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List of U.S. Army, Navy and Volunteer Units in the Mexican%E2%80%93American War
This is a list of United States military units that participated in the Mexican-American War. The list includes regular U.S. Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Revenue Marine Service units and ships as well as the units of the militia that various states recruited for the war. The commanding officer of each unit or ship is identified when there are references with content that aids identification. Dates are included when they are available in the references.
Regular U.S. Army regiments serving in Mexico from 1846 to 1848
1st Independent Company of Florida Volunteers, for 12 months; February 1847 - March 1848. Captain William W. J. Kelly; Served at Guadaloupe and Santa Fe, Mexico
2nd Independent Company of Florida Volunteers, for the duration; August 1847 - July 1848. Captains: K. G. Livingston, (died 9 February 1848 at Guadaloupe, Mexico); George Holmes (2nd Lieutenant to March 1848)
Regiment of Georgia Volunteers, for 12 months; June 1846 - May 1847. Colonel Henry R. Jackson
Battalion of Georgia Volunteers, for the duration, (5 companies); July 1847 - July 1848. Lt. Colonel Isaac G. Seymour
Battalion of Georgia Mounted Volunteers, for the duration, (6 companies); September 1847 - July 1848. Lt. Colonel James S. Calhoun (late Capt. in Jackson's Regt.)
Independent Company of Georgia Mounted Men; May 1847 - August 1848. Captain John Loyall
1st Regiment of Illinois Volunteers, for 12 months; June 1846 - June 1847. Colonels: John J. Hardin (Killed at BuenaVista); William Weatherford (Lt. Colonel to 26 February 1847)
Battalion of Iowa "Mormon" Volunteers, for 12 months, (5 companies); recruited and mustered at Council Bluffs, Indian Territory on 16 July 1846 and discharged 16 July 1847 at Los Angeles; Lt. Colonels: James Allen (Captain 1st U.S. Dragoons, died at Fort Leavenworth 23 August 1846); acting commander Jefferson Hunt (senior Captain, Co A, Mormon Battalion, from 23 to 29 August 1846); Andrew Jackson Smith (1st Lieutenant 1st Dragoons, acting 30 August 1846 to 12 October 1846); Philip St. George Cooke (Captain 1st Dragoons, 13 October 1846 - 13 May 1847 when he relinquished command of the Battalion to accompany Gen. Stephen W. Kearny back to Ft. Leavenworth); acting commander Jefferson Hunt (senior Captain, Co A, Mormon Battalion, from 13 May to 16 July 1847).
The Mormon Battalion was recruited as a federal volunteer unit, not through the state of Iowa which was not created until December 1846. The Mormon Battalion was raised at the express invitation of President James K. Polk, not as part of any state or territorial requisition for troops.
The contemporary official Army documents refer to the unit in the following ways; Prior to Allen recruiting the unit as, "Capt. Allen's Battalion of Volunteers". As the new unit was being recruited and mustered into service, its first commander, James Allen, signed official documents with the name he gave the unit, "Mormon Battalion", General Stephen Watts Kearny, in letters of reply to the unit used Allen's naming convention, calling it the "Battalion of Mormons" and "Mormon Battalion" P. St. George Cooke, commanding the Battalion under orders from Gen Kearny used the name, "Mormon Battalion" when reporting troop strengths in California.[Note 3]
Regiment of Kentucky Cavalry Volunteers, for 12 months; June 1846 - July 1847. Colonel Humphrey Marshall (former 2nd Lt 1. U.S. Dragoons.)
