List of Geochronologic Names
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List of Geochronologic Names

This is a list of official and unofficial names for time spans in the geologic timescale and units of chronostratigraphy. Since many of the smallest subdivisions of the geologic timescale were in the past defined on regional lithostratigraphic units, there are many alternative names that overlap. The body concerned with standardizing the names of geochronologic units is the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). In 2008 however, even though the Phanerozoic eon is almost completely divided into internationally recognizable units, local subdivisions are often still preferred over the international ones.

List

Sortable table
Name (English)[1] base/start (Ma)[2] top/end (Ma)[2] status subdivision of usage named after author, year
Aalenian 175.6 ± 2.0 171.6 ± 3.0 age Jurassic ICS Aalen (Germany) Mayer-Eymar, 1864
Abereiddian 471.8 ± 1.6 464 age Ordovician regional Abereiddy (Wales) Fortey et al., 1995
Actonian 454 453 age Ordovician regional Acton Scott (England) Bancroft, 1929
Adelaidean 1,300 542 age Proterozoic Australia Adelaide
Aegean 245 ± 1.5 244 age Triassic Europe Aegean Sea Tozer, 1967
Aeronian 439.0 ± 1.8 436.0 ± 1.9 age Silurian ICS Cwm-coed-aeron (Wales) Cocks et al., 1971
Aftonian 0.6 0.48 age Pleistocene North America Chamberlin, 1895
Agenian 23 20.4 ELMMZ Miocene Europe Agen (France) Alberdi & Aguirre, 1977
Aimchanian 1100 age Proterozoic Siberia
Aksayan 493 491.5 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan Ergaliev, 1980
Alaunian 216 211 sub-age Triassic Europe
Albertan epoch Cambrian North America Dawson, 1895
Albian 112.0 ± 1.0 99.6 ± 0.9 age Cretaceous ICS Albia, Latin name of the river Aube (France) d'Orbigny, 1842
Alding(i)an 36 30 age Eocene Australia
Algonkian 543 age Proterozoic international Algonquian native peoples of Canada Powell, 1890
Allerød 13,350 BP 12,700 BP chronozone Weichselian Northern Europe Allerød (Denmark) Haltz & Milthers, 1901
Alportian 324.5 318.1 ± 1.3 age Carboniferous regional Alport (England) Ramsbotton, 1979
Altonian 19.0 15.9 age Miocene New Zealand Alton Burn, Southland Region Frye & Wilmann, 1960
Amazonian ~1,800 present Martian epoch Martian epoch Mars Amazonis Planitia Greeley & Spudis, 1981
Amgan 513.0 ± 2.0 502 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan Guarari, 1955
Amstelian 2.588 2.40 super-age Pleistocene Netherlands river Amstel Harmer, 1896
Anglian 0.465 0.418 age Pleistocene Great Britain East Anglia
Animikean 2,225 1,400 age Proterozoic North America (obsolete) Hunt, 1873
Anisian 245.0 ± 1.5 237.0 ± 2.0 age Triassic ICS Anisus, Latin name for the river Enns (Austria) Mojsisovics, 1869
Antian ~2.12 ~2.0 age Pleistocene Great Britain River Ant (England) West, 1962
Antwerpian ± 21 ± 12 age Miocene Belgium (obsolete) Antwerp Gogels, 1879
Aphebian 2500 1600 age Proterozoic North America Stockwell, 1964
Aptian 125.0 ± 1.0 112.0 ± 1.0 age Cretaceous ICS Apt (France) d'Orbigny, 1840
Aquatraversian 2.588 2.4 age Pleistocene Italy
Aquilan 85.2 82.2 NALMA Cretaceous North America Russell, 1975
Aquitanian 23.03 20.43 age Miocene ICS Aquitaine Mayer-Eymar, 1857
Archean 4,000 2,500 eon ICS Dana, 1876
Arenig(-ian) epoch Ordovician Europe Arenig Fawr (Wales) Sedgwick, 1847; Fearnsides 1905
Arikareean 30.8 20.6 super-age Oligo-Miocene North America Wood "et al.", 1941
Arnold 43.0 34.3 epoch Paleogene New Zealand Arnold River Kingma, 1962
Arnsbergian 326 325 sub-age Carboniferous regional Hudson & Cotton, 1943
Arowhanan 95.2 92.1 age Cretaceous New Zealand Arowhana Wellman, 1959
Arshantan 52.1 46.2 ALMA Eocene Asia Romer, 1966
Artinskian 284.4 ± 0.7 275.6 ± 0.7 age Permian ICS Arti (Russia) Karpinsky, 1874
Arundian 341 339 age Carboniferous regional from Hobbyhorse Bay, Castlemartin, Pembrokeshire, Wales (arundo is Latin for hobbyhorse) Ramsbotton, 1974
Asbian 337.5 333 age Carboniferous regional Little Asby Scar, Cumbria, England Ramsbotton, 1979
Ashbyan age Ordovician North America
Ashgill(-ian) epoch Ordovician Europe Ash Gill near Coniston, Cumbria[3] Marr, 1905
Asselian 299.0 ± 0.8 294.6 ± 0.8 age Permian ICS river Assel (Kazakhstan) Ruzhenchev, 1954
Astaracian 15 11.1 ELMMZ Miocene Europe The Astarac (France) Alberdi & Aguirre, 1977
Asturian 305 age Carboniferous Europe Asturias Stille, 1920
Atdabanian 530 524 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan Pelman, 1977
Atlantic 5,660 BP 9,220 BP chronozone Holocene Northern Europe the Atlantic Ocean Blytt, 1876
Atokan age Carboniferous North America Spivey & Roberts, 1946
Aurelucian 460.9 457 age Ordovician Europe
Austinian age Cretaceous south and east of the US Austin, Texas Murray, 1961
Autunian ~300 ~275 age Carboniferous-Permian Europe Autun (France) Munier-Chalmas & Lapparent, 1893
Avernian 29.2 23.03 ELMMZ Oligocene Europe
Awamoan 20.0 17.5 age Miocene New Zealand Thompson, 1916
Ayusokkanian 501.0 ± 2.0 494.5 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan Geyer & Shergold, 2000
Azoic see Archean
Badenian[4] 16.3 12.8 age Miocene Paratethys Baden (Austria) Papp & Cicha, 1968
Baikalian 850 650 age Proterozoic Siberia Lake Baikal Pavloski, 1948
Bairnsdalian 15.0 10.5 age Miocene Australia
Baishaean 433 429 age Silurian China Lu et al., 1974
Bajocian 171.6 ± 3.0 167.7 ± 3.5 age Jurassic ICS Bayeux (France) d'Orbigny,1844
Balcombian 15.5 15.0 age Miocene Australia Hall & Pritchard, 1902
Baotan 460.9 454.5 age Ordovician China
Barremian 130.0 ± 1.5 125.0 ± 1.0 age Cretaceous ICS Barrême (France) Coquand, 1873
Barruelian age Carboniferous Europe George & Wagner, 1972
Barstovian 16.3 13.6 age Miocene North America Wood "et al.", 1941
Bartonian 37.2 ± 0.1 40.4 ± 0.2 age Eocene ICS Barton-on-Sea (South England) Mayer-Eymar, 1857
Bashkirian 318.1 ± 1.3 311.7 ± 1.1 age Carboniferous ICS Bashkortostan Semikhatova, 1934
Basin Groups 1-9 4,150 3,850 subperiod Prenectarium Moon (unofficial) groups of impact basins
Batesfordian 16.5 15.5 age Miocene Australia Chapman & Singleton, 1923
Bathonian 167.7 ± 3.5 164.7 ± 4.0 age Jurassic ICS Bath (England) D´Orbigny, 1852
Batyrbayan 491.5 488.3 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan Apollonov & Chugaeva, 1983
Bavel Interglacial 1.03 0.96 age Pleistocene Netherlands Bavel Zagwijn & De Jong, 1964
Bavelian 1.03 0.85 super-age Pleistocene Netherlands Bavel Zawijn & De Jong, 1964
Baventian ~2.0 ~1.87 age Pleistocene Great Britain Easton Bavents (England) West, 1961
Bedoulian 129.97 125.0 sub-age Cretaceous regional Toucas, 1873
Beestonian 1.77 ~0.8 age Pleistocene Great Britain Beeston, Norfolk (England) West & Wilson, 1966
Belvédère Interglacial 0.338 0.324 age Pleistocene Netherlands quarry "Belvédère" (Maastricht)
Bendigonian 473.5 471.8 age Ordovician Australia Bendigo, Victoria Benson & Keble, 1935
