Browse the List of Atheists in Politics and Law below. View Videos or join the discussion on this topic. Add List of Atheists in Politics and Law to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
List of Atheists in Politics and Law
Wikipedia list article
There have been many atheists who have participated in politics or law. This is a list of atheists in politics and law. Living persons in this list are people whose atheism is relevant to their notable activities or public life, and who have publicly identified themselves as atheists.
Manabendra Nath Roy (1887-1954): Born Narendra Nath Bhattacharya, popularly known as M. N. Roy, was a Bengali Indian revolutionary, internationally known political theorist and activist, founder of the Communist parties in Mexico and India. He later denounced communism and became an exponent of the philosophy of radical humanism.
Bhagat Singh (1907-1931): Marxist, wrote a pamphlet entitled Why I am an atheist.
E. M. S. Namboodiripad (1909-1998): Politician, renowned socialist and a Marxist theorist, first Chief Minister of Kerala. He also became the leader of the first democratically elected communist government in the world.
Xuan Thuy (1912-1985): North Vietnamese political figure, foreign minister for North Vietnam 1963-65, official leader of the delegation to the secret talks with Henry Kissinger, and the main negotiator at the earliest meetings with Kissinger.
Georges Clemenceau (1841-1929): Statesman, physician and journalist, prime minister of France 1906-1909 and 1917-1920. Led France during World War I and was one of the major proponents of the Treaty of Versailles.
Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865): Politician, mutualist philosopher and socialist. He was a member of the French Parliament, and he was the first person to call himself an "anarchist".
Gilbert Romme (1750-1795): Politician and mathematician who developed the French Republican Calendar.
Joe Higgins (1949-): Socialist Party politician. In the 2011 general election he was elected to Dáil Éireann as Teachta Dála (TD) for the Dublin West constituency, having previously served in that capacity from 1997-2007. He was also a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for the Dublin constituency from 2009 to 2011, the first Socialist Party MEP.
Emma Bonino (1948-): Politician, European Commissioner 1995-1999, Minister of Foreign Trade and European Affairs 2006-2008, Deputy Speaker of Italian Senate 2008-2013 and Minister of Foreign Affairs 2013-.
Being non-religious has traditionally not been a barrier to success in British politics, as evidenced by three Prime Ministers, one Deputy Prime Minister, one First Minister of Wales, and several leaders of the Opposition being atheists since the 20th century. Non-religious views are common among British MPs and Lords, many of whom are members of the All-Party Parliamentary Humanist Group, as well as members of Scottish, Welsh, Northern Irish, and London legislatures.
Ramsay Macdonald (1866–1937): Scottish politician who became the first Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Although devoutly religious in his childhood and as an early adult, he became a very involved member of the Union of Ethical Societies (an early humanist organisation, now known as Humanists UK) later on.
Ivica Ra?an (1944-2007): Prime Minister of Croatia (2000-2003), former Croatianleftist politician who led the Social Democratic Party of Croatia between 1989 up to 2007. He was also the last leader and democratic transformer of the League of Communists of Croatia.
Hedi Stadlen (1916-2004): Austrian Jewish political activist, philosopher and musicologist.
Lori Lipman Brown (1958-): politician, lobbyist, lawyer, educator, and social worker supporter, Nevada state senator from 1992 to 1994.
Douglas Campbell (1959-): atheist advocate and member of the Green Party of Michigan and of the Godless Americans Political Action Committee. Co-founder, Michigan Godless Americans Political Action Committee. Green Party candidate for governor of Michigan in both 2002 and 2006.
^"Although Hurley's ecumenical links stopped short of the Communist Party, Alec Erwin, today's South African Minister of Trade and Industry, recalled their friendship in anti-apartheid days, though Erwin was an atheist and "he knew of my support for the Communist cause"." Randolph Vigne, 'Obituary: Archbishop Denis Hurley, Progressive South African Prelate', The Independent (London), February 25, 2004, Pg. 34.
^"OBITUARY: Joe Slovo". The Independent. London. 7 January 1995. Although Joe grew up in a religious household, he became an atheist while retaining respect for "the positive aspects of Jewish culture".
^Leakey, Leakey (1983). One Life: An Autobiography. (p. 38)
^"Democratic Kampuchea was officially an atheist state, and the persecution of religion by the Khmer Rouge was matched in severity only by the persecution of religion in the communist states of Albania and North Korea, so there were not any direct historical continuities of Buddhism into the Democratic Kampuchea era." Millennialism, Persecution, and Violence: Historical Cases, p. 282
^"No one expects China's position on Tibet to become any more negotiable than it has been. But in one revealing moment, Mr Jiang gave a glimpse of the difficulties Peking has in understanding why other countries abhor its policies in Tibet. "I myself am an atheist", he said. "During my visit to the US last year and during my previous visit to European countries, I found that although the education, science and technology have developed to a very high level and the people are now enjoying modern civilisation, still quite a number of them have a belief in Lamaism." Teresa Poole, 'Jiang keeps channels open to Dalai Lama', The Independent (London), June 28, 1998, Pg. 16.
^Deng is quoted as saying, "Administrative means should not be applied to religion; but meanwhile, religious fanaticism should not be encouraged either, otherwise religion will be antagonistic to socialism, as well as to the interests of the people." Marxism and Religion, p. 338
^"With revolution came a new, atheist regime - one that frowned on all religious belief." China's Catholics: Far from Rome, by Holly Williams, BBC News, December 24, 2003, (Accessed April 14, 2008)
^"Mao is not only a historical figure, of course, but is part of the (tattered) web of legitimacy on which the People's Republic rests. He is part of the founding mythology of the Chinese government, the Romulus and Remus of "People's China", and that's why his portrait hangs in Tiananmen Square. Even among ordinary Chinese, Mao retains a hold on the popular imagination, and some peasants in different parts of China have started traditional religious shrines honoring him. That's the ultimate honor for an atheist - he has become a god." 'Mao': The Real Mao, Nicholas D. Kristof, The New York Times, October 23, 2005 (Accessed April 25, 2008)
^Mao is quoted as saying, "Religion is poison. Firstly it reduces the population, because monks and nuns must stay celibate, and secondly it neglects material progress." Dalai Lama, Freedom in Exile, pp. 98-99
^"On religion, Periyar used both lip and pen rationally and forcefully. He was convinced that people used religion only as a mask to deceive the innocent people. Periyar proclaimed himself as a vowed atheist. Puranas, shastras and smritis were the target of his vociferous condemnation. He firmly asserted that these were responsible in making the public feel hardy and superstitious. At one stage, he asserted that the meaningless religious treatises must be burnt. He believed that belief in God dampens the natural human qualities such as initiatives, perseverance and enthusiasm. Fear of God is the beginning of one's own foolishness. Periyar attacked mainly Hinduism and its gods, because they are the greatest enemy of human equality and liberty. He felt that if a person should live with self-respect he must do away with religion." Louis Antony, com/louis.pdf Political Philosophy of Periyar[permanent dead link] (pdf), Pg. 27.