1st Regiment of Kentucky Volunteers, for 12 months, "Louisville Legion"; May 1846 - May 1847. Colonel Stephen Ormsby
2nd Regiment of Kentucky Volunteers, for 12 months; June 1846 - June 1847. Colonels: William R. McKee (former 1st Lt. 3rd. U.S. Artillery, killed.); Lt. Colonel Henry Clay, Jr. (former 2nd Lt. 2nd. U.S. Artillery, killed); Major Gary H. Fry (former 2nd Lt, 3rd. U.S. Infantry)
3rd Regiment of Kentucky Volunteers, for the duration; October 1847 - July 1848. Colonel Manlius V. Thomson
4th Regiment Kentucky Volunteers, for the duration; October 1847 - July 1848. Colonel John S. Williams (late Capt. of Independent Company)
Independent Company of Kentucky Volunteers; May 1846 - May 1847. Captain John S. Williams (served with the 6th U.S. Infantry)
Louisiana Battalion of Volunteer Artillery, for 3 months; (2 companies); 21 August - November 1845. Major Louis Gaily
2nd Battalion of Louisiana Volunteer Artillery, for 6 months, (3 companies), received for 3 months, May-July 1846. Major Louis Gaily (commander 1st Battery)
Brigade of Louisiana Volunteers, for 6 months, (6 regiments); received, for 3 months. May and June-August 1846. Brigadier General Persifor F. Smith
3rd Regiment, P. F. Smith's Brigade of Louisiana Volunteers. Colonel Samuel F. Marks
4th Regiment, P. F. Smith's Brigade of Louisiana Volunteers. Colonel Horatio Davis
5th Regiment, P. F. Smith's Brigade of Louisiana Volunteers. Colonel Baillie Peyton
Independent Company of Louisiana Volunteers, for 12 months; July 1846 - May 1847. Captain Albert G. Blanchard (former 1st Lieutenant in 3rd U.S. Infantry, and Captain 3rd Louisiana Volunteers)
Regiment of Louisiana Volunteers, for the duration; December 1846 - July 1848. Colonel Lewis G. De Russy (formerly Capt. U.S. Artillery and Paymaster)
Battalion of Louisiana Volunteers, for the duration, (5 companies); May 1847 - July 1848. Lt. Colonel Charles Fiesca (late Major 4th Regiment Louisiana Volunteers)
Battalion of Louisiana Mounted Volunteers, for 12 months, (5 companies); July and August 1847 - July 1848. Lt. Colonel Walter F. Biscoe (late 2nd Lieutenant in 2nd Regiment Louisiana Volunteers)
Maryland and the District of Columbia
Battalion of Maryland and District of Columbia Volunteers, for 12 months, (6 companies); May 1846 - May 1847. Commanders: Lt. Colonel William H. Watson (killed at Monterey); Brevet Major Robert C. Buchanan (Captain 4th U.S. Infantry Regiment, from November 1846)
Regiment of Maryland and District of Columbia Volunteers, for the duration, (8 companies); May and June 1847 - 24 July 1848. Colonel George W. Hughes (Captain and brevet Lt. Colonel Topographic Engineers)
3 additional Separate Companies were attached to this Regiment:
Tennessee Company of Mounted Volunteers; May 1847 to July 1848. Captain C. Roberdeau Wheat (served with 2nd Dragoons; Major General Scott's bodyguard)
Independent Company; 8 June 1847 - 1 August 1848. Captains: James Boyd, (Captain in Watson's Battery; killed at Rio Calaboso, 12 July 1847); Joseph R. West, (served at Tampico under Colonel De Russy)
Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers, for the duration of the Mexican War, January and February, 1847 - July 1848. Colonels: Caleb Cushing, (15 January 1847: promoted to Brig. General); Isaac H. Wright (Lt Colonel to 27 May 1847).[Note 4]
Regiment of Michigan Volunteers, for the duration; December 1847 - July 1848. Colonel Thomas B. W. Stockton (former 1st Lieutenant, 1st. U.S. Infantry)
Independent Company of Michigan Volunteers, for the duration, 18 June 1847 - 30 June 1848. Captain Morgan L. Gage
2nd Regiment of Mississippi Volunteers, for the duration; received January 1847 - July 1848. Colonels: Reuben Davis (resigned October 1847); Charles Clark (Captain to 16 October 1847)
1st Battalion of Mississippi Rifle Volunteers, for the duration, (5 companies); October and November 1847 - June 1848. Lt. Colonel James Patton Anderson
1st Regiment of Missouri Mounted Volunteers, for 12 months; (8 companies); June 1846 - June 1847. Colonel Alexander W. Doniphan
Battalion of Missouri Volunteers, for 12 months; (3 Light Artillery companies; 2 Infantry companies); June and July 1846 - June and July 1847. Major Meriwether L. Clark (former 2nd Lieutenant 6th U.S. Infantry and Aide de Camp to General Scott)
Battalion of Missouri Mounted Volunteers, for 12 months,(4 companies, first mustered in Price's regiment); August 1846 - August 1847. Lt. Colonel David Willock
9 Companies of Missouri Volunteers, for 12 months; received at Fort Leavenworth August and September 1846, order of service countermanded by War Department, September 1846
Battalion of Missouri Volunteers for during the war with Mexico, (5 companies); May 1847 - October 1848. Lt. Colonel Alton R. Easton (late Colonel "St. Louis Legion.")