Berriasian 145.5 ± 4.0 140.2 ± 3.0 age Cretaceous ICS Berrias (France) Coquand, 1871
Biber Glacial ~2.5 2.35 age Pleistocene Alps river Biber (Germany) Schaefer, 1953
Biber-Donau age Pleistocene Alps
Blancan 4.9 1.8 age Plio-Pleistocene North America Wood "et al", 1941
Black River(-an) age Ordovician) North America Vanuxem, 1842
Bolderian <21 >16 age Miocene Belgium (obsolete) Bolderberg Dumont, 1850
Bolindian 450 443.7 age Ordovician Australia Webby, 1976
Bølling 13,730 BP 13,480 BP chronozone Weichselian Northern Europe Bølling Sø (Denmark) Iversen, 1942
Bolsovian age Carboniferous Europe Bolsover (England) Jongsmans, 1928
Boomerangian 504 501 age Cambrian Australia Öpik, 1979
Boreal 10,640 BP 9,220 BP chronozone Holocene Northern Europe boreal zone in ecology Blytt, 1876
Bortonian 43.0 37.0 age Eocene New Zealand Bortons Hornibrook, 1961
Botomian 524 518.5 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan Repina, 1964
Bramertonian ~2.12 ~2.0 age Pleistocene Great Britain Bramerton Pits (England) Funnell, Norton, West and Mayhew, 1979
Bridgerian 50.3 46.2 age Eocene North America Wood et al., 1941
Brigantian 336 326.4 ± 1.6 age Carboniferous North America, Europe Brigantes (Celtic tribe) Ramsbotton, 1979
Brioverian ~680 ~600 age Neoproterozoic Armorican Massif, France Barrois, 1899
Brüggenian 2.588 2.4 chronozone Pleistocene Northwest Europe
Brunssumian 5.3 3.6 chronozone Pliocene Northwest Europe Brunssum (The Netherlands) Zagwijn, 1960
Bulitian 55.8 53 age Eocene California Mallory, 1959
Bumbanian 55.7 52.1 ALMA Eocene Asia Russell & Zhai, 1987
Buntsandstein[5] 251.0 ± 0.4 246.6[6] epoch/subperiod Triassic Europe German: bunte Sandstein = coloured sandstone Von Alberti, 1834
Burdigalian 20.43 15.97 age Miocene ICS Latin: Burdigala = Bordeaux (France) Depéret, 1892
Burrellian 457 455 age Ordovician Europe Glenburrell (England) Fortey "et al.", 1995
Burzyan 1,400 1,375 age Proterozoic Russia Kefler, 1952
Caerfai 542 ± 0.2 513 ± 2 age Cambrian Europe (obsolete) Caerfai Bay (Wales) Cowie "et al.", 1972
Calabrian 1.806 0.781 age Pleistocene Southern Europe Calabria Gignoux, 1913
Callovian 164.7 ± 4.0 161.2 ± 4.0 age Jurassic ICS Kellaways (England) d'Orbigny, 1849
Calymmian 1,600 1,400 period Proterozoic ICS Plumb, 1991
Cambrian 542.0 ± 1.0 488.3 ± 1.7 period Paleozoic ICS Cambria (Latin for Wales) Sedgwick, 1835
Campanian 83.5 ± 0.7 70.6 ± 0.6 age Cretaceous ICS Champagne (France) Coquand, 1857
Canadian epoch Ordovician North America
Cantabrian 305 age Carboniferous Europe Wagner, 1965
Capitanian 265.8 ± 0.7 260.4 ± 0.7 age Permian ICS Capitan Reef (Texas, US) Richardson, 1904
Caradocian 460.9 449.5 epoch Ordovician Europe Caradoc (Welsh king) Murchison, 1839
Carboniferous 359.2 ± 2.5 299.0 ± 0.8 period Paleozoic ICS carbon Conybeare & Phillips, 1822
Carixian 189.6 ± 1.5 sub-age Jurassic regional Lang, 1913
Carnian 228.0 ± 2.0 216.5 ± 2.0 age Triassic ICS Carnic Alps (Austria) Mojsisovics, 1869
Carpentarian 1,800 1,300 age Proterozoic Australia Gulf of Carpentaria Dunn et al., 1966
Casamajoran 54 48 age Eocene South America Pascual, 1965
Cassian 1.1 0.8 age Pleistocene Italy Mayer-Eymar, 1888
Cassinian 473 471.8 sub-age Ordovician North America Flower, 1957
Castlecliffian 1.63 0.34 age Pleistocene New Zealand Castlecliff Thompson, 1916
Castlemanian 471 470 age Ordovician Australia Castlemaine Strachan, 1972
Cautleyan 447.5 446.5 age Ordovician Europe Cautley Spout (England) Marr, 1914
Cayugan 421.3 ± 2.6 416.0 ± 2.8 age Silurian North America Clark & Schuchert, 1898
Cenomanian 99.6 ± 0.9 93.5 ± 0.8 age Cretaceous ICS Latin: Cenomanium = Le Mans (France) d'Orbigny, 1847
Cenozoic 65.5 ± 0.3 present era Phanerozoic ICS new life Phillips, 1847
Cernaysian 55.9 55.0 ELMMZ Paleocene Europe Lemoine, 1880
Chadian 345.3 ± 2.1 341 age Carboniferous regional St Chad, Chatburn, Lancashire Ramsbotton, 1979
Chadronian 38.0 33.9 age Eocene North America Wood "et al.", 1941
Chamovnicheskian 306 305 age Carboniferous Russia
Champlanian epoch Ordovician North America Emmons, 1842
Changhsingian 253.8 ±0.7 251.0 ± 0.4 age Permian ICS Changxing (China) Sheng, 1963
Changlangpuan 523 518 age Cambrian China
Changshanian 496.8 492.5 age Cambrian China Walcott, 1913
Chapadmalalan 4.0 3.0 age Pliocene South America Kraglievich, 1930
Chasicoan 10.0 9.0 age Miocene South America Cabrera & Kraglievich, 1928
Chatauquan 370 359.2 ± 2.5 age Devonian South America Clark & Schuchert 1898
Chattian 28.4 ± 0.1 23.03 age Oligocene ICS Chatti (ancient Germanic tribe) Fuchs, 1894
Chautauquan age Devonian North America
Chazyan age Ordovician North America Kay, 1958
Cheltenhamian 5.0 4.3 age Pliocene Australia Mayer-eymar, 1881
Cheneyan 455 452 age Ordovician Europe
Cheremshankian 314.5 313.4 age Carboniferous Russia Aisenverg, 1979
Chesterian 333 318.1 age Carboniferous North America Worthen, 1860
Chewtonian 473 471 age Ordovician Australia Harris & Thomas, 1938
Chokierian 325 324.5 sub-age Carboniferous regional Chokier, Belgium Hodson (1957)
Cincinnatian 451 443.7 ± 1.5 epoch Ordovician North America Cincinnati Meek & Worthen, 1865
Cisuralian 299.0 ± 0.8 270.6 ± 0.7 epoch Permian ICS Waterhouse, 1982
Clansayesian 115.0 112.0 sub-age Cretaceous Breistroffer, 1947
Clarendonian 13.6 10.3 age Miocene North America Wood "et al.", 1941
Clarkforkian 56.8 55.4 age Paleo-Eocene North America Granger, 1914
Clifdenian 15.9 15.1 age Miocene New Zealand Clifden Fleming, 1959
Colhuehuapian 21.0 17.5 age Miocene South America Flynn " et al.", 1995
Colloncuran 15.5 13.8 age Miocene South America Groeber, 1929
Coniacian 89.3 ± 1.0 85.8 ± 0.7 age Cretaceous ICS Cognac (France) Coquand, 1857
Copernican 1,100 present period Moon Copernicus
Costonian 460.9 459 age Ordovician regional Bancroft, 1933
Couvinian 397.5 ± 2.7 391.8 ± 2.7 age Devonian Belgium (obsolete) Couvin d'Omalius d'Halloy, 1862
Cressagian 488.3 ± 1.7 486 age Ordovician Europe
Cretaceous 145.5 ± 4.0 65.5 ± 0.3 period Mesozoic ICS Crete; Latin creta=chalk d'Omalius d'Halloy, 1822
Croixan epoch Cambrian North America
Cromerian 0.85 0.465 super-age/age Pleistocene Netherlands, Great Britain Cromer (England) Reid, 1882
Cryogenian 850 635.5 ± 1.2[7] period Proterozoic ICS frozen beginning Plumb, 1991
Cryptic 4,567 4,150 epoch Prenectarian Moon (unofficial) hidden
Dacian 5.332 ± 0.005 3.600 ± 0.005 age Pliocene Paratethys Dacia (Roman province) Teisseyre, 1907
Dalanian (Dalaun) 313 310 age Carboniferous China
Danian 65.5 ± 0.3 61.7 ± 0.2 age Paleocene ICS Denmark Desor, 1847
Dannevirke 65.0 43.0 epoch Paleogene New Zealand Dannevirke Kingma, 1962
Dapingian 471.8 ± 1.6 468.1 ± 1.6 age Ordovician ICS Daping (China) Huang & Zhu, 1948
Darriwilian 468.1 ± 1.6 460.9 ± 1.6 age Ordovician ICS Darriwil (Australia) Hall, 1899
