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List of Current Constituent African Monarchs
This is a list of reigning constituent monarchs, including traditional rulers and governing constitutional monarchs. Each monarch listed below reigns over a legally recognised dominion, but in most cases possess little or no sovereign governing power. Their titles, however, are recognised by the state. Entries are listed beside their respective dominions, and are grouped by country.
In 2004, the Mbeki administration established the Commission on Traditional Leadership Disputes and Claims (CTLDC) to determine the legitimacy of the nation's traditional kingships. The purpose of the commission was to reconstruct the institutions of indigenous leadership after their distortion under the colonial and apartheid regimes.
In July 2010, acting on the findings of the commission, the Zuma administration announced that the government would cease recognising a total of six of the thirteen traditional kingships upon the deaths of their incumbent monarchs. Their successors would be recognised as "principal traditional leaders", a status yet to be defined. The commission was denounced by several senior traditional leaders, who have taken the government to court in an attempt to reverse the ruling.
^ abThis paramount chieftaincy, reigning over all tribes of that particular nationality, was created by the government, a presidential prerogative guaranteed in the country's Constitution. Prior to its creation, the various tribal authorities remained independent of one another. Many chiefs have dismissed the notion that they are now subordinate to a centralised authority.
^The current chief, Willard Mswati Gomani, was appointed at his father's burial in 2009. He has not yet been formally enthroned. He is also a minor, and reigns under the regency of his aunt, Rosemary Malinki.
^Succession is hereditary within the royal family, but is subject to approval by five electing tribes: the Kel Owi, Kel Ferwan, Kel Fade, Imakkitan, and Ikaskazan.
^A clan of the Dinka people. The Ngok are traditionally divided into nine chiefdoms.
^The reigning king, considered by the Anuak to be a demigod, selects his heir from amongst his eligible sons.
^Date of formal enthronement. He was elected to the throne in 1992.
^The reth is chosen from the sons of previous kings, each belonging to one of three royal lineages: Kwathker, Gwang, and Nyidhok. The elected individual is traditionally said to be a reincarnation of the first reth, Nyikango wad Okwa.
^The last simbamwene (or sultan), Mputa II, died in 2000, and the throne has remained vacant since then. Another member of the family, Daniel Magogo, acts as prince regent.
^The last Ntemi -Lyaki ndilanha (or Ntemi), Ntemi-Lyaki Ndilanha, died in 1978, and the throne was transferred to his son Fumakule-Bunamiko-Ndilanha who remains to date although in a passive way because Ntemi Fumakule-Bunamiko-Ndilanha was Christianised. He acts as Clan head.
^ abAt the end of March 1821, the chiefdom of Aného became divided under two distinct royal lineages: the Adjigo at Nlessi, and the Lawson dynasty at Lolan. In each lineage, the next king is selected by a council of wisemen from amongst the male members of the royal family. The kings of Aného are traditionally subordinate to ruler of Glidji (see separate entry).
^Under the 1996 Constitution, the government of Zambia recognises 286 chiefs, 54 senior chiefs and five paramount chiefs. The paramount chiefs are those of the Lozi, Bemba, Chewa, Ngoni, and Lunda peoples, all of which are listed in the table above. The remainder listed here are considered senior chiefs.
^Succession to the throne of the chitimikulu is limited to male matrilineal members of the Bena Ng'andu. Tradition dictates that the throne passes to a son of the sisters of the previous chitimikulu. Selection is made by the royal Lamfya council.
^Born as Frederic Daka. His birth name, however, is no longer used.
^Since the succession of Agoli Agbo in 1989, there has been widespread controversy, resulting in a divide in the dynasty. On 22 January 2000, Dado Houédogni Béhanzin, a descendant of Chadakogundo Béhanzin (or Gbêhanzin, 1889-1894), and a longtime rival of the incumbent, was "enthroned" by his family and supporters as the rightful king, sparking a divide in the community. On 8 March 2010, the kingdom's traditional council determined Agoli Agbo as the sole legitimate ruler of Abomey. Béhanzin disputed the outcome, and the conflict continues. Since the beginning of the dispute, both men have been commonly styled "sa majesté" in the media, and both are considered major influential figures in tribal politics. Name is written variously as Agoli or Agboli, and Dedjani, Dedjlani, Dédjanlangni, or Dédjinnagni.
^ abA sept of the Borgou dynasty of the Bariba. The kings of Nikki are historically also of Boussa origin.