^Kumar, Pramod (1992). Towards Understanding Communalism. Chandigarh: Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development. p. 348. ISBN978-81-85835-17-4.
^This was of a piece with Savarkar's personal life, in which he was fiercely atheist. He had publicly said there was nothing sacred about cows and advised Hindus to give up vegetarianism. Savarkar's biographer, Dhananjay Keer, points out that when his wife died, despite entreaties by his followers he refused to allow any Hindu rituals. Political psychologist Ashis Nandy, who has shed light on Savarkar's paradoxical relationship with religion, writes, "Savarkar's atheism was not the philosophical atheism associated with Buddhism and Vedanta, but the anti-clerical, hard atheism of fin-de-siecle scientism, increasingly popular among sections of the European middle class and, through cultural osmosis, in parts of modern India." Ronojoy Sen, Times News Network: 'Atheist fundamentalists', Times of India, June 5, 2010 (accessed May 16, 2019).
^"There are religions that have very rigid rules and there are others that don't. Religion is something that I, as a person, am not interested in. I have always been an atheist. My parents were atheists. It doesn't bother me if somebody is religious. My problem is when religion is used to institutionalise other things." The Rediff Interview/ Subhasini Ali, August 8, 2001 (accessed April 21, 2008).
^"It may be 60 years since the DMK broke away from the Dravidar Kazhagam, but some affinities run very deep, and across generations. Poet turned-politician Kanimozhi earned encomiums from DK president K Veeramani for expounding the ideals of DK founder, the late rationalist leader Periyar. The atheist in her was in full flow as she spoke at the DK's youth wing conference and posed some trenchant questions to believers and went on to express concern over the present-day youth's understanding of the Dravidian movement and its contribution. Veeramani was so impressed that he not only gave her 100 out of 100 in rationalist philosophy. And he laid claim to priority in her ideological loyalty. "You belong to us first, and then only to the DMK", he exulted." The rationalist poet, Times of India, 8 September 2008 (accessed 9 September 2008).
^"For the AIADMK enthusiasts, there is no conflict of ideologies. Their leader, the late M. G. Ramachandran, was an atheist turned ardent Mookambikai devotee. But, for the activists of the DMK, whose leader, M. Karunanidhi, is a sworn atheist, it is a tussle between personal beliefs and the party's ideological moorings." 'Rationalism takes the back seatArchived 2008-06-05 at the Wayback Machine', The Hindu, 8 September 2002.
^"Since Karunanidhi is an atheist he seems to believe in Janatha Janardhan rather than the Janardhan (God) found in temples and places of worship." K. B. Ganapathy, 'Jaya scored a self-goal', OurKarnataka.com (accessed 9 September 2008).
^"But Roy was an atheist and fierce priest hater..." Leonard A. Gordon (February 1968). "Portrait of a Bengal Revolutionary". The Journal of Asian Studies. 27 (2): 197-216. doi:10.2307/2051747. JSTOR2051747.
^"Surjeet, who always sported a white turban, was also passionately opposed to the Sikh separatist campaign that bled Punjab for a decade until 1993. An atheist, he led a spartan lifestyle and always wore simple, even crumpled clothes." M.R. Narayan Swamy and Monobina Gupta, Indo-Asian News Service: 'Harkishan Singh Surjeet - nationalist to Communist and then kingmaker', Hindustan Times, August 1, 2008 (accessed August 1, 2008).
^"Well, I myself am a 100% atheist. And I am increasingly worried that the Israeli-Palestinian struggle, which dominates our entire life, is assuming a more and more religious character." Uri Avnery, A War of Religions? God Forbid!Archived 2007-10-21 at the Wayback Machine, Ramallah Online February 19, 2007(?) (accessed April 28, 2008).
^ abcGiulio Meotti (2011). A New Shoah: The Untold Story of Israel's Victims of Terrorism. ReadHowYouWant.com. p. 147. ISBN9781459617414. Even atheist and socialist Israelis like David Ben-Gurion, Moshe Dayan, and Golda Meir were marked by the stories and legends of King David and the prophets. In other words, their lives had been shaped by Hebron.
^Karen Armstrong (1997). Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 369. ISBN9780345391681. Even a committed atheist like Ben-Gurion found its sacred position on his own emotional map more compelling than the demographic and historical facts that were staring him in the face.
^Jonathan B. Isacoff (2006). "2". Writing the Arab-Israeli Conflict: Pragmatism And Historical Inquiry. Lexington Books. p. 54. ISBN9780739112731. David Ben-Gurion makes an especially fascinating study as a spokesman for Jewish messianic teleology in that by most accounts he was a secular atheist.
^Eyal Chowers (2012). The Political Philosophy of Zionism: Trading Jewish Words for a Hebraic Land. Cambridge University Press. p. 124. ISBN9781107005945. David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973), the first prime minister of Israel and its foremost politician in the age...Though an atheist, he saw the Bible as the most important source for shaping the new Hebrew's identity...