Datangian 345 333 age Carboniferous China Ding, 1931
Datsonian 488.3 ± 1.7 485 age Ordovician Australia Jones et al., 1971
Dawanian 472 471.8 age Ordovician North America Xiang "et al.", 1980
Deerparkian age Devonian North America Cooper et al., 1942
Delamaran 512 504 age Cambrian North America Palmer, 1998
Delmontian 7.5 2.9 age Plio-Miocene California Kleinpell, 1938
Demingian 478.6 475 sub-age Ordovician North America Flower, 1957
Derryan 311.7 ± 1.1 308 age Carboniferous North America Thmpson, 1942
Deseadan 29.0 21.0 age Oligo-Miocene South America Flynn & Wisher, 1995
Desmoinesian age Carboniferous North America Keyes, 1893
Deurnian age Miocene Belgium (obsolete) Deurne de Heinzelin (1955)
Devensian 0.116 0.0115 age Pleistocene Great Britain Devenses, Celtic tribe by the Deva (England and Wales) Godwin, 1956
Devonian 416.0 ± 2.8 359.2 ± 2.5 period Paleozoic ICS Devon (England) Murchison & Sedgwick, 1839
Dewuan 333 318.1 ± 1.3 age Carboniferous China Yang "et al.", 1962
Dinantian 359.2 ± 2.5 326.4 ± 1.6 epoch/sub-period Carboniferous Northern Europe Dinant Munier-Chalmas & Lapparent, 1893
Dittonian 418 age Devonian Wales and England (obsolete) Ditton Priors, Shropshire, England King, 1921
Divisaderan 42 36 age Eocene South America Pascual, 1983
Dogger[5] 175.6 ± 2.0 161.2 ± 4.0 epoch Jurassic Northern Europe dogger=ironrich sediment type Naumann, 1854
Dolgellian 492.5 488.3 ± 1.7 age Cambrian regional Dolgellau, Wales Harland et al., 1989
Domerian 183.0 ± 1.5 sub-age Jurassic regional Bonarelli, 1894
Donau Glacial 1.7 1.35 age Pleistocene Alps river Danube Eberl, 1930
Donau-Günz >2.35 age Pleistocene Alps
Dorogomilovskian 305 303.9 ± 0.9 age Carboniferous regional Ivanov, 1926
Drenthian 0.238 0.17 chronozone Pleistocene Northwest Europe Drenthe Van Der Vlerk & Florschutz, 1950
Dresbachian 501 496.8 age Cambrian North America Howell, 1944
Drumian 506.5 503 age Cambrian ICS Drum Mountains (Utah, US) Peng & Robinson, 2000
Duchesnean 42.0 38.0 age Eocene North America Wood "et al"., 1941
Duckmantian age Carboniferous Europe Duckmanton Railway Cutting, England Jongmans, 1928
Duntroonian 27.3 25.2 age Oligocene New Zealand Duntroon Fleming, 1959
Dyeran 524.5 512 age Cambrian North America Palmer, 1998
Eaglefordian age Cretaceous Gulf and Atlantic coast of the US Eagle Ford, Dallas, Texas Murray, 1961
Early Imbrian 3850 3800 period Moon Mare Imbrium
Eastonian 456 450 age Ordovician Australia Packham, 1968
Eburonian 1.80 1.45 super-age Pleistocene Netherlands Eburones, Germanic tribe Zagwijn, 1963
Ectasian 1,400 1,200 period Proterozoic ICS Plumb, 1991
Edenian age Ordovician North America Twenhofel, 1954
Ediacaran 635.5 ± 1.2[7] 542.0 ± 1.0 period Proterozoic ICS Ediacara Hills (Australia) Cloud, 1972
Edmontonian 80.8 70.7 NALMA Cretaceous North America Russel, 1975
Eemian 0.130 0.116 age Pleistocene Northern Europe river Eem (Netherlands) Harting, 1875
Eifelian 397.5 ± 2.7 391.8 ± 2.7 age Devonian ICS the Eifel (Germany) Beyrich, 1837
Egerian 25.8 20.3 age Oligo-Miocene Paratethys Eger (Hungary) Báldi & Sene?, 1968
Eggenburgian 20.8 18.3 age Miocene Paratethys Eggenburg (Austria) Steininger & Sene?, 1968
Eildonian 433 428.2 ± 2.3 age Silurian Australia Thomas, 1947
Elsterian 0.465 0.418 age Pleistocene Northern Europe river Weißen Elster (Germany) Keilhack, 1911
Elvirian 326 324.5 age Carboniferous regional
Emilian 1.5 0.781 sub-age Pleistocene Italy Ruggeri & Selli, 1948
Emscherian 89.5 83.5 age Cretaceous Germany Munier-Chalmas & Lapparent, 1893
Emsian 407.0 ± 2.8 397.5 ± 2.7 age Devonian ICS Bad Ems (Germany) de Dorlodot, 1900
Ensenadan 1.2 0.8 age Pleistocene South America Ameghino, 1889
Eoarchean none 3.600 era ICS Plumb, 1991
Eocene 55.8 ± 0.2 33.9 ± 0.1 epoch Paleogene ICS earliest recent Lyell, 1847
Eratosthenian 3,200 1,100 period Moon Eratosthenes
Ergilian 35.1 33.8 ALMA Oligo-Eocene Asia Russell & Zhai, 1987
Erian 391.8 ± 2.7 388 age Devonian North America Dawson, 1871
Famennian 374.5 ± 2.6 359.2 ± 2.5 age Devonian ICS the Famenne (Belgium) Dumont, 1855
Fassanian 237 ± 2.0 233 sub-age Triassic Europe Mojsisovics, 1895
Fengshanian 492.5 488.3 ± 1.7 age Cambrian China Lu, 1962
Fennian 473 471.8 age Ordovician Europe Fortey & Owens, 1987
Festiniogian 496.8 492.5 age Cambrian regional (anglicised spelling of) Ffestiniog, Wales Harland et al., 1990
Flaminian 0.5 0.3 age Pleistocene Italy
Flandrian 0.01 present age Holocene Western Europe (obsolete) Flanders Rutot & Van den Broeck, 1885
Floian 478.6 ± 1.7 471.8 ± 1.6 age Ordovician ICS Flo (Sweden) Gradstein "et al", 2004
Florian 508 504 age Cambrian Australia
Fortunian 542.0 ± 1.0 528 age Cambrian ICS Fortune Head (Canada) Brassier "et al.", 1994
Franconian 496.8 492.5 age Cambrian North America Lapparent, 1893
Frasnian 385.3 ± 2.6 374.5 ± 2.6 age Devonian ICS Frasne (Belgium) d'Omalius d'Halloy, 1862
Friasian 16.3 15.5 age Miocene South America Kraglievich, 1930
Fujian 11.1 9.5 age Miocene Japan Ikebe, 1977
Fupingan 3,100 2,600 age Archaean China
Furongian 501.0 ± 2.0 488.3 ± 1.7 epoch Cambrian ICS Furong (China) Cowie & Bassett, 1989
Gallic 130.0 ± 1.5 89.3 ± 1.0 epoch Cretaceous obsolete Smith, 1815
Gargasian 121.0 115.0 sub-age Cretaceous regional Kilian, 1887
Gashatan 56.9 55.7 ALMA Paleo-Eocene Asia Romer, 1966
Gaultian sub-age [Gault] Cretaceous regional Smith, 1817
Gedinian 416.0 ± 2.8 411.2 ± 2.8 age Devonian Belgium (obsolete) Gedinne Dumont, 1848
Geiseltalian 48.5 42.7 ELMMZ Eocene Europe Franzel & Haubold, 1986
Gelasian 2.588 1.806 age Pleistocene ICS Gela (Italy) Rio et al., 1998
Geringian 30.8 26.3 age Oligocene North America Schultz & Falkenbach, 1968
Gisbornian 460.9 456 age Ordovician Australia Thomas, 1960
Givetian 391.8 ± 2.7 385.3 ± 2.6 age Devonian ICS Givet (France) d'Omalius d'Halloy, 1839
Gleedonian 425.4 422.9 ± 2.5 age Silurian regional Bassett "et al.", 1975
Gorstian 422.9 ± 2.5 421.3 ± 2.6 age Silurian ICS Gorsty (farm at Ludlow, England) Holland et al., 1980
Gramian 10.3 8.5 age Miocene Northern Germany Hinsch, 1952
Grauvian 50.8 48.5 ELMMZ Eocene Europe Savage & Russell, 1977
Greenlandian 0.0117 0.0082 age Holocene ICS North Greenland Ice Core Project [8]
Guadalupian 270.6 ± 0.7 260.4 ± 0.7 epoch Permian ICS Guadalupe Mountains (Texas, US) Girty, 1908
Guandian 425.5 422 age Silurian China Ting & Wang, 1937
Gulf(-ian) epoch Cretaceous south and east of the US the Mexican Gulf Cobban & Reeside, 1952
Günz Glacial 2.35 age Pleistocene Alps river Günz (Germany) Penck & Bruckner, 1909
Günz-Mindel age Pleistocene Alps
Gushanian 596.8 501 age Cambrian China Kobayashi, 1935
Guzhangian 503 499 age Cambrian ICS Guzhang (China) Peng, 1992
Gzhelian 303.9 ± 0.9 299.0 ± 0.8 age Carboniferous ICS Gzhel (Russia) Nikitim, 1890
Hadean none 4000 eon ICS Hades, hell Cloud, 1972
Hadrynian 850 542 age Neoproterozoic North America Fahrig "et al.", 1971