^The previous king of Parakou, the Akpaki Dagbara II, died in 2004, and the throne remained vacant for almost eight years. Two candidates, one designated by the Baparapé chief, the other by chief of Gbégourou, both customarily empowered to appoint the successor of a deceased king, had been battling for the throne. In October 2008, the traditional council was divided in its deciding election. The candidates, both of the Bourou dynasty, are N'Gobi Barthélémy and Yossounon Gobi.
^A sept of the Borgou dynasty. Succession is traditionally alternated between the Akpaki dynasty of the Bariba, and the Bourou dynasty of the Yoruba.
^The rulers of the eight paramount chiefdoms of the Tswana in Botswana hold the eight permanent seats in the country's Ntlo ya Dikgosi. The remainder of seats are held by chiefs from minority Tswana tribes, such as the Birwa, Kalaka, Kgalagadi, Sarwa, and Tswapong. These representatives are either elected or appointed for five-year terms.
^Also known as Lotlamoreng Montshiwa, or Lotlaamoreng Montshioa.
^Elected as paramount chief in June 2001. Sworn in the House of Chiefs on 28 February 2002.
^Kealitile Moremi took over as paramount chief from her brother Tawana II, who resigned in August 2003 in order to follow a career in politics. At present, she is only considered regent, and has not been formally enthroned.
^Elected as paramount chief on 18 March 2006. Coronation took place on 18 August 2007.
^The captaincy of the Basters, recognised as a traditional authority by the government of Namibia, is purely elective within the community. The kaptein is elected for life.
^The land of the Hai-khaua, a tribe of the Nama descended from the Oorlam. The community is also known as the "Berseba Oorlam" or "Berseba Nama".
^In 2010, the formerly divided Hai-khauan chiefdom of Berseba was reconciled under the cooperative leadership of the royal Goliath and Isaak clans. The two rival lineages had resulted from a succession dispute for the chieftaincy in the 1960s. Prior to the recent union, Stephanus had been the chief of the Goliath faction since 1976. Johannes Isaak had been the chief of his faction prior to the union also, but the date of his installation is unclear.
^The land of the Aman, a tribe of the Nama descended from the Oorlam. The community is also known as "Bethany", or subsequently the "Bethanien Nama".
^The incumbent kaptein, Anna Christiaan, no longer actively manages the tribe's affairs due to her poor health. Officially serving as acting chief is Josef Christiaan, whose position, however, is disputed by several senior members of the royal family, including Anna's son Jan Christiaan.
^Prior to formal enthronement as "king" (a title not recognised by the Namibian government), Justus previously reigned as acting paramount chief from 1982. He took over the leadership of the Chiefs' Council on 27 July 1977, following the death of Chief David Goreseb.
^A queen. Also known as Martha Kristian Nelumbu, or Martha Mwadinomho ya Nelumbu.
^The land of the Khowese, a tribe of the Nama descended from the Oorlam. The community is also known as the "Khowese Nama", or as "Gibeon" after the township.
^Acting chief only. Rooi took over administration of the traditional authority following the death of Hendrik Witbooi, a Christian minister and Namibia's first deputy prime minister. Rooi has not been formally mandated as chief.
^Within the Herero community, the Namibian government officially recognises six traditional authorities, each headed by its own royal house. The six are listed here, grouped by tribe. Officially, these are subordinate to a paramount chief in Okahandja, who is listed in the previous section. In addition, there are over 40 other Herero chiefs who remain unrecognised by the government, and are not constitutional traditional authorities.
^In 1999, Alfons was also proclaimed chief of the Tjamuaha clan by court order, deposing Frederik II. The Tjamuaha are among those clans not recognised as constitutional traditional authorities.
^The previous ombara of the Vita lineage was Kapuka Thom, who died in 2009. His successor has yet to be chosen.
^In April 2008, the CTLDC determined that the baKwêna (also spelled baKoena) ba Mopeli paramountcy was not a legitimate kingship, and hence in July 2010, the government announced that it would cease recognising it as such upon the death of the incumbent monarch.
^The present kgosi is a minor. His mother, Mathokwana Mopeli serves as regent on his behalf.
^Was declared the legitimate monarch by President Zuma
in July 2010, following the rulings of the CTLDC, Zuma replaced acting chief Kenneth Kgagudi Sekhukhune, who had been reigning in dispute since 1976.