^Israel Shahak (1994). Jewish History, Jewish Religion: The Weight of Three Thousand Years. Pluto Press. p. 8. ISBN9780745308197. In 1956 I eagerly swallowed all of Ben-Gurion's political and military reasons for Israel initiating the Suez War, until he (in spite of being an atheist, proud of his disregard of the commandments of Jewish religion) pronounced in the Knesset on the third day of that war, that the real reason for it is 'the restoration of the kingdom of David and Solomon' to its Biblical borders.
^"What united them was opposition to a supposedly corrupt and pro-western administration, unfairly dominated by factions of Lebanon's Maronite Christian community. Notwithstanding his own professed atheism, Hawi, Greek Orthodox by birth, was valued as an iconic Christian figure within a coalition often painted as sectarian Muslim." Lawrence Joffe, 'Obituary: George Hawi: Lebanese communist leader who espoused Muslim-Christian dialogue', The Guardian (London)June 22, 2005, Pg. 29.
^"Rabin was an atheist. He had nothing to do with the religious calendar. Not to mention the fact that the "Jewish" calendar is really a Babylonian one, and that its months carry the names of Babylonian gods." Uri Avnery, The Real Rabin, Ma'ariv.
^"It has just been revealed that Thuy used to earn a living as a sorcerer [...] he travelled around the country selling magical charms, spells and cures, and spreading Communist propaganda at the same time. This information was volunteered by a Viet Cong colonel who recently came over to the South Vietnam Government side. He said they Thuy, being an atheist, clearly did not believe in his own magical powers, but had used sorcery purely as a cover for his political work." 'Party Tricks', 'The Times Diary', The Times, June 7, 1968; pg. 8; Issue 57271; col F.
^"He became a doubter of the Christian religion at a very early age. It was the questions asked by the man Friday of Robinson Crusoe that set his analytical mind asking the why and wherefore. [...] He became an atheist at 15, much to the grief of his beloved mother and the disgust of his harsh and bigoted Wesleyan father. Often in later life, when his mother found a home under his roof, he carried the "War Cry" in one pocket and "The Free Thinker" in the other." Annie Westbrook, 'Monty Miller - An Appreciation by Angela (Annie) Westbrook', International Socialist, December 1920. Archived online at http://www.takver.com/history/monty_miller.htm
^"In 1886-89 Trenwith prepared for parliament in a dozen lesser forums, assuming executive positions on the Workingman's Club, the Democratic Society, the Sunday Liberation Society and the Secularist Society. Despite his avowed atheism, he edged his way into respectable circles. In 1886, he was appointed a commissioner on the Adelaide Jubilee International Exhibition in 1887 and took a similar post on Melbourne's International Exhibition of 1888. He also sat on the provisional committee of the Working Men's College." Bruce Scates: 'Trenwith, William Arthur (Billy) (1846-1925)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Online Edition (accessed July 16, 2008).
^"A professed atheist, he fought for causes such as republicanism, political separation for the goldfields and miners' safety; he also opposed Asian immigration." E. Jaggard, 'Vosper, Frederick Charles Burleigh (1869-1901)', Australian Dictionary of Biography Online Edition (accessed July 16, 2008).
^"Senator Lionel Murphy had been born into a Catholic family, although he was himself an avowed atheist." Jenny Hocking (2008), Gough Whitlam: A Moment in History, The Miegunyah Press, p. 422. ISBN978-0-522-85705-4.
^In 1996 Hayden was recognised as the Australian Humanist of the Year with the statement that "The award is made because he has shown that an avowed atheist who describes himself as a secular humanist can occupy the position of Governor-General with mounting approval." Australian Humanist, No. 41 February, 1996
^"Being an atheist--as I am--is not a necessary pre-condition for being a humanist." in his acceptance speech for Australian Humanist of the Year, reported in Australian Humanist, No 42, May 1996
^Kamm, Henry (1993, June 10). 'Hallelujah' is heard in the arch-atheist's temple. The New York Times (Late Edition (East Coast)), p. A4. Retrieved August 27, 2007, from National Newspaper Abstracts
^"We Marxist-Leninists always understand clearly that religion is opium for the people. In no instance do we alter our view on this and we must not fall into the errors of 'religious socialism', etc." Enver Hoxha, Reflections on the Middle East, p. 358
^"Because of his Jewish origin, his atheism, and his "European", rather than "Danish", outlook, Brandes was, from the beginning of his political career, at odds with the more moderate faction of the left coalition that formed the Left Reform Party in the late 1890s." 'Brandes, Edvard', Encyclopædia Britannica Online (accessed August 1, 2008).
^"M. Clemenceau does not belong to the Socialist party, but is nevertheless a convinced atheist. He opposes zealously the idea of God, and preaches revolt against Him." Eugne Tavernier, 'The Religious Question In France. I. A French Catholic's View', The Times, November 6, 1909; p. 5; Issue 39110; col F.
^"The meanings of the term humanism have changed significantly over the years; the use of the term in its modern sense can be found in the atheistic concept of writers such as Karl Marx and Pierre Joseph Proudhon." Burgin, David, The Humanist, Jan 1, 1994. 
^"Although an atheist, Romme did not support deChristianization, nor did he regret the fall of Maximilien Robespierre." Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution, by Paul R. Hanson, Scarecrow Press, 2004, p. 281 (Accessed April 15, 2008)
^Fife, Graeme (14 November 2006). "Terror". Macmillan – via Google Books.
^Elkaïm, Olivia (5 April 2012). "François Hollande : des origines protestantes hollandaises". La Vie (in French). Retrieved 2013. (In December 2011, Hollande told the French Christian magazine La Vie that he respects all religious practices but has none of his own: "En décembre dernier, François Hollande confiait à La Vie : 'Je n'ai aucune pratique religieuse. Mais je respecte toutes les confessions. La mienne est de ne pas en avoir.'")
