List of Cities in Ontario
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List of Cities in Ontario

"City" forms part of the name of many municipalities in the Canadian province of Ontario, generally the largest in the province or in their region but there is no current threshold in law. Cities have the municipal status of either a single-tier or lower-tier municipality.

Municipalities are administrative and political divisions and in most cases do not conform to the boundaries of discrete urbanized areas nor to those of urban areas together with their adjacent economically integrated rural areas ("metropolitan area"). In many cases, several municipalities will comprise a single metropolitan area; in others a municipality will include multiple urban areas (often referred to as "population centres" by Statistics Canada). An example of the former is that the adjacent municipalities of Toronto and Mississauga plus those westward to Oakville, eastward to Ajax, and as far as Orangeville and Newmarket in the northwest and north are part of the Toronto metropolitan area. An example of the latter is the single-tier municipality of Norfolk County, which has a few separate population centres within its borders: Dunnville, Caledonia and Hagersville.

Ontario has 52 cities,[1] which together had in 2016 a cumulative population of 9,900,179 and average population of 190,388.[2] The most and least populous are Toronto and Dryden, with 2,731,571 and 7,749 residents, respectively.[2] Ontario's newest city is Richmond Hill, whose council voted to change from a town to a city on March 26, 2019.[3] Previous to that, Markham changed from a town to a city on July 1, 2012.[4]

History

Under the former Municipal Act,[5] a city was both an urban and a local municipality, with slightly different legal treatment from a town, for instance.[6] Under that act, the Ontario Municipal Board could change the status of a village or town, upon its request, to a city if it had a population of 15,000 or more.[6] The Municipal Board could also incorporate a township as a city under the same conditions except its population requirement was 25,000.[6] In either event, if located within a county, authorization by the Minister of Municipal Affairs was also required.[6]

The Municipal Act, 2001,[7] abandoned the different statuses of village, etc. Municipal "tier" (lower, upper or single)[note 1] is the main factor differentiating the legal powers, etc., although differences among upper-tier types (county, region) still exist. December 31, 2002, was the transition date:[8]

  • every city that "existed and formed part of a county, a regional or district municipality or the County of Oxford for municipal purposes" became the next day a lower-tier municipality yet retained city in its name; and
  • every city that "existed and did not form part of a county, a regional or district municipality or the County of Oxford for municipal purposes" became the next day a single-tier municipality yet retained city in its name.
  • Lower- and single-tier municipalities have the authority to rename themselves with any former municipal status types ("city", "town", "village" or "township") or with the general "municipality".[9][10]