^In April 2008, the CTLDC determined that the baTlôkwa (also spelled baTlokoa) ba Mota paramountcy was not a legitimate kingship, and hence in July 2010, the government announced that it would cease recognising it as such upon the death of the incumbent monarch.
^Also known as the ba ga Mokotleng, one of four main branches of the baTlôkwa. The others are: ba ga Bogatsu under Kgosi Mokalake Motsatsi, ba ga Sedumedi under Kgosi Sedumedi Kenneth Sedumedi (who died 25 September 2007), and the ba ga Gaborone in Botswana. The ba Mota are the only recognised paramountcy of the baTlôkwa in South Africa, although this will soon change (see note above).
^Since the death of Faku in 1867, the amaMpondo (also amaPondo, or amaPonda) have effectively been divided under two royal lineages: the Mqikela line (aseQaukeni), and the Ndamase line (aseNyandeni). In April 2008, however, the CTLDC determined that the kings of the Mqikela lineage were the kings of all amaMpondo, and that the Nyandeni paramountcy was not a legitimate kingship. In July 2010, it was announced that the aseNyandeni's present status as a kingship would cease to be recognised as such by the government upon the death of the incumbent king, whose successor will instead be considered a "principal traditional leader", a status yet to be defined.
^Following the rulings of the CTLDC in July 2010, the Zuma administration officially removed the then-king Mpondombini Thandizulu Sigcawu, and replaced him with Zanozuko Sigcawu, identified as the rightful king by the commission. Mpondombini, who had been ruling since 1 December 1978, was among several traditional leaders to denounce the Commission's findings, and has since taken the government to court in an attempt to reverse the ruling and regain his throne. The hearings began in August 2010. Zanozuko, the king recognised by the government, has yet to be crowned.
^ abA sept of the Nyawuza clan of the amaMpondo. The amaMpondo are descended from Mpondo, the twin brother of Mpondomise.
^Coronation took place 12 April 2008. Ndamase was nominated successor to his grandfather, the previous king, upon the elder's death on 21 February 1997. As he was still a minor, however, his mother Queen Bongolethu Dlamini, a descendant of the Swazi royal family, served as the kingdom's regent until his formal assumption of the throne in 2008.
^Since the death of Musi in 1630, the amaNdebele kingdom has effectively been divided under two royal lineages: the kaManala, and the kaNdzundza. In April 2008, however, the CTLDC determined that the kings of the elder Manala lineage were the kings of all amaNdebele, and that the Ndzundza paramountcy was not a legitimate kingship. In July 2010, it was announced that the Ndzundza's present status as a kingship would cease to be recognised as such by the government upon the death of the incumbent king, whose successor will instead be considered a "principal traditional leader", a status yet to be defined.
^Full name is Makhosoke Enoch Mabhena; also occasionally spelled "Makhosoke".
^A sept of the Manala clan of the amaNdebele. The current royal family has the surname Mabhena, also occasionally misspelled "Mabena".
^In the Ndebele tradition, following the death of a king the family nominates a successor and gives him a regnal name, which he will use from the day he is crowned. Mbusi has been elected, but has not yet been formally enthroned. His regnal name will be "Mabhoko III". However, as of 2 February 2007, Mbusi has been suspended as king by the royal council. A regent, Sililo Mahlangu, was appointed on 4 February 2007 to act on the king's behalf while the council deliberates on his alleged misconduct.
^A sept of the Ndzundza clan of the amaNdebele. The current royal family has the surname Mahlangu.
^Since 1865, the abaThembu have effectively been divided under two royal lineages: the bakaDalindyebo (baseBumbane), and the bakaMatanzima (baseRhoda). In April 2008, however, the CTLDC determined that the kings of the Dalindyebo lineage were the kings of all abaThembu, and that the Rhoda paramountcy was not a legitimate kingship. In July 2010, it was announced that the baseRhoda's present status as a kingship would cease to be recognised as such by the government upon the death of the incumbent king, whose successor will instead be considered a "principal traditional leader", a status yet to be defined. According to some reports, the late king Lwandile Zwelenkosi, who died in May 2010, was officially considered the last king.
^Full name is Buyelekhaya Zwelinbanzi Dalindyebo a Sabata.
^During a leave of study between 2000 and August 2002, the king's wife Noluntu and brother Jongisizwe Dalindyebo acted as regents on his behalf. In May 2005, Buyelekhaya was indicted on charges of fraud, culpable homicide, assault, kidnapping, and arson. He is appealing against a 15-year jail term. Queen Noluntu and senior chief Jonginyaniso Mtirara are serving as regents while the monarch is in and out of prison.