3rd Regiment of Missouri Mounted Volunteers, for the duration; July 1847 - October 1848. Colonel John Ralls
Battalion of Missouri Mounted Volunteers, for the duration, (5 companies); August 1847 - November 1848. Lt. Colonel Ludwell E. Powell
Battalion of Missouri Mounted Volunteers, for the duration, (5 companies); September 1847 - October 1848. Lt. Colonel William Gilpin (late Major of Doniphan's Regt.)
Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers, for the duration, (4 companies); September 1847 - July 1848. Lt. Colonel Dickinson Woodruff
2nd Regiment of New York Volunteers, for the duration; (originally designated 1st Regiment of New York Volunteers) November 1846 - August 1848. Colonel Ward B. Burnett (former 2nd Lt. 2nd U.S. Artillery, severely wounded at Churubusco)
Regiment of North Carolina Volunteers, for the duration; January 1847 - August 1848. Colonel Robert T. Paine
1st Regiment of Ohio Volunteers, for 12 months; June 1846 - June 1847. Colonel Alexander M. Mitchell (former 2nd Lieutenant, 4th U.S. Infantry, wounded at Monterey)
2nd Regiment of Ohio Volunteers, for 12 months; June and July 1846 - June 1847. Colonel George W. Morgan
3rd Regiment of Ohio Volunteers, for 12 months; June 1846 - June 1847. Colonel Samuel R. Curtis (former 2nd Lieutenant, 7th U.S. Infantry and Adj. General of Ohio)
4th Regiment of Ohio Volunteers, 1st Regiment for the duration; May and June 1847 - July 1848. Colonel Charles H. Brough
5th Regiment of Ohio Volunteers, 2nd Regiment for the duration; 1 September 1847 - July 1848. Colonel William Irvin (late Lt. Colonel of Morgan's Regt.)
Independent Companies of Ohio Volunteers, for the duration:
1st Company of Mounted Men; 1 June 1847 - 2 August 1848. Captain John R. Duncan
2nd Company of Foot; October 1847 - July 1848, (served with Irvin's Regt.). Captains: William Keimeally (died, reported suicide, at Rio Frio, 21 December 1847). William H. Lytle
3rd Company of Foot; 26 October 1847 - 17 July 1848. Captain Robert F. Riddle
1st Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers, for the duration; December 1846 - July and August 1848. Colonel Francis M. Wynkoop
2nd Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers, for the duration, (12 companies); January 1847 - July 1848. Colonels: William B. Roberts (died in City of Mexico 3 October 1847); John W. Geary (Lt. Colonel to 3 November 1847, wounded at Chapultepec.)
