List of Countries by Income Equality
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List of Countries by Income Equality

World map of income inequality Gini coefficients by country. Based on World Bank data ranging from 1992 to 2020.[1]
  •   Above 50%
  •   Between 45% to 50%
  •   Between 40% to 45%
  •   Between 35% to 40%
  •   Between 30% to 35%
  •   Below 30%
  •   No data

This is a list of countries or dependencies by income inequality metrics, including Gini coefficients. The Gini coefficient is a number between 0 and 1, where 0 corresponds with perfect equality (where everyone has the same income) and 1 corresponds with perfect inequality (where one person has all the income--and everyone else has no income).

Income distribution can vary greatly from wealth distribution in a country (see List of countries by wealth inequality). Income from black market economic activity is not included and is the subject of current economic research.[2][3]

UN, World Bank and CIA list - income ratios and Gini indices

Row numbers are static. Other columns are sortable. This allows ranking of any column.

Key:

R/P 10%
The ratio of the average income of the richest 10% to the poorest 10%.
R/P 20%
The ratio of the average income of the richest 20% to the poorest 20%.
Gini
Gini index, a quantified representation of a nation's Lorenz curve. A Gini index of 0% expresses perfect equality, while index of 100% expresses maximal inequality.
UN
Data from the United Nations Development Programme.
World Bank
Data from the World Bank.
CIA
Data from the Central Intelligence Agency's The World Factbook.

EU27 countries

Member state 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
 
 Austria 27.4 27.6 27.0 27.6 27.2 27.2 27.9 26.8 27.5
 Belgium 26.3 26.5 25.9 25.9 26.2 26.3 26.1 25.7 25.1
 Bulgaria 35.0 33.6 35.4 35.4 37.0 37.7 40.2 39.6 40.8
 Croatia 31.2 30.9 30.9 30.2 30.4 29.8 29.9 29.7 29.2
 Cyprus 29.2 31.0 32.4 34.8 33.6 32.1 30.8 29.1 31.1
 Czech Republic 25.2 24.9 24.6 25.1 25.0 25.1 24.5 24.0 24.0
 Denmark 26.6 26.5 26.8 27.7 27.4 27.7 27.6 27.8 27.5
 Estonia 31.9 32.5 32.9 35.6 34.8 32.7 31.6 30.6 30.5
 Finland 25.8 25.9 25.4 25.6 25.2 25.4 25.3 25.9 26.2
 France 30.8 30.5 30.1 29.2 29.2 29.3 28.8 28.5
 Germany 29.0 28.3 29.7 30.7 30.1 29.5 29.1 31.1 29.7
 Greece 33.5 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.2 34.3 33.4 32.3 31.0
 Hungary 26.9 27.2 28.3 28.6 28.2 28.2 28.1 28.7 28.0
 Ireland 29.8 30.4 30.7 31.1 29.7 29.6 30.6 28.9
 Italy 32.5 32.4 32.8 32.4 32.4 33.1 32.7 33.4
 Latvia 35.1 35.7 35.2 35.5 35.4 34.5 34.5 35.6 35.2
 Lithuania 33.0 32.0 34.6 35.0 37.9 37.0 37.6 36.9 35.4
 Luxembourg 27.2 28.0 30.4 28.7 28.5 29.6 29.2 31.3 32.3
 Malta 27.2 27.1 28.0 27.7 28.1 28.6 28.2 28.7 28.0
 Netherlands 25.8 25.4 25.1 26.2 26.7 26.9 27.1 27.4 26.8
 Poland 31.1 30.9 30.7 30.8 30.6 29.8 29.2 27.8 28.5
 Portugal 34.2 34.5 34.2 34.5 34.0 33.9 33.5 32.1 31.9
 Romania 33.5 34.0 34.6 35.0 37.4 34.7 33.1 35.1 34.8
 Slovakia 25.7 25.3 24.2 26.1 23.7 24.3 23.2 20.9 20.3
 Slovenia 23.8 23.7 24.4 25.0 24.5 24.4 23.7 23.4 23.9
 Spain 34.0 34.2 33.7 34.7 34.6 34.5 34.1 33.2 33.0
 Sweden 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.9 26.7 27.6 28.0 27.0 27.6
 Serbia[n 1] -- -- 38.0 38.3 40.0 39.8 37.6 35.6
 Montenegro[n 2][9] -- -- 38.5 36.5 36.5 36.5 36.7
 European Union 30.5 30.4 30.6 30.9 30.8 30.6 30.3 30.4
Eurozone (EA19) 30.6 30.5 30.7 31.0 30.7 30.7 30.4 30.6

OECD countries

Gini coefficient, before taxes and transfers

Country mid-70s mid-80s ~ 1990 mid-90s ~ 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s
 