^ abA sept of the amaDlomo clan of the abaThembu. It is also known as the amaHala, or Madiba clan; each name styled after one of the earliest kings, descendants of the kingdom's founder, Nxeko.
^For centuries, the vhaVenda have effectively been divided under several royal lineages. Among these, the haRamabulana, the haTshivhase, and the haMphaphuli were eventually recognised as separate traditional authorities by the government. The kingship, however, disputed between an even larger number of clans, was considered to be effectively defunct until July 2010, when the CTLDC determined to restore the vhaVenda kingship under the haRamabulana. The commission determined that the kings of the Ramabulana were the kings of all vhaVenda, thereby rejecting the appeals of two other claimants: the Ravhura clan under Azwianewi David Mutshinyalo Ravhura, and the vhaNgona tribe under Tshidziwelele Azwidowi Nephawe, both of which were officially under the jurisdiction of the haTshivhase. The commission also rejected the respective appeals of the haTshivhase and haMphaphuli to establish new kingships separate to that of the vhaVenda.
^ abcA clan of the Masingo (also known as the maKhwinde, or maKwinda) tribe of the vhaVenda. Although the title thovele (or thovela) is most common, kings are also formally styled khosikhulu vho, or simply khosi.
^Since the death of Phalo in 1775, the amaXhosa have effectively been divided under two kingdoms (see note below). However, in April 2008, the CTLDC determined that the kings of the Gcaleka lineage were the kings of all amaXhosa, and that the Rharhabe paramountcy was not a legitimate kingship. In July 2010, it was announced that the Rharhabe's present status as a kingship would cease to be recognised as such by the government upon the death of the incumbent king, whose successor will instead be considered a "principal traditional leader", a status yet to be defined.
^ abcdefA Xhosa dynasty. All current Xhosa monarchs are genealogical members of the amaTshawe clan, the royal line of the amaXhosa which is styled after Tshawe, descended from Xhosa, a son of Mnguni. The royal line is divided into two primary lineages descended from the sons of Phalo: the amaGcaleka, descended from Gcaleka, and the amaRharhabe, descended from Rharhabe. The amaGcaleka are the senior line, and its king is to some extent deferred to by all the others. The amaRharhabe represents the junior line, from which also descend the Kings of the imiDushane, amaGasela, amaNdlambe, and imiQhayi, listed separately. The ruling line of the amaRharhabe is that of the amaNgqika, descended from Mlawu.
^Full name is Maxhob'ayakhawuleza Sandile a Mxolisi, but is most commonly known as "Maxhoba".
^The Zulu kingdom is traditionally a paramount authority, with a number of subordinate chiefdoms. Most prominent among these chiefdoms is that of the Buthelezi, whose current chief (or inkosi) is Mangosuthu Gatsha.
^Midiyavhathu was installed as heir to the throne of the Tshivhase lineage in 1970. He was, however, considered too young to rule, and his uncle John Shavhani Tshivhase was appointed as regent until it was deemed appropriate for the new king to assume effective office, which he did in 1993. His name is also often spelled "Midiavhathu".
^The previous queen, Modjadji VI, died in 2005. Her daughter and heiress, Princess Masalanabo, is still a child, and will be eligible to be enthroned as Modjadji VII when she comes of age and once she has produced an heiress of her own by her royal suitor. Her succession rights, however, have not been universally accepted by the royal council since her father is a commoner. Her uncle Prince Mpapatla serves as regent. He has had a daughter by his cousin of the royal bloodline. Consequently, a faction of the royal council would prefer to enthrone Mpapatla's daughter when she comes of age. He, however, maintains that the true heir is Masalanabo, who has been accepted as heiress for now, though this may change before she comes of age.
^The "Rain Queens" of the baLobedu ba ga Modjadji are descended from the Monomatapa dynasty in modern Zimbabwe.
^Succession is matrilineal. The queen is constitutionally unwed, although she may produce children.
^The Le Fleur lineage is based in Kranshoek, Western Cape.
^The Kok lineage is based in Campbell, Northern Cape.
^Otherwise known as Muziwenkosi Johannes Hadebe ka Tatazela. The royal clan name, Hadebe, is also often spelled "Radebe".