Hallian ~10.000 0 age Holocene California
Haranoyan 18.2 15.97 age Miocene Japan Ikebe, 1977
Harnagian 459 458 age Ordovician regional Bancroft, 1929
Harrisonian 24.8 20.6 age Oligo-Miocene North America Wilson, 1960
Hastarian 359.2 ± 2.5 348 age Carboniferous regional Conil, 1977
Haumurian 84 65.5 age Cretaceous New Zealand Haumuri Bluff
Hautawan 3.1 2.2 sub-age Plio-Pleistocene New Zealand
Hauterivian 136.4 ± 2.0 130.0 ± 1.5 age Cretaceous ICS Hauterive (Switzerland) Renevier, 1873
Haweran 0.01 present age Holocene New Zealand Hawera Thompson, 1917
Headonian 37.2 33.8 ELMMZ Oligo-Eocene Europe Bosma, 1974
Helikian 1,600 850 age Proterozoic North America Stockwell, 1964
Hemingfordian 20.6 16.3 age Miocene North America Wood "et al.", 1941
Hemmoorian age Miocene Northern Germany Kautsky, 1925
Hemphillian 10.3 4.9 age Mio-Pliocene North America Wood "et al.", 1941
Heretaungan 49.5 46.2 age Eocene New Zealand Heretaunga Plains Hornibrook & Harrington, 1957
Hesperian ~3,500 ~1,800 Martian epoch Mars Hesperia Planum
Hettangian 199.6 ± 0.6 196.5 ± 1.0 age Jurassic ICS Hettange-Grande (France) Renevier, 1864
Hirnantian 445.6 ± 1.5 443.7 ± 1.5 age Ordovician ICS Cwm Hirnant (Wales) Bancroft, 1933
Holkerian 339 337.5 age Carboniferous regional Ramsbotton, 1979
Holocene 11,800 BP present epoch Quaternary ICS Greek: totally new Gervais, 1867
Holsteinian 0.418 0.386 age Pleistocene Northern Europe Holstein (Germany) Jung, 1957
Homerian 426.2 ± 2.4 422.9 ± 2.5 age Silurian ICS Homer (England) Bassett et al., 1975
Honghuayuanian 478.6 472 age Ordovician China Yang, 1990
Houldjinian 37.2 33.9 ALMA Asia Meng "et al.", 1998
Houthalenian <21 >16 age Miocene Belgium (obsolete) Houthalen Hirsch, 1952
Hoxnian 0.418 0.386 age Pleistocene Great Britain Hoxne (Suffolk) West & Donner, 1956
Hsandgolian 33.8 24.0 ALMA Oligocene Asia Meng "et al"., 1998
Huashibanian 318.1 ± 1.3 313 age Carboniferous China Jin "et al.", 1962
Huayquerian 9.0 6.8 age Miocene South America Pascual & Odreman, 1971
Hutchinsonian 21 20 age Miocene New Zealand Fleming, 1959
Huronian 2,500 1,400 age Proterozoic worldwide (obsolete) Logan & Murray, 1855
Ibexian ~505 471.8 age Cambrian-Ordovician North America Ross, 1951
Icenian 2.4 ~2 age Pleistocene Netherlands, England (obsolete) Iceni, ancient tribe (England) Harmer, 1900
Idamean 497 494 age Cambrian Australia Öpik, 1963
Ilfordian age Pleistocene British Isles Ilford (England) Bowen, 1978
Illinoian 0.17 0.125 age Pleistocene North America Chamberlin, 1896
Illyrian 240 ± 2.0 237 ± 2.0 sub-age Triassic Europe Tozer, 1967
Induan 251.0 ± 0.4 249.7 ± 0.7 age Triassic ICS river Indus Kiparisova & Popov, 1956
Ionian 0.781 0.126 age Pleistocene Southern Europe Ionian Sea (between Greece and Italy) Carianfi, 1995
Ipswichian 0.130 0.116 age Pleistocene Great Britain Ipswich (England) West, 1957
Irdinmanhan 46.2 40.4 ALMA Eocene Asia Russell & Zhai, 1987
Irvingtonian 1.8 age Pleistocene North America Irvington Wood "et al.", 1941
Isuan 3,800 3,500 age Archaean Europe McGregor, 1968
Itaboraian 59 57 age Paleocene South America Paula-coutos, 1946
Ivorean 348 345.3 ± 2.1 age Carboniferous regional Conil, 1977
Jacksonian age Eocene southern US Heilprin, 1882
Janjukian 30.0 27.5 age Oligocene Australia Hall & Pritchard, 1902
Jeffersonian 475 473 sub-age Ordovician North America Flower, 1979
Jinningian 1,750 800 age Proterozoic China Peng, 2000
Jiusian age Carboniferous China Jin "et al"., 2000
Johannian 48 35 age Eocene Australia Singleton, 1955
Judithian 82.2 80.8 NALMA Cretaceous North America Russell, 1975
Julian 229.6 ± 2.0 222.5 sub-age Triassic Europe Tozer, 1967 [Mojsisovics, 1895]
Jurassic 199.6 ± 0.6 145.5 ± 4.0 period Mesozoic ICS Jura mountains Brongniart, 1829
Kaburan 13.5 11.1 age Miocene Japan Ikebe, 1977
Kaiatan 37.0 36.0 age Eocene New Zealand Kaiata Fleming, 1959
Kalimnan 4.3 3.4 age Pliocene Australia Hall & Pritchard, 1902
Kansan 0.48 0.26 age Pleistocene North America Geikie, 1894
Kapitean 6.5 5.0 age Miocene New Zealand Kapitea Creek, West Coast Region Fleming, 1959
Karatau 1,100 800 age Proterozoic Russia
Karoo Ice Age ~360 ~260 ice age Phanerozoic Karoo (South Africa)
Karpatian 17.0 16.0 age Miocene Paratethys the Carpathian Mountains Cicha et al., 1967
Kashirskian 309.2 308.0 age Carboniferous Russia Stepanov, 1962
Kasimovian 306.5 ± 1.0 303.9 ± 0.9 age Carboniferous ICS Kasimov (Russia) Theodorovich, 1949
Kasterlian ~4.7 ~3.6 age Pliocene Belgium (obsolete) Kasterlee Dumont, 1882
Katian 455.8 ± 1.6 445.6 ± 1.5 age Ordovician ICS Lake Katy (Oklahoma, US) Bergstrom et al., 2003
Kattendijkian ~5 ~3.6 age Pliocene Belgium (obsolete) Kattendijke Glibert & de Heinzelin, 1957
Kazanian age Permian Russia Netxaev, 1915
Kechienjian 1.9 1.5 age Pleistocene Japan Ikebe, 1977
Keiloran 443.7 ± 1.5 433 age Silurian Australia
Kekeamuan 28.4 33.9 ALMA Asia Wang, 1981
Keuper[5] ±230 199.6 epoch Triassic Europe Von Alberti, 1834
Kimmeridgian 155.7 ± 4.0 150.8 ± 4.0 age Jurassic ICS Kimmeridge (England) d'Orbigny, 1852
Kinderhookian 359.2 ± 2.5 348 age Carboniferous North America Bizat, 1928
Kinderscoutian 318.1 ± 1.3 317 age Carboniferous regional Kinder Scout (England) Bisat (1928)
Kirkfield 458 457 age Ordovician regional Liddell, 1975
Kiscellian 25.8 age Oligocene Paratethys Nolf & Brzobohaty, 1994
Klazminskian 303.9 ± 0.9 300.5 age Carboniferous regional Ivanova & Khovorova, 1955
Korangan 117.5 108.4 age Cretaceous New Zealand Koranga Wellman, 1959
Krevyakinskian 306.5 306 age Carboniferous Russia Ivanova & Khovorova, 1955
Kryzhanovan 1.9 1.2 age Pleistocene Eastern Europe
Kungurian 275.6 ± 0.7 270.6 ± 0.7 age Permian ICS Kungur (Russia) Stuckenberg, 1890
Lacian 217.4 ± 2.0 211 sub-age Europe Mojsisovics, 1895
Ladinian 237.0 ± 2.0 228.0 ± 2.0 age Triassic ICS Ladini, people in northern Italy Bittner, 1892
Lancefieldian 482 475 age Ordovician Australia Harris & Keble, 1932
Lancian 70.7 65.5 NALMA Cretaceous North America Russell, 1964
Landenian <60 >55 age Paleocene Western Europe (obsolete) Landen (Belgium) Dumont, 1839
Landon 34.3 21.7 epoch Paleo-Neogene New Zealand Landon Creek Kingma, 1962
Langenfeldian age Miocene Northern Germany
Langhian 15.97 13.65 age Miocene ICS Serravalle Langhe (Italy) Pareto, 1864
Langsettian 314.5 313.4 age Carboniferous regional Langsett (England) Jongsmans, 1928
Latdorfian age Oligocene Germany Mayer-Eymar, 1893
Late Imbrian 3,800 3,200 period Moon Mare Imbrium
Laventan 13.8 12.0 age Miocene South America Madden, 1994
Leonardian age Permian North America Adams et al., 1939
Lias[5] 199.6 ± 0.6 175.6 ± 2.0 epoch Jurassic Northern Europe unclear Mantell, 1833 [Smith, 1817]
Likhvinian 0.3 0.18 age Pleistocene Eastern Europe Krasnenkov & Kazantseva, 1993
Lillburnian 15.1 12.7 age Miocene New Zealand Lill Burn, Southland Region Fleming, 1959