Cities in Ontario

Name[1][11] Municipal
status[1]
Census division[1][12] Population
(2016)[2]
Population
(2011)[11]
Change
(%)[11]
Area
(km²)[11]
Population
density[11]
Barrie[note 2] Single-tier Simcoe 141,434 136,063 3.9 99.04 1,428.0
Belleville Single-tier Hastings 50,716 49,454 2.6 247.25 205.1
Brampton[note 3] Lower-tier Peel 593,638 523,911 13.3 266.36 2,228.7
Brant Single-tier Brant 36,707 35,638 3.0 843.25 43.5
Brantford[note 4] Single-tier Brant 97,496 93,650 4.1 72.44 1,345.9
Brockville Single-tier Leeds and Grenville 21,346 21,870 -2.4 20.85 1,023.6
Burlington Lower-tier Halton 183,314 175,779 4.3 185.66 987.3
Cambridge[note 5] Lower-tier Waterloo 129,920 126,748 2.5 113.01 1,149.6
Clarence-Rockland Lower-tier Prescott and Russell 24,512 23,185 5.7 297.71 82.3
Cornwall Single-tier Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry 46,589 46,340 0.5 61.56 756.8
Dryden[note 6] Single-tier Kenora 7,749 7,617 1.7 66.19 117.1
Elliot Lake Single-tier Algoma 10,741 11,348 -5.3 714.65 15.0
Greater Sudbury[note 7] Single-tier Sudbury 161,531 160,274 0.8 3,228.35 50.0
Guelph[note 8] Single-tier Wellington 131,794 121,688 8.3 87.22 1,511.1
Haldimand County Single-tier Haldimand 45,608 44,876 1.6 1,251.54 36.4
Hamilton[note 9] Single-tier Hamilton 536,917 519,949 3.3 1,117.29 480.6
Kawartha Lakes Single-tier Kawartha Lakes 75,423 73,214 3.0 3,084.38 24.5
Kenora Single-tier Kenora 15,096 15,348 -1.6 211.59 71.3
Kingston[note 10] Single-tier Frontenac 123,798 123,363 0.4 451.19 274.4
Kitchener[note 11] Lower-tier Waterloo 233,222 219,153 6.4 136.77 1,705.2
London[note 12] Single-tier Middlesex 383,822 366,151 4.8 420.35 913.1
Markham[note 13] Lower-tier York 328,966 301,709 9.0 212.35 1,549.2
Mississauga[note 14] Lower-tier Peel 721,599 713,443 1.1 292.43 2,467.6
Niagara Falls[note 15] Lower-tier Niagara 88,071 82,997 6.1 209.73 419.9
Norfolk County Single-tier Norfolk 64,044 63,175 1.4 1,607.55 39.8
North Bay Single-tier Nipissing 51,553 53,651 -3.9 319.11 161.6
Orillia Single-tier Simcoe 31,166 30,586 1.9 28.58 1,090.3
Oshawa[note 16] Lower-tier Durham 159,458 149,607 6.6 145.64 1,094.9
Ottawa[note 17] Single-tier Ottawa 934,243 883,391 5.8 2,790.30 334.8
Owen Sound Lower-tier Grey 21,341 21,688 -1.6 24.27 879.2
Pembroke[note 18] Single-tier Renfrew 13,882 14,360 -3.3 14.56 953.3
Peterborough[note 19] Single-tier Peterborough 81,032 78,698 2.9 64.25 1,261.2
Pickering Lower-tier Durham 91,771 88,721 3.4 231.55 396.3
Port Colborne Lower-tier Niagara 18,306 18,424 -0.6 121.96 150.1
Prince Edward County Single-tier Prince Edward 24,735 25,258 -2.1 1,050.49 23.5
Quinte West Single-tier Hastings 43,577 43,086 1.1 494.02 88.2
Richmond Hill[note 20] Lower-tier York 195,022 185,541 5.1 101.11 1,928.8
Sarnia Lower-tier Lambton 71,594 72,366 -1.1 164.85 434.3
Sault Ste. Marie Single-tier Algoma 73,368 75,141 -2.4 223.24 328.6
St. Catharines[note 21] Lower-tier Niagara 133,113 131,400 1.3 96.13 1,384.8
St. Thomas Single-tier Elgin 38,909 37,905 2.6 35.63 1,092.1
Stratford Single-tier Perth 31,465 30,886 1.8 28.28 1,112.5
Temiskaming Shores Single-tier Timiskaming 9,920 10,400 -4.6 178.11 55.7
Thorold Lower-tier Niagara 18,801 17,931 4.9 82.99 226.5
Thunder Bay[note 22] Single-tier Thunder Bay 107,909 108,359 -0.4 328.36 328.6
Timmins Single-tier Cochrane 41,788 43,165 -3.2 2,978.83 14.0
Toronto[note 23] Single-tier[note 1] Toronto 2,731,571 2,615,060 4.5 630.20 4,334.4
Vaughan Lower-tier York 306,233 288,301 6.2 273.56 1,119.4
Waterloo[note 24] Lower-tier Waterloo 104,986 98,780 6.3 64.02 1,639.8
Welland Lower-tier Niagara 52,293 50,631 3.3 81.04 645.3
Windsor[note 25] Single-tier Essex 217,188 210,891 3.0 146.38 1,483.8
Woodstock Lower-tier Oxford 40,902 37,754 8.3 48.97 835.3
Total cities -- -- 9,900,179 9,478,924 2.39 26,045.14 813.91