^Supremacy among the Mpondomise is disputed between two primary factions: the Jola and the Dosini, both branches of the Majola dynasty. Contenders from the Dosini clan are Zanexhoba Tonjeni and Masibulele Maseti. The most recent claimant from the Jola clan was Loyiso Matiwane, who died 12 June 2007. He was a direct descendant of Mhlontlo, the last reigning king, who was stripped of his kingship by the colonial government around 1904 (died in 1912). Since then, the throne of the Mpondomise has been disputed, and has failed to regain recognition from the government as a traditional kingship.
^Date of coronation. The Ker Kwaro Acholi chieftaincy was recognised by the government on 17 January 2005. He has been the chief of the Payira clan since 1999.
^The tribal confederation of the Alur historically comprises 64 chiefdoms and Clanship (56 in Uganda i.e. from Junam, Padyere and Okoro; and 8 in Democratic Republic of Congo)under the Ubimu (King). Its population is about 10,000,000 people across two countries. Alur Kingdom was recognised by the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda in 2008. It is the Kingdom that was never abolished by Ugandan government during the 1966 when King Jalusiga Rauni II was sitting at the throne. All the different Chiefdoms, Chieflets and clanships pay allegiance to Ubimu as the main holder of the Royal Spear Head(Leb tong). The different sub tribes that were assimilated under the Alur tribe are the Lendu, Kebu, Jonam and Madi during the pre colonial Uganda (Aidan 1953). The tradition of holding royal spearhead has been since there since time immemorial. All son of the Ubimu have since been allowed to start their own chiedoms in order not to cause power wrangles from the main Kingdom palace at Kaal Atyak winam Zombo district. Alur Kingdom first started as a Nuer Kingdom under King Ngur I in around 870 A.D at Aswan, Southern Egypt and later transformed to Lwo Atyak Kingdom under King Ulwo Atyak in Wau, Barelghazal southern Sudan. Reaching northern Uganda and especially around Karuma river, the Lwo Atyak under King Kyabambe Ulum had a major separation and disintegration. Then Queen Nyilak took over and later abdicated the throne to her son Nyipir. It was king Nyipir who started the Alur Kingdom in around 15th Century in Pakwach near River Nile.His Kingdom holds all the Lwo Royal Spear Head as per the Tradition. Today the Ubimu is the most powerful ruler in northern Uganda West of the Nile river. Administratively, Ubimu is assisted by Jadipu (Prime Minister - Rt. Hon. Wathum Edwin Djalkwiyu) who has the same hereditary significance as a ruler.
^Formally enthroned on 19 May 2006 and crowned as on 31 October 2010.
^Ankole, historically referred to as Nkore, was nominally revived as a traditional kingdom with the coronation of Rutashijuka Ntare IV in November 1993. It has remained unrecognised by the Ugandan government, however, and the coronation was declared illegitimate and void by the country's president. The current king has reigned in pretendence since the death of his predecessor in April 1979.
^Muwenda Mutebi succeeded as head of the royal household upon the death of his father on 21 November 1969. He was formally invested as Ssabataka (head of the royal clans and chief landowner) on 4 April 1971. He was officially proclaimed as kabaka upon the restoration of the kingdom, 24 July 1993. His coronation took place 31 July 1993. He has also assumed the additional name of "Kimera".
^Muwenda Mutebi succeeded as head of the royal household upon the death of his father in 1971. He was officially proclaimed as omukama upon the restoration of the kingdom, 24 July 1993. His coronation took place 11 June 1994.
^Kintu Mubala Samuku succeeded as head of the Bagwere upon the death of Papa Komolo. He was formally installed as Ikumbania (head of the eighty Gwere clans) on 14 November 2009. He was officially proclaimed as Ikumbania upon the restoration of the kingdom, 1995. His coronation took place 14 November 2009
^Katunku VII succeeded as head of the Basimba Leopard Clan royal household upon the death of his father on 10 October 1955. He was formally installed as Chishimba (head of the four Basimba clans) on 24 September 1989. He was officially proclaimed as Chishimba upon the restoration of the kingdom, 24 July 1993. His coronation took place 10 October 1955. He has also assumed the additional name of "Musimba".
^. He was formally installed as Umukuka (head of the twenty five Gisu clans) on 24 September 2016. He was officially proclaimed as Umukuka upon the restoration of the kingdom, 1995. His coronation took place 24 September 2016
^Busoga is a traditional confederation of eleven clan domains. There are five royal clans (Bugabula, Bukono, Bulamogi, Kigulu, and Luuka) and six traditional chiefdoms (Bugweri, Bukooli, Bunya, Bunyole, Busiki, and Butembe). The royal clans form the five royal families of the Basoga. Each of the hereditary chiefs and princes of the confederation are listed in a separate section in the table.