Linxiangian 454.5 449 age Ordovician China
Lishihhuangtuan 1.2 0.1 age Pleistocene China
Livian 335 331 age Carboniferous Belgium (obsolete) Lives Conil, 1977
Llandeilo (Llandeilean) epoch/age Ordovician Europe Llandeilo (Wales) Murchison, 1835
Llandovery 443.7 ± 1.5 428.2 ± 2.3 epoch Silurian ICS Llandovery (Wales) Murchison, 1859
Llanvirn(-ian) Llanvirn Farm near St Davids, Wales Hicks (1881) epoch Ordovician Europe Hicks, 1875
Lochkovian 416.0 ± 2.8 411.2 ± 2.8 age Devonian ICS Lochkov (Czech Republic) Chlupac, 1972
Longfordian 27.5 16.5 age Oligo-Miocene Australia Crespin, 1943
Longmaxian 443.7 ± 1.5 438 age Silurian China Yin, 1949
Longobardian 233 229.6 ± 2.0 sub-age Triassic Europe Mojsisovics, 1895
Longvillian 457 455 age Ordovician regional Cheney Longville (England) Bancroft, 1929
Longwangmioan 518 513 age Cambrian China Bengston & Jell, 1990
Lopingian 260.4 ± 0.7 251.0 ± 0.4 epoch Permian ICS Luoping (China) Huang, 1932
Lotharingian 193.3 ± 0.7 189.6 ± 0.7 substage Jurassic Haug, 1910
Ludfordian 421.3 ± 2.6 418.7 ± 2.7 age Silurian ICS Ludford (England) Holland et al., 1980
Ludhamian ~2.52 ~2.25 age Pleistocene Great Britain Ludham (England) Beck et al., 1972
Ludian age Eocene western Europe de Lapparent, 1893
Ludlovian 422.9 ± 2.5 418.7 ± 2.7 epoch Silurian ICS Ludlow (England) Murchison, 1854
Luisian 15.5 13.5 age Miocene California Kleinpell, 1938
Lujanian 0.8 0.3 age Pleistocene South America Ameghino 1889
Luliangian 2,350 1,750 age Proterozoic China
Luosuan 318.1 ~314 age Carboniferous China Jin et al., 1962
Lutetian 48.6 ± 0.2 40.4 ± 0.2 age Eocene ICS Latin: Lutetia=Paris (France) de Lapparent, 1883
Maastrichtian 70.6 ± 0.6 65.5 ± 0.3 age Cretaceous ICS Maastricht (Netherlands) Dumont, 1849
Maentwrogian 501 496.8 age Cambrian regional Maentwrog (Wales) Hicks, 1881
Malanghuangtuan 0.1 0.01 age Pleistocene China Liu & Chang, 1964
Malm[5] 161.2 ± 4.0 145.5 ± 4.0 epoch Jurassic Europe Old English: malm = calcareous soil Oppel & Quenstedt, 1858
Mangaorapan 53.0 49.5 age Eocene New Zealand Mangaorapa Marwick & Fleming, 1959
Mangaotanean 92.1 89.1 age Cretaceous New Zealand Mangaotane Wellman, 1959
Mangapanian 3.00 2.40 age Plio-Pleistocene New Zealand Mangapani Fleming, 1953
Maozhangian 513 509 age Cambrian China
Mapingian 310 299.0 ± 0.8 age Carboniferous China Ting, 1928
Marahuan 2.2 1.8 sub-age Pleistocene New Zealand
Marjuman 504 494.5 age Cambrian North America Ludvigsen & Westrop, 1985
Marsdenian 317 315.5 age Carboniferous regional Marsden, West Yorkshire, England Bisat (1928)
Marshbrookian 455 454 age Ordovician regional Marshbrook (England) Bancroft, 1929
Mayan 502 501 ± 2.0 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan Yarmoulyuk, 1946
Mayanan 1100 850 age Proterozoic Siberia Datsenko et al., 1968
Mayoian 12.0 10.0 age Miocene South America Villaroel, 1974
Mayvillian 453 447.5 age Ordovician North America Foerste, 1905
Medinan age Silurian North America Clark & Schuchert, 1898
Meghalayan 0.0042 0 age Holocene ICS Caves of Meghalaya GSSP, India [9]
Meishuchuan 542 532 age Cambrian China Qian, 1977
Melbournian 428.2 ± 2.3 416.0 ± 2.8 age Silurian Australia Melbourne Gregory, 1902
Melekesskian 313.4 311.7 age Carboniferous Russia Aisenverg et al., 1979
Menapian 1.03 super-age Pleistocene Netherlands Menapii, Germanic tribe Zagweijn, 1957
Meramecian 340 333 age Carboniferous North America Ulrich, 1904
Merioneth 501 ± 2 488.3 ± 1.7 epoch Cambrian Europe (obsolete) Merioneth (Wales) Cowie et al., 1972
Merksemian ~2.5 ~2 age Pleistocene Belgium (obsolete) Merksem de Heinzelin, 1958
Mesoarchean 3,200 2,800 era Archean ICS Plumb, 1991
Mesoproterozoic 1,600 1,000 era ICS Hofmann, 1987
Mesozoic 251.0 ± 0.7 65.5 ± 0.3 era ICS middle life Philips, 1818
Messinian 7.246 5.332 age Miocene ICS Messina (Italy) Mayer-Eymar, 1867
Miaogoalingian 422 418.7 age Silurian China
Migneintian 486 478.6 ± 1.7 age Ordovician Europe Fortey et al., 1995
Mindel 0.85 0.465 age Pleistocene Alps river Mindel (Germany) Penck, 1882
Mindel-Riss 0.465 0.238 age Pleistocene Alps
Mindyallan 501 497 age Cambrian Australia Öpik, 1963
Miocene 23.03 5.332 epoch Neogene ICS Greek: less recent Lyell, 1847
Mississippian 359.2 ± 2.5 318.1 ± 1.3 epoch Carboniferous ICS Mississippi River (US) Winchell, 1870
Missourian age Carboniferous North America Keyes, 1873
Mitchellian 10.5 5.0 age Plio-Miocene Australia
Mohawkian 462 451 epoch Ordovician North America Hall, 1842
Mohnian 13.5 7.5 age Miocene California Kleinpell, 1938
Mokolian 2,050 900 age Proterozoic South Africa
Monroecreekian 26.3 24.8 age Oligocene North America Monroe Creek Wilson, 1960
Montehermosan 6.8 4.0 age Plio-Miocene South America [Hermosean; Ameghino, 1889] Simpson, 1940
Montezuman 529.5 524.5 age Cambrian North America Palmer, 1998
Montian ~65 ~61 age Paleocene Europe (obsolete) Mons (Belgium) Dewalque, 1868
Moridunian 478.6 ± 1.7 475 age Ordovician Europe Moridunum (Wales) Fortey & Owens, 1987
Morozovan 0.8 0.5 age Pleistocene Eastern Europe
Morrowan age Carboniferous North America Adams & Ulrich, 1904
Moscovian 311.7 ± 1.1 306.5 ± 1.0 age Carboniferous ICS Moscow (Russia) Nikitin, 1890
Motuan 103.3 100.2 age Cretaceous New Zealand Motu River Wellman, 1959
Muschelkalk[5] 243 ± 2 235 ± 2 epoch Triassic Europe German: limestone with mussels Füchsel, 1761
Mustersan 48 42 age Eocene South America Kraglievich, 1930
Myachkovskian 307.2 306.5 age Carboniferous Russia Stepanov, 1962
Namibian 900 542 age Neoproterozoic South Africa Namibia
Namurian 326.4 313.0 age Carboniferous Europe Namur (Belgium) Purves, 1883
Nanzian 48 35 age Eocene California
Navarroan age Cretaceous-Paleocene south and east of the US Navarro, Texas Murray, 1961
Nebraskian 0.93 0.6 age Pleistocene North America (obsolete) Shimek, 1909
Nectarian 3920 3850 period Moon Mare Nectaris
Needian 0.42 0.38 age Pleistocene Netherlands (obsolete) Neede Van der Vlerk & Florschutz, 1950
Nemakit-Daldynian 542 534 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan Savitsky, 1962
Neoarchean 2,800 2,500 era Archean ICS Plumb, 1991
Neocomian 145.5 125.0/130.0 epoch obsolete Neocomium, Latin name for Neuchâtel Thurmann, 1835
Neogene 23.0 2.588 period Cenozoic ICS Hoernes, 1856
Neoproterozoic 1,000 542.0 ± 1.0 era ICS Hofmann, 1987
Neporatan 2.5 1.7 age Pleistocene Eastern Europe Esu, 1980
Neustrian 55.0 50.8 ELMMZ Paleo-Eocene Europe Fahlbusch, 1976
Ngaterian 100.2 95.2 age Cretaceous New Zealand Ngateretere Wellman, 1959
Niagaran age Silurian North America Sterry Hunt, 1871
Noachian none ~3,500 Martian epoch Mars Noachis Terra
Noginskian 300.5 299.0 ± 0.8 age Carboniferous Russia Ivanova & Khovorova, 1955
Nomentanan 0.24 0.13 age Pleistocene Italy
Nongshanian 62.9 56.9 ALMA Paleocene Asia Ting, 1998
Norian 216.5 ± 2.0 203.6 ± 1.5 age Triassic ICS Noric Alps (Austria) Mojsisovics, 1869