^"Within the NSDAP (as in the German völkisch movement in general) there existed from the outset a group of old Hitler partisans who in contrast to the 'atheists' Alfred Rosenberg, Martin Bormann and others, believed in a union of National Socialism and Protestant Christianity." Martin Broszat, The Hitler State, p. 223
^"From 1938 Martin Bormann, head of the Party Chancellery and a prominent party atheist, took a leading role in trying to sever all state financial support for the churches, and to limit their legal status and activities, but the need to mobilize church support for the war effort from September 1939 led, as it did in the Soviet Union after 1941, to a limited political truce between Church and state." Richard Overy, The Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, p. 286
^"Bormann, an atheist, waged a particularly fanatical fight against the Christian Church." Karl Wilhelm Krause, Herbert Döhring, Anna Plaim, Kurt Kuch, Living with Hitler: Accounts of Hitler's Household Staff, p. 273
^"All religion, however, is nothing but the fantastic reflection in men's minds of those external forces which control their daily life, a reflection in which the terrestrial forces assume the form of supernatural forces." Friedrich Engels, Anti-Dühring, p. 353
^Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, 1843
^"He actually had little in common with the girl. She was devout Roman Catholic, he an atheist; she came from the mild Swabian region, he from the harsh borderlands of West Prussia; she was a singer who hardly cared about politics, he a politician who knew little about music." Kurt Schumacher: A Study in Personality and Political Behavior, by Lewis J. Edinger, Stanford University Press. 1965, p. 29 (Accessed May 4, 2013)
^"As an atheist in Ireland's most conspicuously Catholic city, and an opponent of ardent Republicanism at the height of the Troubles, Jim Kemmy never ran away from a battle. But, though vilified by opponents on issues from Northern Ireland to abortion to contraception, he survived to become the conscience of the Irish Left." Alan Murdoch, 'Obituary: Jim Kemmy', The Independent (London), September 27, 1997, Pg. 24.
^"Two weeks ago, the minister for social affairs, Proinsias de Rossa, announced the setting up of a commission on the family. He was described to me as "the social conscience of the present government, that tends to be a little Thatcherite." He is a socialist and an avowed atheist, remarkable for an Irish politician." Peter Lennon, 'Flocking to the cause', The Guardian (London), November 14, 1995, Features Pages, Pg. T4.
^"She had been a militant nationalist among the pacifist internationalist feminists, a republican among the free staters, a feminist among the nationalists, and an atheist in holy Ireland." Sybil Oldfield, 'Skeffington, Johanna Mary Sheehy- (1877-1946)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 (accessed May 2, 2008).
^"His parents combined Irish nationalism, atheism, feminism, pacifism, and socialism. Sheehy-Skeffington learned to think for himself, coming to share their politics, minus his mother's later abstentionist republicanism." D. R. O'Connor Lysaght, 'Skeffington, Owen Lancelot Sheehy- (1909-1970)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 (accessed May 6, 2008).
^"Such actions established among the Catholic population of the area a long-lived reputation for kindness and fair dealing which persisted despite his professed atheism." Noel Thompson, 'Thompson, William (1775-1833)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 (accessed May 6, 2008).
^"In his latest incarnation, Mr. Ferrara is running for Parliament on a small slate devoted to a single issue: "pro-life", which he defines loosely. An avowed atheist and nonbeliever, he has called for a "moratorium", but not a ban, on abortion, to call attention to the value of life." Rachel Donadio, 'The Atheist Urging Italy to Get Religion', New York Times, April 6, 2008 (accessed June 16, 2008).
^"A diligent pupil, she won a scholarship to Milan's prestigious Catholic university - which left no traces of religiosity. An untormented atheist, she died without a priest at her side." Donald Sassoon, 'Nilde Iotti: Italy's leading post-war woman politician and a founding mother of the republic', The Guardian, December 9, 1999, Leader Pages, Pg. 24.
^Mussolini wrote a pamphlet entitled God does not exist. Historian Denis Mack Smith wrote that Mussolini thought: "Science had proved that God did not exist and the Jesus of history was an ignorant Jew whose family thought him mad... Religion, he said, was a disease of the psyche, an epidemic to be cured by psychiatrists, and Christianity in particular was vitiated by preaching the senseless virtues of resignation and cowardice." Smith DM (1982). Mussolini: a biography. New York: Knopf.
^"Though privately Mussolini remained an anti-clerical atheist, he was quick to perceive the political advantages of a settlement with the Church." Patricia Knight, Mussolini and Fascism, p. 47
^"Mussolini was an atheist, from the most anti-clerical region in Italy. The first pamphlet he ever wrote was called 'God does not exist'. Even after he had left the Socialist party, his attacks on the Vatican and the priests continued for some years with equal vehemence." Adrian Lyttelton, The Seizure of Power: Fascism in Italy, 1919-1929, p. 346
^"Mussolini moved the motion that 'God does not exist, and for science to include religion is an absurdity'. He argued that the laws of physics that governed heat, electricity, light and sound 'respond neither to the lamentations nor to the prayers of men'." Jasper Ridley, Mussolini: A Biography, p. 25
^"Churches along the route were closed. It was said at the Vatican that this could be seen as a silent protest against an atheist's funeral on such a scale in the heart of Christian Rome." 'Communist Show Of Strength At Signor Togliatti's Funeral', The Times, August 26, 1964; pg. 7; Issue 56100; col C.
^Abswoude, Peter van (February 2003). "Colloquium cum Diederik Samsom". Stentor: Acta Scholastica Gymnasii Civitatis Leovardiensis (in Dutch). 3: 23-25.
^"Above all, however, Mr. Gomulka is an atheist, and he is now strong enough to say so in a country which is not." 'Mr. Gomulka Bolder Against Church', The Times, Wednesday, Feb 08, 1961; pg. 11; Issue 55000; col D.
^Werner, Anita (2012-10-26). Nieoficjalnie. Pointa. p. 324.
^"[Pod Znamenem Marksizma] must be a militant atheist organ... a journal which sets out to propagandise militant materialism must carry on untiring atheist propaganda and an untiring atheist fight." On the Significance of Militant Materialism, V. I. Lenin, Pod Znamenem Marksizma No. 3, March 12, 1922, as published in Lenin's Collected Works, Progress Publishers, Moscow, Volume 33, 1972, pp. 227-236 (Translated by David Skvirsky and George Hanna), hosted at Marxists Internet Archive (Accessed November 14, 2007)
^"I am not a religious believer, and the Bible is not an authority for me. I never did recognize it as an authority even before I joined the party. I always was an atheist." Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev: Volume 3: Statesman, 1953-1964, p.9. Edited by MR Sergei Khrushchev. 2007, Penn State Press, ISBN0-271-02332-5.