 Australia 0.467 0.476 0.465 0.469
 Austria 0.433 0.472
 Belgium 0.449 0.472 0.464 0.494 0.469
 Canada 0.385 0.395 0.403 0.430 0.440 0.436 0.441
 Chile 0.441 0.414 0.426
 Czech Republic 0.442 0.472 0.474 0.444
 Denmark 0.373 0.396 0.417 0.415 0.417 0.416
 Estonia 0.504 0.458
 Finland 0.343 0.387 0.479 0.478 0.483 0.465
 France 0.380 0.370 0.473 0.490 0.485 0.483
 Germany 0.439 0.429 0.459 0.471 0.499 0.504
 Greece 0.448 0.426 0.446 0.466 0.454 0.436
 Hungary 0.452 0.496 0.463 0.497 0.466
 Iceland 0.365 0.382
 Ireland
 Israel 0.472 0.476 0.494 0.504 0.513 0.498
 Italy 0.420 0.437 0.508 0.516 0.557 0.534
 Japan 0.345 0.403 0.432 0.443 0.462
 Luxembourg 0.383 0.427 0.421 0.454 0.482
 Mexico 0.453 0.532 0.517 0.491 0.494
 Netherlands 0.426 0.473 0.474 0.484 0.424 0.426 0.426
 New Zealand 0.408 0.468 0.488 0.484 0.473 0.455
 Norway 0.351 0.404 0.426 0.447 0.410
 Poland 0.542 0.470
 Portugal 0.457 0.436 0.490 0.479 0.542 0.521
 Slovakia 0.458 0.416
 Slovenia 0.452 0.423
 South Korea 0.331 0.344
 Spain 0.461
 Sweden 0.389 0.404 0.408 0.438 0.446 0.432 0.426
 Switzerland 0.409
 Turkey 0.470
 United Kingdom 0.338 0.419 0.439 0.453 0.458 0.445 0.456
 United States 0.406 0.436 0.450 0.477 0.476 0.486 0.486

Gini coefficient, after taxes and transfers

Country mid-70s mid-80s ~ 1990 mid-90s ~ 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s
 
 Australia 0.309 0.317 0.315 0.336
 Austria 0.236 0.238 0.252 0.265 0.261
 Belgium 0.274 0.287 0.289 0.271 0.259
 Canada 0.304 0.293 0.287 0.289 0.318 0.317 0.324
 Chile 0.427 0.403 0.394
 Czech Republic 0.232 0.257 0.260 0.268 0.256
 Denmark 0.221 0.226 0.215 0.226 0.232 0.248
 Estonia 0.349 0.315
 Finland 0.235 0.209 0.218 0.247 0.254 0.259
 France 0.300 0.290 0.277 0.287 0.288 0.293
 Germany 0.251 0.256 0.266 0.264 0.285 0.295
 Greece 0.413 0.336 0.336 0.345 0.321 0.307
 Hungary 0.273 0.294 0.293 0.291 0.272
 Iceland 0.257 0.301
 Ireland 0.331 0.324 0.304 0.314 0.293
 Israel 0.326 0.329 0.338 0.347 0.378 0.371
 Italy 0.309 0.297 0.348 0.343 0.352 0.337
 Japan 0.304 0.323 0.337 0.321 0.329
 Luxembourg 0.247 0.259 0.261 0.258 0.288
 Mexico 0.452 0.519 0.507 0.474 0.476
 Netherlands 0.263 0.272 0.292 0.297 0.292 0.284 0.294
 New Zealand 0.271 0.318 0.335 0.339 0.335 0.330
 Norway 0.222 0.243 0.261 0.276 0.250
 Poland 0.316 0.349 0.305
 Portugal 0.354 0.329 0.359 0.356 0.385 0.353
 Slovakia 0.268 0.257
 Slovenia 0.246 0.236
 South Korea 0.306 0.315
 Spain 0.371 0.337 0.343 0.342 0.319 0.317
 Sweden 0.212 0.198 0.209 0.211 0.243 0.234 0.259
 Switzerland 0.279 0.276 0.303
 Turkey 0.434 0.490 0.430 0.409
 United Kingdom 0.268 0.309 0.354 0.336 0.351 0.331 0.345
 United States 0.316 0.337 0.348 0.361 0.357 0.380 0.378

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Serbia is a negotiating candidate to the EU.
  2. ^ Montenegro is a negotiating candidate to the EU.
  1. ^ The political status of Kosovo is disputed. Having unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008, Kosovo is formally recognised as an independent state by 97 UN member states, while Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

References

  1. ^ "Gini index (World Bank estimate)". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved .
  2. ^ Underground economy and income inequality: two connected aspects in the oncoming context of Italian federalism Archived 2012-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. By Iacopo Odoardi and Carmen Pagliari. Vol. 15 No. 1, 2011 Archived 2012-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. Global & Local Economic Review.
  3. ^ The Size of the Shadow Economies of 145 Countries all over the World: First Results over the Period 1999 to 2003. December 2004. By Friedrich Schneider (University of Linz and IZA Bonn). Institute for the Study of Labor.
  4. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. Retrieved 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d Monino, Jean-Louis; Sedkaoui, Soraya (2016-03-11). Data Development Mechanisms. Big Data, Open Data and Data Development. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 43-72. doi:10.1002/9781119285199.ch3. ISBN 978-1-119-28519-9. Retrieved .
  6. ^ Distribution of family income - Gini index, The World Factbook, CIA, accessed on September 24, 2020.
  7. ^ "Human Development Reports". UNDP. Retrieved .
  8. ^ a b "Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income - The World Factbook". CIA. Retrieved .
  9. ^ GINI Index for Montenegro (Report). 18 January 2018.

Further reading

External links


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