Northgrippian 0.0082 0.0042 age Holocene ICS North Greenland Ice Core Project [10]
Nukumaruan 3.1 1.8 age Pleistocene New Zealand Nukumaru Fleming, 1953
Nullaginian 2,500 1,800 age Proterozoic Australia Dunn et al., 1966
Ochoan age Permian North America Adams et al., 1939
Odessan 1.2 0.8 age Pleistocene Eastern Europe
Okaian 0.5 0.3 sub-age Ordovician North America
Okehuan 1.1 0.37 age Pleistocene New Zealand Fleming, 1962
Older Dryas 13,480 BP 13,350 BP chron Weichselian Europe Dryas octopetala (plant)
Oldest Dryas 13,860 13,780 chron Weichselian Europe Dryas octopetala (plant)
Olenekian 249.5 245.9 age Triassic ICS river Olenyok (Siberia) Kiparisova & Popov, 1956
Oligocene 33.9 ± 0.1 23.03 epoch Paleogene ICS "not so recent" Beyrich, 1857
Onnian 453 449 age Ordovician regional River Onny (England) Bancroft, 1929
Oostermeer Interglacial 0.243 0.238 age Pleistocene Netherlands Oostermeer
Opoitian 5.0 3.8 age Pliocene New Zealand Opoiti Fleming, 1959
Ordian 520 510 age Cambrian Australia Öpik, 1968
Ordovician 488.3 ± 1.7 443.7 ± 1.5 period Paleozoic ICS Ordovices, Celtic tribe Lapworth, 1879
Orellan 33.9 33.3 age Oligocene North America Prothero & Emry, 1996
Orleanian 20.4 15 ELMMZ Miocene Europe Orléans (France) Alberdi & Aguirre, 1977
Orosirian 2,050 1,800 period Proterozoic ICS Plumb, 1991
Osagean age Carboniferous North America Branner, 1888
Otaian 21.7 19.0 age Miocene New Zealand Otaio Fleming, 1959
Ottnangian 18.3 17.0 age Miocene Paratethys Ottnang am Hausruck (Austria) Papp & Rögl, 1967
Oxfordian 161.2 ± 4.0 155.0 ± 4.0 age Jurassic ICS Oxford (England) d'Orbigny, 1849
Paibian 501.0 ± 2.0 496 age Cambrian ICS Paibi (China) Peng et al., 2004
Paleoarchean 3,600 3,200 era Archean ICS Plumb, 1991
Paleocene 65.5 ± 0.3 55.8 ± 0.2 epoch Paleogene ICS oldest recent Schimper, 1847
Paleophytic ~450 ~270 era paleobotany old flora
Paleogene 65.5 ± 0.3 23.0 period Cenozoic ICS Hoernes, 1856
Paleoproterozoic 2,500 1,600 era ICS Hofmann, 1987
Paleozoic 542.0 ± 1.0 251.0 ± 0.7 era ICS old life Sedwick, 1838
Pannonian 11.608 ± 0.005 7.246 ± 0.005 age Miocene Paratethys Pannonia (Roman province) Roth von Telegd, 1879
Pareora 21.7 15.9 epoch Neogene New Zealand Pareora Kingma, 1957
Pastonian ~1.87 1.77 age Pleistocene Great Britain Paston, Norfolk (England) West & Wilson, 1966
Payntonian 491 488.3 ± 1.7 age Cambrian Australia Jones, 1971
Peligran 62.5 59 age Paleocene South America Bonaparte, 1993
Pendleian 326.4 ± 1.6 326 age Carboniferous regional Pendle Hill (England) Hudson & Cotton, 1943
Pennsylvanian 318.1 ± 1.3 299.0 ± 0.8 epoch Carboniferous ICS Pennsylvania (US) Williams, 1891
Penutian 53 51 age Eocene California Mallory, 1959
Permian 299.0 ± 0.8 251.0 ± 0.4 period Paleozoic ICS Perm (Russia) Murchison, 1849
Phanerozoic 542.0 ± 1.0 present eon ICS visible life Chadwick, 1930
Piacenzian 3.600 2.588 age Pliocene ICS Piacenza (Italy) Mayer-Eymar, 1858
Piripauan 86.5 84 age Cretaceous New Zealand Piripaua Wellman, 1959
Pleistocene 2.588 0.0117 epoch Quaternary ICS youngest recent Lyell, 1833
Pleniglacial 73,000 BP 14,500 BP sub-age Pleistocene Northern Europe
Pliensbachian 189.6 ± 1.5 183.0 ± 1.5 age Jurassic ICS Pliensbach (Germany) Oppel, 1858
Pliocene 5.332 2.588 epoch Neogene ICS newer recent Lyell, 1847
Podolskian 308 307.2 age Carboniferous Russia Ivanov, 1926
Poederlian ~3.5 ~2.5 age Pliocene Belgium (obsolete) Poederlee Vincent, 1889
Pontian 7.246 ± 0.005 5.332 ± 0.005 epoch Miocene Paratethys Pontus Euxinus, Latin name for the Black Sea Le Play, 1842
Pontinian 0.1 0.01 age Pleistocene Italy Blanc, 1937
Porangan 46.2 43.0 age Eocene New Zealand Poranga Hornibrook, 1961
Portlandian age Jurassic British Isles Isle of Portland (England) Brongniart, 1829
Potsdamian 501 ± 2 488.3 ± 1.7 epoch Cambrian Germany Walcott, 1891
Poundian 570 542 ± 0.3 age Cambrian Australia
Pragian 411.2 ± 2.8 407.0 ± 2.8 age Devonian ICS Prague (Czech Republic) Ziegler, 1979
Preboreal 11,560 BP 10,640 BP chron Northern Europe before the Boreal
Precambrian none 542.0 ± 1.0 none (before: eon) worldwide before the Cambrian Logan, 1841
Pre-Illinoian age Pleistocene North America before the Illinoian Leverett, 1929
Preludhamian ~2.52 ~2.61 age Plio-Pleistocene Great Britain before the Ludhamian Funnell & West, 1977
Prenectarian 4567 3850 period Moon before the Nectarian
Prepastonian ~2.0 ~1.87 age Pleistocene Great Britain before the Pastonian West, 1980
Pretiglian 2.588 2.40 super-age Pleistocene Netherlands before the Tiglian Tegelen (The Netherlands) Van der Vlerk, 1948
Priabonian 37.2 ± 0.1 33.9 ± 0.1 age Eocene ICS Priabona (Italy) Munier-Chalmas & De Lapparent, 1893
Pridoli(an) 418.7 ± 2.7 416.0 ± 2.8 epoch Silurian ICS P?idoli (Czech Republic) Prantl & Pribyl, 1948
Proterozoic 2,500 542.0 ± 1.0 eon ICS Emmons, 1888
Puercan 65.5 63.3 age Paleocene-Cretaceous North America Wood et al., 1941
Purbeckian age Cretaceous-Jurassic England (obsolete) Isle of Purbeck (England) Brongniart, 1829
Pusgillian 449 447.5 age Ordovician Europe Pus Gill, Cumbria (England) Dean, 1959
Putikian 0.37 0.01 age Pleistocene New Zealand Fleming, 1953
Quaternary 2.588 present period Cenozoic ICS fourth part Arduino, 1760
Qungzusian 532 523 age Cambrian China
Rancholabrean age Pleistocene North America Wood et al., 1941
Randian 3,000 2,500 age Archaean South Africa Kent & Hughes, 1978
Rawtheyan 446.5 445.5 age Ordovician Europe River Rawthey (England) Brenchley & Cocks, 1982
Refugian 35.0 33.5 age Oligo-Eocene California Schenck & Kleinpell, 1936
Reinbekian age Miocene Northern Germany Van Couvering, 1977
Relizian 16.5 13.5 age Miocene California Kleinpell, 1934
Repettian 2.9 2.2 age Plio-Pleistocene California Natalnd, 1952
Reuverian 3.5 2.558 chronozone Pliocene Northwest Europe Reuver (The Netherlands) Bifnot, 1972
Rhaetian 203.6 ± 1.5 199.6 ± 0.6 age Triassic ICS Rhaetian Alps (Switzerland, Austria, Italy) Gümbel, 1862
Rhuddanian 443.7 ± 1.5 439.0 ± 1.8 age Silurian ICS Cwm-Rhuddian (Wales) Cocks et al., 1971
Rhyacian 2,300 2,050 period Proterozoic ICS Cowie 6 Basset, 1989
Richmondian 449 445.6 ± 1.5 age Ordovician North America Winchell & Ulrich 1897
Riochican 57 54 age Eo-Paleocene South America Simpson, 1940
Riphean 1,650 650 age Proterozoic worldwide (obsolete) Shatsky, 1945
Riss Glacial 0.238 0.128 age Pleistocene Alps river Riß (Germany)
Riss-Würm Interglacial 0.128 0.116 age Pleistocene Alps Penck, 1882 [Penck & Burckner, 1909]
Roadian 270.6 ± 0.7 268.0 ± 0.7 age Permian ICS Furnish, 1968
Robiacian 42.7 37.2 ELMMZ Miocene Europe Savage & Russell, 1983
Romanian 3.6 1.8 age Plio-Pleistocene Paratethys Krejci-Graf, 1932
Rotliegend(-es)[5] 299 270.6 sub-period Permian unofficial German for "Red foot wall". A traditional copper mining term in the Mansfelder Land for the red oreless sandstone below the Kupferschiefer.