^"Khrushchev was a convinced atheist who displayed little tolerance for the traditions and symbols of pre-revolutionary Russia." Intellectuals and Apparatchiks: Russian Nationalism and the Gorbachev Revolution, p.61. Kevin O'Connor. 2006, Lexington Books, ISBN0-7391-0771-2.
^Stalin is quoted as saying "You know, they are fooling us, there is no God...all this talk about God is sheer nonsense" in E. Yaroslavsky, Landmarks in the Life of Stalin, Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow 1940
^"Trotsky's Testament". Retrieved . I shall die a proletarian revolutionist, a Marxist, a dialectical materialist, and, consequently, an irreconcilable atheist.
^"Her father, Santiago Casares Quiroga, a leftwing atheist, defied another Galician native, born just across the estuary at Ferrol, Francisco Franco, the Caudillo in person." James Kirkup, 'Obituary: Maria Casares, Free Spirit of the French Stage', The Guardian (London), November 26, 1996, Features, Pg. 16.
^"He was an atheist and saw war as the greatest threat to mankind. The popularity of the Swedish model society probably peaked in the early seventies, but Olof Palme tirelessly continued his development toward a society as he saw it." Jens Moe, My America: The Culture of Giving, page 155.
^"Bengt Westerberg: Humanistisk ledning av Röda Korset" (in Swedish). Humanisten. Archived from the original on 2007-08-09. Retrieved .Translation: Interviewer: I would like to ask you about your relation to religion and atheistic humanism. When did you "come out" as [an] atheist and how did it happen? Westerberg: If you mean in public, then I revealed it in connection to my candidacy as party leader for the People's Party. I got the question if I believed in God from Thomas Hempel in Radioekot (radio program) and answered no. That's when it became known, though I've never made any secret about it.
^Atheism, Brief Insights Series by Julian Baggini, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 2009; ISBN1402768826, p. 106.
^Turner, Jacqueline (2018). The Labour Church: Religion and Politics in Britain 1890-1914. I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd.
^Hunt, James D. (2005). An American Looks at Gandhi: Essays in Satyagraha, Civil Rights, and Peace. Promilla & Co Publishers Ltd.
^Marquand, David; Ramsay MacDonald; London, 1977; p. 24
^"The defendant, in the witness-box, declared that the meeting was quite orderly, and there were cries of "Shame" when he was arrested. He denied the charges. Aldred said he was an Atheist and a Socialist." 'Hyde Park Speech Prosecution. Evidence For The Defence', The Times, Wednesday, Mar 04, 1925; pg. 5; Issue 43901; col G.
^"His mother was an intelligent and widely read woman of strong, radical, Presbyterian views who encouraged William to read extensively and passed on a love of literature which stayed with him long after he was converted to free-thinking atheism." Joseph Melling, 'Anderson, William Crawford (1877-1919), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 (accessed May 2, 2008).
^"His failed marriage aside, he was on a climbing path of conventional success and acclaim, which he left in 1879 when he abandoned his application for the chair of comparative anatomy because the post required its holder to profess Christianity. In July 1879 he made a public pronouncement that he had been an atheist for two or three years. In June 1881 he lost his lectureship, largely because of his atheism." C. A. Creffield: 'Aveling, Edward Bibbens (1849-1898)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004  (accessed April 29, 2008).
^"Mrs. Braddock, whose husband died in 1963, was an atheist, and her funeral service, next Tuesday at Liverpool crematorium, will be non-sectarian." Christopher Warman, ' 'Merseyside legend' Mrs Braddock dies at 71', The Times, November 14, 1970; pg. 1; Issue 58023; col G.
^"You are an atheist. Tony Blair is a devout Christian. Did that make you feel uncomfortable?" Campbell answering questions in The Independent newspaper .
^"Mr Campbell, who is an atheist, has been keen to stop Mr Blair discussing his faith since 1996, when the Labour leader gave an extensive interview on the subject in The Telegraph which proved highly controversial. " The Daily Telegraph.
^"Tory MP reveals he smoked marijuana and watched online porn. " The Guardian.
^"Queer-boy, soap-star, luvvie, Blairite, Michael is also, for the final flourish, something of a Buddhist. 'It seems to me a wonderfully selfless religion - and of course the only one which has had no war fought on its behalf. ' He was brought up a Catholic, 'but not any more. People who think you have to do things now for reward later might feel faced with a comeuppance that, as an atheist, I don't have to deal with. If it turns out that there is a God, and I meet her, I think she'll say: 'Well... you were pretty fearless, and you did what you thought was right. I've got a place for you. ' " Victoria Coren, 'The Monday interview: Michael Cashman: Straight talker', The Guardian, August 24, 1998, Pg. 14.
^"Opposition Members said that many Labour Members hate religion. Perhaps they think that those who support the new clause are atheists. Will my hon. Friend accept my assurance that it is possible to be an atheist and to admire religion? It is even possible to be an atheist and to study it, as I chose to do when I went to university." Colin Challen, House of Commons Hansard, 6 Feb 2002: Column 952 (accessed April 24, 2008).
^" Home Secretary Charles Clarke has revealed he is "totally opposed" to the concept of creationism. The politician, addressing a faith conference, said he does not believe in God, adding: "I believe that science has to be the basis of where we go and one of the greatest scientists was [Charles] Darwin." 'I don't believe in God, says Clarke', Edinburgh Evening News, 22 March 2006 (accessed 18 February 2009).
^"Lord Desai: Like my noble friend Lord Dormand I am an atheist and therefore should not speak too much about religion, but I am glad that the C[hurch] of E[ngland], having lost money in real estate, is now interested in sex and making money. That is always welcome." Lords Hansard, 4 Jun 1998: Column 481 (accessed April 24, 2008).