Regiment of Texas Mounted Volunteers, for 6 months (7 companies), for frontier defense; July, and discharged September 1846. Colonel William C. Young
Battalion of Texas Mounted Volunteers, of (4 companies); March 1847 - June 1848. Majors comdg.: M. H. Chevallie (late of Major Hays 1st Regt.; resigned 31 August 47); Walter P. Lane (Captain to October 1847)
Regiment of Texas Mounted Volunteers, for 12 months and during the war; April 1847 - May 1848. Colonel John C. Hays (Col. of 1st Regt. Vols, and continued in service)
Regiment of Texas Mounted Volunteers, for 6 months, for frontier defense; 11 May, and discharged June 1847. Colonel John C. Hays (Col. of Regt. in Mexico)
Battalion of Texas Mounted Volunteers,(part of Col. Hays regiment) (5 companies), for local defense; April - 5 June 1847. Major Thomas J. Smith
Independent Companies of Texas Volunteers:
1st Mounted Company; 25 September 1845 - 25 June 1846. Captain John T. Price
2nd Company of Rangers; September and 10 December 1845 and March 1846, for two periods of 3 months each - July 1846. Captain Peter Hansbrough Bell (had before served on frontier defence of Texas, under Major Hays from September 1845)
3rd Mounted Company; 1 October 1845 and January 1846 - September 1846. Captain David C. Cady
4th Mounted Company; May and August 1846 - 18 September 1846. Captain Ben M'Culloch
5th Mounted Company; July-October 1846. Captain Eli Chandler
6th Mounted Company; July 1846 - July 1847. Captain Mabery B. Gray (late 1st Lt. in Bell's co.)
7th Company of Foot Volunteers (first enrolled in Mississippi); August 1846 - 7 January 1847. Captain William E. Shivors (late Capt in Johnston's 3rd Rifle Regt.)
8th Rifle Company; (late Seefeld's Company of Johnston's 3rd Regt.); received 1 September 1846 - 1 July 1847. Captain P. Edward Connor (late 1st Lt. to December 1846: wounded at Buena Vista; retired May 1847.)
11th Mounted Company of Spies; 31 January - 31 July 1847. Captain Ben McCulloch (Major in the Staff)
Regiment of Virginia Volunteers, for during the war with Mexico, (14 companies); December 1846 and January 1847 - August 1848. Colonel John Francis Hamtramck (former 2nd Lieutenant, 3rd U.S. Artillery Regiment)
Battalion of "Sante Fe" Mounted Volunteers, for during the war with Mexico, (4 companies); July and August 1847 - 20 October 1848. Major Robert Walker (late Adjutant of Price's Regt. Missouri Volunteers)
U.S. Navy squadrons serving in the war
Commodore David Conner
Commodore Matthew C. Perry
The Home Squadron operated in the Gulf of Mexico and was led by Commodore David Conner. Conner was appointed to command the squadron on 30 December 1843. He was relieved by Commodore Matthew C. Perry on 3 March 1847. The Revenue Marine cutters listed in the U.S. Revenue Marine Service section of this list article were also assigned to the Home Squadron.
Battalion of Sailors, from the fleet on the Pacific coast, organized by Commodore Robert F. Stockton, for the recapture of Los Angeles, California, January 1847. Major Stephen C. Rowan (Lieutenant U.S. Navy)
Artillery Company. Captain Richard L. Tilghman (Lieutenant)
D Company. Captain Edward Higgins (Acting Lieutenant)
E Company. Captain J. Fenwick Stenson (Acting Lieutenant)
F Company. Captain James M. Duncan (Passed Midshipman)
G Company. Captain John Peed (Sailmaker)
Sappers and Miners. Captain John Southwick (Carpenter)
U.S. Marine Corps
Many of the U.S. Navy Home and Pacific Squadron ships had detachments of U.S. Marine Corps personnel aboard used as ship's guards and as landing party. They were under the direction of the captain of the ship they were assigned. Marine detachments from Home Squadron ships were used as landing party in the capture of Veracruz. Marines under the command of Captain Alvin Edson, USMC, were used to capture and hold Tabasco. The town was garrisoned by a detachment of Marines commanded by Lieutenant William B. Slack, USMC. During the capture of Monterey, 85 Marines and more than 140 sailors from Cyane, Levant, and Savannah were landed and commanded by Captain William Mervine, USN. Seventeen Marines and 57 sailors from Dale were landed and captured La Paz in October 1847.Dale also captured Guayamas in November using 17 Marines and 50 sailors under the command of Lieutenant Thomas O. Selfridge, USN. Marines from Independence, Cyane, and Congress were tasked with garrisoning San Jose in November 1847
Battalion of Marines; March 1847. Attached to the 3rd Artillery Regiment for garrison duty near Veracruz.
