  29. ^ UK Government 2013.
  30. ^ Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, p. 413; Locker-Lampson 1907, p. 497.
  31. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, pp. 1, 5; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 1-5; Pryde et al. 1996, pp. 45-46.
  32. ^ Cook & Stevenson 1988, p. 41; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 14; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 7-10; Jones & Jones 1986, p. 222.
  33. ^ Cook & Stevenson 1988, pp. 41-42; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 17; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 11-15.
  34. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 28; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 16-21.
  35. ^ Cook & Stevenson 1988, p. 44; Courthope 1838, p. 19; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 34; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 23-26; Schumann & Schweizer 2012, p. 143.
  36. ^ Cook & Stevenson 1980, p. 11; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 28; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 16-21; Pryde et al. 1996, p. 46; Tout 1910, p. 740.
  37. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 36; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 28-31; Jones & Jones 1986, p. 223; Tout 1910, p. 740.
  38. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 42; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 33-35; Tout 1910, p. 740.
  39. ^ a b The British Magazine and Review 1782, p. 79; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, pp. 46, 50; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 39-43.
  40. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 54; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 45-50; Kebbel 1864, p. 143; Venning 2005, p. 93.
  41. ^ Courthope 1838, p. 9; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 61; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 52-56; Venning 2005, p. 93; Vincitorio 1968, p. 156.
  42. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 64; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 58-62; Whiteley 1996, p. 24.
  43. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 73; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 64-68; Venning 2005, p. 93.
  44. ^ Cook & Stevenson 1980, p. 11; Courthope 1838, p. 25; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 77; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 69-74; Venning 2005, p. 93.
  45. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 85; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 75-78; Evans 2008, p. 4.
  46. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 94; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 83-85; Styles 1829, p. 266.
  47. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 85; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 75-77; Evans 2008, p. 4.
  48. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 98; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 90-92; Tout 1910, p. 740.
  49. ^ Courthope 1838, p. 25; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 77; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 69-74; Evans 2008, p. 4.
  50. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 101; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 98-101; Evans 2008, p. 4.
  51. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 106; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 104-108; Evans 2008, p. 4; Pryde et al. 1996, p. 47.
  52. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, pp. 116, 133; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 110-115.
  53. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, pp. 120, 133; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 118-120.
  54. ^ Courthope 1838, p. 33; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 123; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 124-130; Pryde et al. 1996, p. 47; Shaw 1906, p. 447; Tout 1910, p. 740.
  55. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 128; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 133-139.
  56. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 136; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 141-143.
  57. ^ Courthope 1838, p. 33; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 123; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 124-130; Evans 2001, p. 471; Mahon & Cardwell 1856, p. 17; Shaw 1906, p. 447.
  58. ^ a b Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 142; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 148-153.
  59. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 136; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 141-145; Pryde et al. 1996, p. 47.
  60. ^ a b Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 151; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 155-160.
  61. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 161; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 162-164.
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  63. ^ Disraeli 1855; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 174; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 177-184; Royal Society 2007, p. 349.
  64. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 161; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 162-164; Tout 1910, p. 741.
  65. ^ Balfour 1910; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 174; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 177-184; Royal Society 2007, p. 349.
  66. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 161; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 162-167; Tout 1910, p. 741.
  67. ^ Disraeli 1868; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 183; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 187-189; Tout 1910, p. 741.
  68. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 196; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 195-198; Royal Statistical Society 1892, p. 9.
  69. ^ Chamberlain 1884; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 183; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 187-192.
  70. ^ a b c Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 196; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 195-202; Royal Statistical Society 1892, p. 9.
  71. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 213; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 205-210; Mosley 2003, p. 3505.
  72. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 213; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 205-210; Locker-Lampson 1907, p. 497; Mosley 2003, p. 3505; Sandys 1910, p. 287.
  73. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 222; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 212-215.
  74. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, pp. 213, 221; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 205-210; Mosley 2003, p. 3505; Pryde et al. 1996, p. 47; Sandys 1910, p. 287.
  75. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 231; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 217-221; Mosley 1999, p. 173; Tout 1910, p. 741.
  76. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 239; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 223-227.
  77. ^ Butler & Butler 2010, p. 5; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 244; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 229-235; Pryde et al. 1996, p. 48.
  78. ^ Butler & Butler 2010, pp. 6-9; The Constitutional Yearbook 1919, p. 42; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 252; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 237-243.
  79. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 262; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 246-248; Scully 2018.
  80. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 273; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 253-255; Mosley 1999, p. 172.
  81. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 281; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 262-264.
  82. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 273; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 253-259; Mosley 1999, p. 172.
  83. ^ Butler & Butler 2010, p. 13; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 281; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 262-268.
  84. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 273; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 253-259; Mosley 1999, p. 172; Pryde et al. 1996, p. 48.
  85. ^ The Annual Register 1941, p. 11; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 289; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 270-274.
  86. ^ The Annual Register 1946, p. 11; Butler & Butler 2010, pp. 17-21, 77; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 295; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 276-282; The London Gazette 1924.
  87. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 305; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 284-289.
  88. ^ BBC On This Day 2005; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 295; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 276-282; The London Gazette 1924; Mosley 1999, p. 1868; Pryde et al. 1996, p. 48.
  89. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 315; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 291-295.
  90. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 320; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 297-303.
  91. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 329; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 306-310; Scully 2018.
  92. ^ a b Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 333; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 313-320.
  93. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 343; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 322-328; UK Parliament 2005a.
  94. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 350; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 331-333; UK Parliament 2005b.
  95. ^ Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 358; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 340-347; UK Parliament 2013.
  96. ^ Butler & Butler 2010, p. 61; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 384; Englefield, Seaton & White 1995, pp. 350-352.
  97. ^ Butler & Butler 2010, pp. 61, 270; Eccleshall & Walker 2002, p. 392; Seldon 2007, pp. 77, 371, 647; UK Parliament 2017b.
  98. ^ Butler & Butler 2010, pp. 61, 86; UK Parliament 2012.
  99. ^ Butler & Butler 2010, pp. 61, 65; Lee & Beech 2011; Royal Communications 2016; Wheeler 2016.
  100. ^ BBC News 2017; Stamp 2016; UK Parliament 2017a.

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