^In a House of Commons debate on historic churches, Sir Patrick Cormack said: "The chairman of the historic churches and chapels group, the right hon. Member for Holborn and St. Pancras (Frank Dobson) [...] is a self-proclaimed atheist but shares the affection [for historic churches] that I believe that the Minister has [...]" House of Commons Hansard, 14 Dec 2006: Column 1132 (accessed April 24, 2008).
^"As the most insistent of atheists in the House of Lords, after he arrived there in 1987, Dormand demanded equal rights for the non-religious fifth of the population. As a former teacher and education officer, he wanted religions and humanism described neutrally in schools, not propagated. [...] But "after some years of very considerable thought", he became an atheist, though "I certainly attempt, although I fail regularly, to live by the Christian ethic." He became more overtly atheist in the Lords than he had been in the Commons, where he had to worry about his religious constituents. [...] He started teaching at 21, telling his headmaster that, as an atheist, he was not really qualified to take religious education." Andrew Roth, 'Obituary: Lord Dormand of Easington: Genial chairman during Labour's hard times', The Guardian, December 20, 2003, Pg. 21.
^"Fisher may have underestimated the offence the book would cause because he was himself an agnostic in religious matters; in private letters he described himself as an atheist, and said firmly to his friends that religion 'rots the mind' (J. Hart, Ask me No More, 1998, 204)." A. Ryan, 'Fisher, Herbert Albert Laurens (1865-1940)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edition, January 2008  (accessed May 1, 2008).
^"Mr Findlay, who describes himself as an atheist, also claimed that under European human rights law he had the right to free speech." joke not intended as offensive, says QC', The Journal Online, June 19, 2007 (accessed May 13, 2008).
^"I am an atheist and yet I am accepted by Hindus because as far as I can I follow the principles of the Gita, which I consider the most important Hindu book. In my small way I try to live by that. I do not believe in God but I believe that we have to live a good life on this Earth." Baroness Flather, Lords Hansard, 19 Apr 2007: Column 341 (accessed April 24, 2008).
^"Why are politicians such awful people, I asked Michael Foot. 'They're not, ' he answered. 'Only the ones who don't do anything else. ' His father's son, obviously. And also his own man. He became fatally estranged from his father's Methodist insistencies as a student, when he came upon Bertrand Russell's humanism. He kept quiet about it at the time. 'No point saying I'm an atheist. It wouldn't have been kind. ' " Sally Vincent, The Guardian, January 2, 1999, Weekend Page, Pg. 16.
^"Goldie's opinions, as much as his actions, defied convention. He was a convinced atheist, an admirer of Huxley, Darwin, and Winwoode Reade." Scarbrough: 'Goldie, Sir George Dashwood Taubman (1846-1925)', rev. John Flint, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008  (accessed May 1, 2008).
^"But another prominent atheist, medic and secularist, the Liberal Democrat MP, Dr Evan Harris, is not so sure that 9/11 was the nodal point. "It's not the main thing to scientists", he insists. "When you talk to them the thing that comes up most often is the influence religion has had on science in America under George Bush."" Paul Vallely, 'Religion vs science: can the divide between God and rationality be reconciled?', The Independent, 11 October 2008 (accessed 13 October 2008).
^"I was the visiting atheist on the BBC's weekly religious show a couple of Sundays ago." Roy Hattersley, 'Blighted by a moral code', The Guardian, December 11, 2006, Comment and Debate, Pg. 25.
^"Baroness Blatch: My Lords, if noble Lords, like me, believe in the life hereafter, then it is possible to believe that the doughty animal-lover, the late Lord Houghton of Sowerby, will be looking down on our proceedings today. Lord McIntosh of Haringey: My Lords--Baroness Blatch: I know that the noble Lord is not a believer in these matters. I speak personally; I did make that point. [...] Lord McIntosh of Haringey: Before the Minister leaves Lord Houghton of Sowerby, it is not my beliefs that matter; Lord Houghton was to his dying day a devoted atheist." Lords Hansard, March 20, 1997: Column 1142-1143
^"Do we accept the fact that in a wholly elected Chamber there would be no Cross-Benchers and no representatives of the Church of England or any other faith? Fortunately there will still be room for atheists like me, although I would go as well under a wholly elected system." Lord Hughes of Woodside, Lords Hansard, 21 Jan 2003: Column 632 (accessed April 25, 2008).
^"When Jackson in his teens converted 'in a night' to socialism and atheism, he was 'literally ill for days afterwards', and it was another two years before he felt able to reveal his new beliefs to his parents (memoirs, People's History Museum, Manchester)." Kevin Morgan, 'Jackson, Thomas Alfred (1879-1955)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 (accessed May 6, 2008).
^"I come to this debate with some hesitation because, although I am an atheist, I have always respected the Church of England for the courageous conduct of some of its clergy in South Africa during the apartheid regime, for its social and community work in the UK and for its stand on many human rights issues, and, of course, my admiration and respect for the most reverend Primate the Archbishop of York is unbounded." Lord Joffe, Lords Hansard, 19 Apr 2007: Column 357 (accessed April 24, 2008).
^King calls herself "a misguided 'cultural' Jew without any culture, and a born-again atheist." My week: Oona King, by Oona King, The Observer, Sunday March 5, 2006 (hosted at guardian.co.uk, accessed March 29, 2008)
^"Mr Blair's private faith is well-documented and almost certainly stronger than any prime minister in recent memory. Mr Hague is more typical in being an occasional church-goer. Neil Kinnock was unique in declaring himself an atheist." Michael White, Political editor, 'Blair to address Christian groups conference', The Guardian, June 26, 2000, Pg. 4.
^"I speak as someone who was brought up as an atheist, although my free-thinking parents insisted that I spent a great deal of my childhood at Bible class, the Boys' Brigade and Church of Scotland lectures, none of which I regret, but I came back to an atheistic view of the world and have maintained that." Gus Macdonald, Lords Hansard, March 27, 2006: Column GC257 (accessed April 24, 2008).
^"As I have said in the House, I am an atheist and anti-clerical and I do not believe that religion should play the large part that it does in the House or elsewhere." John Maxton, House of Commons Hansard, 23 Jun 1999: Column 1253 (accessed April 24, 2008).