Runangan 36.0 34.3 age Eo-Oligocene New Zealand Runanga Finlay et al., 1945
Rupelian 33.9 ± 0.1 28.4 ± 0.1 age Oligocene ICS river Rupel (Belgium) Dumont, 1850
Ruscinian 4.9 3.5 ELMMZ Pliocene Europe Ruscino, Latin for the Roussillon (France) Kretzoi, 1962
Saalian 0.238 0.128 age Pleistocene Northern Europe river Saale (Germany) Stille, 1920
Sakian 494.5 493 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan Ergaliev, 1980
Sakmarian 294.6 ± 0.8 284.4 ± 0.7 age Permian ICS river Sakmara (Russia) Karpinski, 1874
Sandbian 460.9 ± 1.6 455.8 ± 1.6 age Ordovician ICS Sandby, Sweden Begstrom et al., 2003
Sangamonian 0.125 0.075 age Pleistocene North America Leverett, 1898
Santacrucian 17.5 16.3 age Miocene South America Ameghino, 1889
Santomian 1.81 1.5 sub-age Pleistocene Italy
Santonian 85.8 ± 0.7 83.5 ± 0.7 age Cretaceous ICS Saintes (France) Coquand, 1873
Sarmatian 12.7 11.6 age Miocene Paratethys Sarmatians (ancient people) Suess, 1866
Saxonian ~290 ~258 age Permian Europe (obsolete) Saxony Munier-Chalmas & Lapparent, 1893
Saucesian 22.0 16.5 age Miocene California Kleinpell, 1938
Scaldisian ~4 ~2.5 age Pliocene Belgium (obsolete) Scaldus, Latin name for the river Scheldt Dumont, 1850
Scythian 251 ± 0.2 245 ± 1.5 Epoch Early Triassic Europe Scythia Arthaber, 1895
Selandian 61.7 ± 0.2 58.7 ± 0.2 age Paleocene ICS Seeland (Denmark) Rosenkrantz, 1924
Senecan 388 370 age Devonian North America Clarke & Schuchert, 1898
Senonian 89.3 65.5 epoch Cretaceous unofficial Sens (France) d'Orbigny, 1842
Serpukhovian 326.4 ± 1.6 318.1 ± 1.3 age Carboniferous ICS Serpukhov (Russia) Nikitin, 1890
Serravallian 13.65 11.608 age Miocene ICS Serravalle Scrivia (Italy) Pareto, 1864
Sevatian 206 202.3 ± 1.5 sub-age Triassic Europe Mojsisovics, 1895
Shanghuan 65.5 62.9 ALMA Paleocene Asia Ting & Li, 1983
Shangsian 318.1 age Carboniferous China Ting, 1931
Shaodongian 359.2 ± 2.5 349.5 age Carboniferous China Hou, 1962
Sharamurunian 40.4 37.2 ALMA Eocene Asia Russell & Zhai, 1987
Sheinwoodian 428.2 ± 2.3 426.2 ± 2.4 age Silurian ICS Sheinwood (England) Basset et al., 1975
Shermanian 457 454 age Ordovician regional Kay, 1937
Shinulanian 438 433 age Silurian China Ting, 1930
Sicilian 0.781 0.260 sub-age Pleistocene Italy Sicily Doderlein, 1872
Siderian 2,500 2,300 period Proterozoic ICS Plumb, 1991
Silesian 326.4 299.0 subperiod Carboniferous Europe Silesia Leckwijck, 1960
Siegenian age Devonian North America, Europe Kayser, 1885
Silurian 443.7 ± 1.5 416.0 ± 2.8 period Paleozoic ICS Silures, Celtic tribe Murchison, 1835
Sinemurian 196.5 ± 1.0 189.6 ± 1.5 age Jurassic ICS Semur-en-Auxois (France) d'Orbigny, 1842
Sinian 800 542 age Neoproterozoic China Willis et al., 1907
Soudleyan 458 457 age Ordovician regional Soudley (England) Bancroft, 1929
Southland 15.9 10.9 epoch Neogene New Zealand Southland Region Kingma, 1965
Springerian age Carboniferous North America
St. David's 513 ± 2 501 ± 2 epoch Cambrian Europe (obsolete) St Davids (Wales) Cowie et al., 1972
Stampian age Oligocene western Europe Étampes (France) d'Orbigny, 1852
Statherian 1,800 1,600 period Proterozoic ICS Plumb, 1991
Stenian 1,200 1,000 period Proterozoic ICS Cowie & Basset, 1989
Stephanian 303.9 299.0 age Carboniferous Europe Saint-Étienne (France) Mayer-Eymar, 1878
Steptoan 494.5 493 age Cambrian North America Ludvigsen & westrop, 1985
Streffordian 452 449 age Ordovician Europe Strefford (England) Williams et al., 1972
Sturtian ~730 age Neoproterozoic worldwide, unofficial Gregory, 1927
Subatlantic 2400 BP 0 chron Holocene Northern Europe Sernander, 1889
Subboreal 5660 BP 2400 BP chron Holocene Northern Europe Sernander, 1889
Suchian 3.0 1.9 age Plio-Pleistocene Japan Ikebe, 1977
Suevian 33.8 29.2 ELMMZ Oligocene Europe Tobien, 1980
Sunwaptan 493 491 age Cambrian North America Ludvigsen & Westrop, 1985
Susterian 8.5 5.3 chronozone Miocene Northwest Europe Susteren (The Netherlands) Van Der Hammenn et al., 1971
Swazian 4,000 3,000 age Archaean South Africa Kent & Hughes, 1978
Syltian age Miocene Northern Germany Staesche, 1930
Tabenbulakian 24.0 23.03 ALMA Oligocene Asia Meng & McKenna, 1998
Tangbagouan 359.2 age Carboniferous China Jin et al., 2000
Taranaki 10.9 5.28 epoch Neogene New Zealand Taranaki Region Kingma, 1962
Tarantian 0.15 0.0115 age Pleistocene Southern Europe Tarento (Italy) Castradori & Cita, 1995
Tatarian age Permian Russia Tatarstan Nikitin, 1887
Taxandrian 1.80 0.418 super-age Pleistocene Netherlands (obsolete) Van Der Vlerk & Florschutz, 1950
Tayloran age Cretaceous south and west of the US Taylor, Texas Murray, 1961
Telychian 436.0 ± 1.9 428.2 ± 2.3 age Silurian ICS Pen-lan-Telych (Wales) Cocks et al. 1973
Templetonian 510 508 age Cambrian Australia Whitehouse, 1936
Teratan 89.1 86.5 age Cretaceous New Zealand Te Rata, Gisborne Region Wellman, 1959
Terreneuvian 542.0 ± 1.0 521 epoch Cambrian ICS Terre-Neuve, French name for Newfoundland Narbonne, 1987
Tertiary 65.5 ± 0.3 2.588 sub-era Cenozoic[11] worldwide third part Arduino, 1760
Teurian 65.0 55.5 age Paleocene New Zealand Te Uri Hornibrook & Harrington, 1957
Thanetian 58.7 ± 0.2 55.8 ± 0.2 age Paleocene ICS Isle of Thanet (England) Renevier, 1874
Thuringian 285 251 age Permian) Europe (obsolete) Thuringia (Germany) Renevier, 1874
Thurnian ~2.25 ~2.12 age Pleistocene Great Britain River Thurne (England} West, 1961
Tiffanian 60.2 56.8 age Paleocene North America Granger, 1917
Tiglian 2.40 1.80 super-age Pleistocene Netherlands Tegelen (The Netherlands) Dubois, 1905
Tinguirirican 36 29 age Oligo-Eocene South America Flynn & Wyss, 2004
Tithonian 150.8 ± 4.0 145.5 ± 4.0 age Jurassic ICS Tithon (Greek mythology) Oppel, 1865
