List of Emirs of Harar
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List of Emirs of Harar
Emirate of Harar

1647-1887
The Emirate of Harar c. 1873
The Emirate of Harar c. 1873
CapitalGe
Common languagesArabic, Harari, Somali, Oromo
Religion
Sunni Islam
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
Emir 
o early 17th century
`Ali ibn Da`ud
o 19th century
Abdullahi II
History 
o Established
1647
o Disestablished
1887
CurrencyMahlak
Preceded by
Succeeded by

The Emirate of Harar was founded in 1647 when the Harari people refused to accept Im?m ?Umard?n ?dan as their ruler and broke away from the Imamate of Aussa to form their own state under `Ali ibn Da`ud. Prior to its invasion by Shewan forces under Menelik II, the League of Nations noted that the Harar kingdom made up the area between the rivers Awash and Shebelle while the Ogaden was a tributary state.[1] Originally however the Harar Emirate composed of present-day Somaliland and to south of eastern Ethiopia including the Arsi Province.[2] Harar also dominated trade in Shewa. Harar's influence began shrinking in the nineteenth century possibly due to lack of resources and famine.[3][4] Like all Muslim states in the area, the Emirate of Harar was technically under the protection of the Ottoman Empire. Egypt annexed the Emirate of Harar in 1875. The British Empire defeated the Khedivate and occupied its territories in 1882 including Harar, but the British agreed to evacuate Harar and essentially cede the city to the Ethiopian Empire's sphere of influence in exchange for assistance against Mahdist forces in Sudan. As per the terms of their agreement (the Hewett Treaty), the British withdrew from Harar in 1884, leaving the city to the son of the former Emir of Harar with a few hundred rifles, some cannon and a handful of British trained officers. The Emirate would be finally destroyed and annexed by the armies of Negus Sahle Maryam of Showa (the future Emperor Menelik II) in 1887 following the Emirate's defeat at the Battle of Chelenqo.

Emirs of Harar (Ali Dynasty)

Name Reign Note
1 Founder of the Emirate of Harar
2 Son of Em?r ?Ali
3 Son of Em?r ?Ali
4 Son of Em?r ?Abdullah
5 Son of Em?r ?Abdullah
6 Son of Em?r Ab?bakar
7 Son of Em?r Ab?bakar
8 Son of Em?r Ab?bakar
9 Son of Em?r Ab?bakar
10 Son of Em?r Y?suf
11 Son of Em?r Y?suf
12 Son of Em?r Ma?amed
13 Son of Em?r Ma?amed
14 Son of Em?r Ma?amed
15 Grandson of Em?r Ma?amed
16 Son of Em?r Ab?bakar
17 Son of Em?r ?Abdalshak?r, deposed by the Khedivate of Egypt
-- Egypt annexed Harar in 1875
-- Britain annexed Egypt in 1882, subsequently occupying Harar
18 Son of Em?r Ma?amed (17), his rule and Harar's briefly renewed independence were both ended by the invasion of Harar by the Shewa kingdom in 1887.

See also

References

  1. ^ Ethiopia: land of slavery & brutality (PDF). League of Nations. 1935. p. 2.
  2. ^ Ben-Dror, Avishai (2018). Emirate, Egyptian, Ethiopian: Colonial Experiences in Late Nineteenth-Century Harar. Syracuse University Press. p. 100. ISBN 9780815654315.
  3. ^ Ben-Dror, Avishai (2018). Emirate, Egyptian, Ethiopian: Colonial Experiences in Late Nineteenth-Century Harar. Syracuse University Press. p. 100. ISBN 9780815654315.
  4. ^ History of Harar (PDF). p. 83.

Further reading

  • Avishai Ben-Dror (2018): "Emirate, Egyptian, Ethiopian: Colonial Experiences in Late Nineteenth-Century Harar"

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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