^"Miliband, a devout atheist, had forged his reputation as a policy wonk at the Left-leaning Institute for Public Policy Research and was headhunted to become Tony Blair's head of policy at Downing Street." Andrew Pierce, 'Profile of Foreign Secretary David Miliband', Daily Telegraph, July 30, 2008 (accessed August 1, 2008).
^"The Labour leader's atheism puts him in stark contrast to his predecessors Tony Blair and Gordon Brown, for whom religion was a central part of their lives." '', Daily Telegraph, September 29, 2010 (accessed May 25, 2011).
^"[...] Morley was an odd choice for biographer, since he was a "freethinking" atheist, and he agreed to the Gladstone family's stipulation that he should refrain from treating Gladstone's religion in any depth." Christopher Howse, 'Why Gladstone had God up his sleeve', Daily Telegraph, November 24, 2007, Pg. 29.
^In a heated debate in the House of Lords in which the Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord Carey, claimed "in my opinion, atheists are not renowned throughout the world for their commitment to the very poor, the starving and the needy", Baroness Murphy replied: "I speak as a rationalist, agnostic--I shall not say atheist in the light of the comments of the noble and right reverend Lord, Lord Carey. It is not a particularly comfortable matter, but one reason to contribute to this debate is to stand up and be counted. I was going to remain rather calm throughout this, but I was rather offended by the comments of the noble and right reverend Lord, Lord Carey, about the role that people without faith have played in doing good in the world. He is entirely and wholly wrong. We feel just as passionately as those who have faith about ensuring that society is just. " Lords Hansard, 19 Apr 2007: Column 350-351 (accessed April 24, 2008).
^"She died an atheist, from stomach cancer, on January 23, 1932 [...]." Brian Harrison, 'Phillips, Marion (1881-1932)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edition, January 2008 (accessed May 2, 2008).
^"Mr. Piratin declined to take the oath, saying that he was an atheist, and elected to affirm." 'Former Communist M.P.'S Application Suspended Discharge From Bankruptcy', The Times, Saturday, Jul 12, 1952; pg. 3; Issue 52362; col C.
^"Moreover, unless I am much mistaken, as that person is a Church Commissioner he must be a member of the Church of England, an organisation of which I was a member before I became an atheist." Brian Sedgemore, House of Commons Hansard, 13 Feb 2002: Column 247 (accessed April 24, 2008).
^"Father Doonagh might have described this helping hand to a needy stranger as an act of Christian charity. That's probably not how the atheist Short would see it." Vincent Graff, 'Order! Order! Politics and Food Special', The Observer (England), May 25, 2008, Observer Food Monthly, Pg. 38.
^" All MPs may reserve a particular seat in Parliament for morning prayers, which they then keep for the rest of the day. Skinner, an atheist, refuses to pray, but still likes to 'bagsy' his favourite pew. Following a complaint from the Tory Chris Grayling, the Serjeant at Arms issued him with a formal reprimand. 'Dennis told him to get stuffed, ' says a colleague. 'It's an excellent spot for heckling, and he's not going to vacate it without a fight. ' " Guy Adams, 'Pandora', The Independent (London), December 13, 2005, Features, Pg. 14.
^"It was entirely right that Phillip Whitehead, who loved the village and had lived there since he was three, should have left it in the way that Rowsley men and women have left it for 200 years and more. It was an English funeral in an English village according to the rites of the Church of England. But it is at least a paradox that a man who was an uncompromising atheist - and so described by one of his sons during the service - should be laid to rest with the promise of resurrection and eternal life." Roy Hattersley, 'A decent send-off: Even a hardline atheist can see that the church is better than anyone at staging the last farewell', The Guardian January 16, 2006, Pg. 31.
^"For instance, Chrysostomos might argue that certain self-declared atheists should not be allowed to vote. It's worth recalling that a couple of years ago, the leader of the communist party AKEL Demetris Christofias said he was an atheist." Elias Hazou, 'Church elections: how it works'Archived 2008-06-06 at the Wayback Machine, Cyprus Mail archive article, September 17, 2006 (accessed May 15, 2008).
^"The philosophical and political differences among the conspirators were expressed at the trial. This was particularly obvious between the two Cubrilovi? brothers. [...] Veljko was a deeply religious man, who spent the whole night before the execution reading St. John's Gospel; Vaso was an atheist, scandalising judges with his statements; [...]." 'Back to Sarajevo After 50 Years By Professor Vladimir Dedijer of Harvard', The Times, June 26, 1964; pg. 13; Issue 56048; col F.
^"He [Chaim Maccoby] spoke out ever more vehemently against Herzl, the self-confessed atheist, and his followers, refusing to preach at one federation synagogue because it dared to host a branch of the Zionist Federation." Geoffrey Alderman, 'Maccoby, Chaim Zundel (1858-1916)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 (accessed May 2, 2008).
^"Forty years later, nobody considers it a problem. If we want to engage in intercultural dialogue, we cannot let our Slovene, Ljubljana Muslims celebrate their holidays at sport halls. I am an atheist, but I think that every religious community should have a place of worship built by themselves." Zoran Jankovi?, quoted in 'Mayor tells Bosnian daily building of mosque in Ljubljana "no longer a problem"', BBC Monitoring Europe - Political, May 14, 2008.
^"Both parents were Jewish, although not observant. Towards the end of the First World War, when there was starvation in Vienna, Hedi's father sent mother and daughter to the countryside; in some villages, farmers and shopkeepers expressed their intense anti-Semitism by refusing to sell food unless the buyer could produce a Christian baptismal certificate. Hans Simon arranged for both mother and daughter to be baptised. Later on, when Hedi was 14, she was able to dispense with a religious identity altogether, choosing to become "konfessionslos" ("without religion"), in accordance with the provisions of the Austrian constitution. It was, for her, a relief: she was already a convinced atheist." Daniel Wolf, 'Obituary: Hedi Stadlen', The Independent (London), January 31, 2004, Pg. 48-49.