Battalion of Marines; May 1847 - January 1848. Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Samuel E. Watson. Attached to Brigadier General John A. Quitman's 4th Division consisting of volunteers from New York, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina. Served at the Battle of Chapultepec 13 September 1847.
U.S. Revenue Marine Service
The following Revenue Marine cutters were dispatched to serve under the command of the "Commanding General of the Army of Occupation" on 19 May 1846 under orders from the Secretary of the TreasuryRobert J. Walker. The squadron was tasked with convoy, towing, and blockade duties as well as transporting troops, supplies, mail, and dispatches for the U.S. Army and was also ordered to cooperate with the U.S. Navy. The squadron was under the overall command of Captain John A. Webster, Sr., who chose Ewing as his flagship. Webster served as squadron commander until 10 December 1846 when he was taken ill by a fever. He was relieved by Captain Winslow Foster who served as squadron commander thereafter.
McLane. Captain William A. Howard, 16 May 1846 - 4 June 1847
Wolcott. Captain Louis C. Fatio (to 1 September 1846), Captain Levy C. Harby (from 1 September 1846), 16 May 1846 - 11 May 1847. Used for carrying dispatches from Mexico to New Orleans, Louisiana.
Polk. Placed under the command of Lieutenant W.S. Ogdon, U.S. Navy, 14 March 1846 - 3 May 1846[Note 26]
^One of ten new regiments raised for one year according to act of Congress 11 February 1847.
^Nine of ten new regiments raised for one year according to act of Congress 11 February 1847.
^The "of Iowa" confusion appears to have been created because the blank Compiled Military Service Record (CMSR) cards were incorrectly printed in the 1890s. The CMSR cards were originally printed showing, "Mormon Batt'n./Iowa". The auditors and record transcribers attempted to correct the omission of "Volunteers" by stamping "Vols." and crossing through "Iowa" since the unit was not raised by Iowa. Some modern authors, not recognized the importance of the corrections, have ignored the attempted changes and incorrectly perpetuated the "of Iowa" error. Unfortunately, the pension records were also printed with "of Iowa" but not corrected, thus adding to the confusion. However, the contemporary 1846-1847 official Army documents do not refer to Iowa.
^Ohio served with the Home Squadron and Pacific Squadron
^Spencer suffered a boiler firebox burnout while underway from Charleston, South Carolina. After repairs were made she was underway again and the boilers failed once more, Captain Currier returned Spencer to Charleston on 17 June 1846. On 14 July Currier was ordered to sail under canvas to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and report to the Collector of Customs. The machinery from the cutter was sold shortly thereafter and the hull was used for a lightship.
^Morris was dispatched to Key West, Florida to protect American shipping entering the Gulf of Mexico from Mexican privateers. She was damaged by a hurricane on 11 October 1846 and a board of survey held by the Collector of Customs at Key West determined that Morris was not worth the cost of repair.
^Polk put to sea from Ocracoke Inlet on 31 March 1846 but she leaked badly and was sailed to Norfolk, Virginia for repairs. Repairs were completed and Polk put back to sea once more only to be condemned by Captain Ogdon as unseaworthy. She was turned back to the Treasury Department on 3 May.
Post Returns, Los Angeles, March and April 1847, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington, D.C.; Returns from U.S. Military Posts, 1800-1916; Microfilm Serial: M617; Microfilm Roll: 1521
Evans, Stephen H. (1949). The United States Coast Guard 1790-1915: A Definitive History. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland.
Fleek, Sherman L. (2006). History May Be Searched in Vain: A Military History of the Mormon Battalion. Spokane, Washington: Arthur H. Clark Company (now University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma). ISBN978-0870623431.
King (1989), Irving H. (1989). The Coast Guard Under Sail: The U.S. Revenue Cutter Service, 1789-1865. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland. ISBN978-0-87021-234-5.
Millett, Allan R. (1991). Semper Fidelis: The History of the United States Marine Corps (The Revised and Expanded ed.). New York City, New York: The Free Press. ISBN0-02-921595-1.