^The previous kyabazinga, Henry Wako Muloki of Bulamogi, died on 1 September 2008. His son, Edward Columbus Wambuzi, was announced as his successor following contentious elections on 31 October 2008. However, five of the eleven royal chiefs denounced the new king, instead endorsing William Nadiope IV, of Bugabula. The Ugandan government advised the parties to hold another election, and an interim order was served to Wambuzi in May 2009 restraining him from holding office. On 7 June 2009, however, Wambuzi was installed on the throne amidst protests from other chiefs. He also secured a court order blocking the planned re-elections. These took place in secret on 5 October 2009, when Nadiope IV was elected unopposed. The High Court is to start hearing the cases in November 2010, but the clan heads have vowed to install Nadiope IV on the throne before September, despite the standing judicial injunctions blocking the enthronement of either contender.
^The kyabazinga is elected for life by the Royal Council, composed of the eleven hereditary chiefs of the kingdom. Selection is limited to members of the five royal clans of the Basoga.
^ abcThe throne is traditionally supposed to rotate among the numerous clans.
^They belong to the Lwo rulership but not of the Atyak genealogy. The Jonam means people of the lake or stays near the river thus river Nile by location. Today after the declarance of Alur as a kingdom, they began to pay allegiance to Ubimu of Alur as per the constitution of Uganda; although maintain their own administrative sovereignty. Not all the chiefdoms and clanships in Junam belong to the same origin. Some like Ragem, Paroketo and Panyimur came from Bunyoro and the ones that want separation yet few in number while some like Amor, Pangyeth, Boro, Panyigoro, Alwi, among the 14 chiefdoms came from Nyipir lineage of the Lwo Atyak rulership, now with Ubimu Rauni III of Alur. That is why today, Junam is entirely claimed by Ragem - which is the only strongest chiefdom in Junam county of Nebbi District as designated by Mr. White Weatherhead during the British colonisation of Uganda and West Nile in particular.
^historically, the kebu had no chieftainship but stayed with the Alur Kings/ Chiefs as pages who produced farming implements (Aidan, 1953). Today they are trying to fight for constitution recognition and proper formation of a Chiefship. Asked about their first chief no one can tell, a testimony that their desire for chiefship is a modern construct.
^A clan of the Kebu people. The current chief belongs to the Waringu family and still is being contested.
^The kamuswaga belongs to the Ndawula Lwabulanga lineage of the Babito clan.
^Elected to the throne by clan leaders on 17 August 2001.
^Elected to the throne by clan leaders on 19 September 1998.
^The current king, Charles Mumbere, was first proclaimed as "Kibanzanga II" on 19 October 1966. He reigned as a minor, in pretendence, under a regency council until 1972, when he took the regnal name "Irema-Ngoma I". His kingdom was officially abolished by the Ugandan government on 8 September 1967, but effectively continued in armed opposition until 15 August 1982, when the king's forces surrendered and Mumbere was officially appointed as "chief elder" of the district. Rwenzururu was officially restored by the government as a traditional kingdom on 17 March 2008, and recognition was confirmed by the President at the king's coronation anniversary on 19 October 2009.
^ abCammack, Diana; Kanyongolo, Edge; O'Neil, Tam (June 2009). "'Town Chiefs' in Malawi". Africa Power and Politics Programme. London: Overseas Development Institute. 3 (June 2009): 14-20. Retrieved 2010..
^Ministère de la Culture, des Arts et de la Communication (26 May 2006). "Palais du Zarmakoye de Dosso" (in French). World Heritage Centre, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation. Retrieved 2010.
^Cloete, Luqman; Maletsky, Christof (14 October 2009). "Reverend Witbooi passes". The Namibian. Windhoek: The Namibian. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
^Soszynski, Henry. "Witbooi". Genealogical Gleanings. University of Queensland. Retrieved 2010.
^Soszynski, Henry. "baPedi". Genealogical Gleanings. University of Queensland. Retrieved 2010.
^Commission on Traditional Leadership Disputes and Claims (29 April 2008). "Determination on Bapedi paramountcy". Government of South Africa, Department of Provincial and Local Government. Retrieved 2010.
^Soszynski, Henry. "amaNdebele kaNdzundza". Genealogical Gleanings. University of Queensland. Archived from the original on 30 March 2009. Retrieved 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
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