^""Veton liked good food, good wine, Faulkner, opera, La traviata, Tchaikovsky, Celtic music, jazz, blues, you name it", she said. "But he cared more about his people. He was an atheist but most Muslims still respected him", she [his wife] said, before correcting her use of the past tense. "I mean he is an atheist. His favourite novel was Faulkner's As I Lay Dying but I believe he is alive. You have to believe that."" Phil Davison, 'Kosovars wait for news of the lost hero', The Independent (London), May 20, 1999, News, Pg. 5.
^" Dale Jackaman doesn't believe in God. Those who do worry him, especially fundamentalists. "I'm an atheist", declares Jackaman, a former Army reservist who has served in the Middle East and now runs a computer security firm. [...] "Atheists tend not to bother anybody unless they're riled up", Jackaman said. "We're riled up now." [...] Jackaman gives the lie to the old saw that there are no atheists in foxholes. He did three tours of duty in the Middle East--two in the Golan Heights and one in Cyprus--with the Army signal corps. Far from igniting any spark of spirituality, his experience in the war-torn Middle East confirmed his belief that religious differences fan the flames of war. "It solidified my atheism", Jackaman said." No god before meArchived 2008-06-05 at the Wayback Machine, Richmond News October 23, 2007 (accessed April 22, 2008).
^Castro is quoted as saying, "When I was a young boy, my father taught me that to be a good Catholic, I had to confess at church if I ever had impure thoughts about a girl. That very evening I had to rush to confess my sin. And the next night, and the next. After a week, I decided religion wasn't for me." The Atheist's Bible, p. 62
^Michael C. Meyer, William L. Sherman, The Course of Mexican History (Fifth Edition), pp. 601-602
^Pancho Villa: Intimate Recollections by People Who Knew Him, p. 34
^Jamie Bisher, The Intelligence War in Latin America, 1914-1922, p. 185
^"Somehow, [Calles'] illegitimacy and poverty shaped his hatred for religion and Catholicism. He became an avowed atheist." José M. Peña, Inherit the Dust from the Four Winds of Revilla: A 250-Year Historical Perspective with Emphasis on Ancient Guerrero, its People and its Land Grants, p. 230
^""You can be elected as an openly gay politician in this country, but you can't be elected as an openly atheistic one", said Lori Lipman Brown, who was hired last fall to be the Washington, D.C., lobbyist for an organization devoted to atheist causes, the Secular Coalition for America. She's believed to be the first paid lobbyist for the unbelievers in the nation's capital, the front lines of the culture wars. Now, all Brown is seeking is a constituency willing to go public. "Think of where the LGBT movement was 25 years ago", said Brown, who has worked on gay and lesbian rights issues as a legislator and attorney. "That's where atheists are today." [...] Brown, who is married and was raised a "humanistic Jew", talks about how she "came out" as an atheist several years ago, and how most atheists aren't "out yet" at work. She says atheist kids--like many gay children--are made to feel outcasts at school, and explains that she wants to erase the negative connotation to the word "atheist" just as homosexuals have reclaimed slurs like "queer" and "dyke."" Joe Garofoli, 'Atheists hoping to assert rights in religious era', San Francisco Chronicle, February 20, 2006 (accessed June 16, 2008).
^"I don't believe in God because I don't believe in Mother Goose." Clarence Darrow, speech in Toronto, 1930, as quoted in Breaking the Last Taboo (1996) by James A. Haught.
^"I say that religion is the belief in future life and in God. I don't believe in either." Clarence Darrow, 'Law is 'Horrible' says Darrow, 79', New York Times, April 19, 1936.
^"In spite of all the yearnings of men, no one can produce a single fact or reason to support the belief in God and in personal immortality." Clarence Darrow, Sign magazine, May 1938 (from Rawson's Dictionary of American Quotations via credoreference.com, accessed August 1, 2008).
^"[Barney] Frank would not have left his safe [Massachusetts] state legislative district to go to Congress if Pope John Paul II had not opened up for him an equally liberal and tolerant district when he ordered Jesuit Father Robert Drinan to resign his seat in the House. The pope thought Drinan too liberal--and in his place he got Frank, a gay Jewish atheist." Garry Wills, "Hampered Brilliance" (a review of Barney Frank, Frank: A Life in Politics from the Great Society to Same-Sex Marriage, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 387 pp, $28.00), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXII, no. 10 (June 4, 2015), p. 8.
^"He also served a two-year sentence for tax evasion in the 1950s, ran for US president for the Progressive Party, made a great deal of money, and as a militant atheist once pinned down a Catholic archbishop during cross-examination, forcing him to confess he could not prove Heaven existed." Christopher Reed, 'Obituary: Vincent Hallinan, A Brawler for Justice', The Guardian (London), October 6, 1992, Pg. 33.
^"It is long overdue for Atheistic arguments to be given a seat at the table of the marketplace of ideas in today's world. I have established this website in the hope of providing a platform for the dissemination of these arguments." Website of Eddie Tabash (Accessed April 14, 2008)
^"Jesse Ventura". NNDB.com. Retrieved 2012. Formerly a Lutheran, Ventura generally considers himself an atheist.
^Interviewer: "In interviews you have described yourself as "more left than right" and "a militant atheist" in a country that is overwhelmingly Roman Catholic, and where the political left continues to be a minority. Don't you think that most of the public might take your statements as a sign that you might be biased on certain issues?"
Argibay: "On the contrary--if one reads my declarations correctly. I believe that saying up front who one is or what one thinks is an indication of honesty, which is the first step towards impartiality. My beliefs, or lack thereof, should not interfere in the judicial decisions I take." Diana Cariboni, 'Single Woman, Atheist, Heads to Seat on High CourtArchived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine', IPS News, January 21, 2004.
^" She was respectfully called "bhowji" (elder brother's wife) by PPP supporters. Janet remained an atheist and did not convert to Hinduism. "I am an activist. People either hate me to infinity or love me to death", she once told an interviewer." John Cherian, 'Guiding light' (Jagan's obituary), Frontline (India), Volume 26, Issue 08, April 11-24, 2009 (accessed 7 April 2009).