See also

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ a b A unique set of legal powers is provided by the City of Toronto Act, 2006, SO 2006, c 11, Sch A.
  2. ^ The Barrie census metropolitan area (CMA) is formed around the City of Barrie.
  3. ^ Brampton is Canada's ninth-largest city.
  4. ^ The Brantford CMA includes the City of Brantford as well as the County of Brant, which is a single-tier city.
  5. ^ The City of Cambridge, as well as the cities of Kitchener and Waterloo, form parts of the Kitchener-Cambridge-Waterloo CMA.
  6. ^ Dryden is Ontario's smallest city by population.
  7. ^ Greater Sudbury is Ontario's largest city by area. The Greater Sudbury CMA is formed around the City of Greater Sudbury.
  8. ^ The Guelph CMA is formed around the City of Guelph.
  9. ^ Hamilton is Canada's tenth-largest city. The Hamilton CMA includes the cities of Burlington and Hamilton.
  10. ^ The Kingston CMA is formed around the City of Kingston.
  11. ^ The City of Kitchener, as well as the cities of Cambridge and Waterloo, form parts of the Kitchener-Cambridge-Waterloo CMA.
  12. ^ The London CMA includes the cities of London and St. Thomas.
  13. ^ Markham is Ontario's second-newest city, adopting the name on July 1, 2012.
  14. ^ Mississauga is Canada's sixth-largest city.
  15. ^ The City of Niagara Falls, as well as the cities of Port Colborne, St. Catharines, Thorold and Welland, form parts of the St. Catharines-Niagara CMA.
  16. ^ The Oshawa CMA is formed around the City of Oshawa.
  17. ^ Ottawa is Canada's capital and fourth-largest city. The Ontario portion of the Ottawa-Gatineau CMA includes the cities of Clarence-Rockland and Ottawa.
  18. ^ Pembroke is Ontario's smallest city by area.
  19. ^ The Peterborough CMA is formed around the City of Peterborough.
  20. ^ Richmond Hill is Ontario's newest city, adopting the name on March 26, 2019.
  21. ^ The City of St. Catharines, as well as the cities of Niagara Falls, Port Colborne, Thorold and Welland, form parts of the St. Catharines-Niagara CMA.
  22. ^ The Thunder Bay CMA is formed around the City of Thunder Bay.
  23. ^ Toronto is Ontario's capital and Canada's and Ontario's largest city by population. The Toronto CMA includes the cities of Brampton, Markham, Mississauga, Pickering, Richmond Hill, Toronto and Vaughan.
  24. ^ The City of Waterloo, as well as the cities of Cambridge and Kitchener, form parts of the Kitchener-Cambridge-Waterloo CMA.
  25. ^ The Windsor CMA is formed around the City of Windsor.

References

  1. ^ a b c d "List of Ontario Municipalities". Ontario Municipal Affairs and Housing. September 21, 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  2. ^ a b c "subdivisions (municipalities) and designated places, 2016 and 2011 censuses - 100% data". Statistics Canada.
  3. ^ "Richmond Hill Becomes a City". RichmondHill.ca. Retrieved 2019.
  4. ^ "Markham to change from town to city". CBC News. May 30, 2012. Retrieved 2014.
  5. ^ RSO 1990, c M.45.
  6. ^ a b c d "Municipal Act, R.S.O. 1990, Chapter M.45". Service Ontario. Retrieved 2013.
  7. ^ SO 2001, c 25.
  8. ^ "Municipal Act, S.O. 2001, Chapter 25". Service Ontario. Retrieved 2013.
  9. ^ "The Ontario Municipal Councillor's Guide 2018". Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. 2018. Section 5. Retrieved .
  10. ^ Municipal Act, 2001, S.O. 2001, c. 25, s. 187.
  11. ^ a b c d e "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses (Ontario)". Statistics Canada. May 28, 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  12. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census divisions, 2011 and 2006 censuses (Ontario)". Statistics Canada. January 30, 2013. Retrieved 2013.

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