Tiupampan 64.5 62.5 age Paleocene South America Tiupampa Marshall & de Muizon, 1988
Toarcian 183.0 ± 1.5 175.6 ± 2.0 age Jurassic ICS Thouars (France) d'Orbigny, 1849
Toyonian 518.5 513.0 ± 2.0 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan Hill, 1964
Tommotian 534 530 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan Rozanov et al., 1966
Tongaporutuan 10.9 6.5 age Miocene New Zealand Tongaporutu, Taranaki Region Fleming, 1959
Tongrian age Oligocene western Europe Dumont, 1839
Tonian 1,000 850 period Proterozoic ICS Cowie & Bassler, 1989
Torrejonian 63.3 60.2 age Paleocene North America wood et al., 1941
Tortonian 11.608 7.246 age Miocene ICS Tortona (Italy) Mayer-Eymar, 1858
Totomian 3.6 3.0 age Pliocene Japan Ikebe, 1977
Tournaisian 359.2 ± 2.5 345.3 ± 2.1 age Carboniferous ICS Tournai (Belgium) Dumont, 1832
Tozawan 15.97 13.5 age Miocene Japan Ikebe, 1977
Treenean 0.15 0.17 chronozone Pleistocene Northwest Europe
Tremadoc(-ian) 488.3 ± 1.7 478.6 ± 1.7 epoch Ordovician ICS Tremadoc Bay (Wales) Sedgwick, 1846
Trempealeauan 492.5 488.3 ± 1.7 age Cambrian North America
Trentonian age Carboniferous North America
Triassic 251.0 ± 0.4 199.6 ± 0.6 period Mesozoic ICS threefold Von Alberti, 1834
Tubantian 0.116 0.0115 age Pleistocene Netherlands (obsolete) Van der Vlerk & Florschütz, 1950
Turolian 8.7 4.9 ELMMZ Mio-Pliocene Europe Turolium, Latin for Teruel (Spain) Crusafont, 1965
Turonian 93.5 ± 0.8 89.3 ± 1.0 age Cretaceous ICS Tours (France) d'Orbigny, 1842
Tuvalian 222.5 217.4 ± 2.0 sub-age Triassic Europe Mojsisovics, 1895
Tyrrhenian 0.26 0.01143 sub-age Pleistocene Italy Tyrrhenian Sea Issel, 1914
Ufimian 268 270,6 age Permian obsolete Netxaev, 1915
Uintan 46.2 42.0 age Eocene North America Wood et al., 1941
Ulangochuian 37.2 35.1 ALMA Eocene Asia Li & Ting, 1983
Ulatisian 51 48 age Eocene California Mallory, 1959
Ulsterian age Devonian North America Clarke & Schuchert, 1898
Undillian 506 504 age Cambrian Australia Opik, 1979
Uquian 3.0 1.2 age Plio-Pleistocene South America Uquia (Argentina) Castellanos, 1923
Urutawan 108.4 103.3 age Cretaceous New Zealand Urutawa Hill Wellman, 1959
Vaalian 2,500 2,050 age Proterozoic South Africa Kent & Hugh, 1978
Valanginian 140.2 ± 3.0 136.4 ± 2.0 age Cretaceous ICS Valangin (Switzerland) Desor, 1853
Vallesian 11.1 8.7 ELMMZ Miocene Europe The Vallès (Spain) Crusafont, 1950
Vendian ~610 542.0 ± 1.0 subera Proterozoic worldwide (obsolete) Murchison, 1835
Venturian 2.2 1.9 age Pleistocene California Natland, 1953
Vereiskian 311.7 ± 1.1 309.2 age Carboniferous Russia
Vierlandian age Miocene Northern Germany
Vicksburgian age Oligocene southern US Heilprin, 1882
Villafranchian 3.5 1.1 ELMMZ Plio-Pleistocene Europe Pareto, 1865
Virgilian age Carboniferous North America Moore, 1932
Visean 345.3 ± 2.1 326.4 ± 1.6 age Carboniferous ICS Visé (Belgium) Dumont, 1832
Vraconian sub-age Cretaceous regional Renevier, 1867
Waalian 1.45 1.20 super-age Pleistocene Netherlands river Waal Zagwijn, 1960
Waiauan 12.7 10.9 age Miocene New Zealand Waiau River, Southland Region Fleming, 1959
Waipawan 55.5 53.0 age Eocene New Zealand Waipawa Hornibrook & Harrington, 1957
Waipipian 3.60 3.00 age Pliocene New Zealand Waipipi Fleming, 1953
Waitakian 25.2 21.7 age Oligo-Miocene New Zealand Waitaki River Fleming, 1959
Waitotaran 3.8 3.1 sub-age Pliocene New Zealand Waitotara River Fleming, 1953
Waltonian ~2.52 age Pliocene Great Britain Walton-on-the-Naze Harmer,1900
Wanganui 5.28 present epoch Neogene-Quaternary New Zealand Whanganui Kingma, 1962
Wangerripian age Paleo-Eocene Australia Singleton, 1953
Warendian 485 478.6 age Ordovician Australia Jones et al., 1971
Warthian 0.15 0.13 chronozone Pleistocene Northwest Europe
Wasatchian 55.4 50.3 age Eocene North America McGrew & Roehler, 1960
Waucoban epoch Cambrian North America Walcott, 1912
Weichselian 0.116 0.0115 age Northern Europe Weichsel, German name for the river Vistula (Poland) Keilhack, 1926
Wenlock(-ian) 428.2 ± 2.3 422.9 ± 2.5 epoch Silurian ICS Much Wenlock (England) Murchison, 1833
Werrikooian 1.00 1.806 age Pleistocene Australia Hall & Pritchard, 1902
Westphalian 313.0 303.9 age Carboniferous Europe Westphalia (Germany) de Lapparent & Munier-Chalmas, 1892
Whaingaroan 34.3 27.3 age Oligocene New Zealand Whaingaroa, Waikato Region Finlay & Marwick, 1947
Wheelerian 1.9 0.01143 age Pleistocene California Natland, 1953
Whiterockian 471.8 ± 1.6 462 age Ordovician North America Cooper, 1956
Whitlandian 475 473.5 age Ordovician Europe Whitland (Wales) Owens & Fortey, 1987
Whitneyan 33.3 30.8 age Oligocene North America Wood, 1937
Whitwellian 426.2 ± 2.4 425.4 age Silurian regional Whitwell Coppice (England) Bassett et al., 1975
Wisconsinan 0.075 0.01 age Pleistocene North America Geikie, 1894
Wolfcampian age Permian North America Udden, 1917
Wolstonian 0.238 0.128 age Pleistocene Great Britain Wolston (England) West & Donner, 1956
Woodbinian age Cretaceous Gulf and Atlantic coast of the US Murray, 1961
Wordian 268.0 ± 0.7 265.8 ± 0.7 age Permian ICS Udden, 1916
Wuchenghuangtuan 2.4 1.2 age Pleistocene China
Wuchiapingian 260.4 ± 0.7 253.8 ± 0.7 age Permian ICS Kaimera & Nakazawa, 1973 [Sheng, 1962]
Würm Glacial 0.116 0.0115 age Pleistocene Alps river Würm (Germany) Penck & Bruckner, 1909
Wutaian 2,600 2,350 age Archaean-Proterozoic China Zhang, 1951
Xiaodushanian 299 age Carboniferous China zhou et al., 1987
Xiushanian 429 425.5 age Silurian China Ge, 1980
Yanguan 349.5 345 age Carboniferous China
Yarmouthian 0.26 0.17 age Pleistocene North America Aegean Sea Leverett, 1898
Yatalan 3.4 2.0 age Plio-Pleistocene Australia Ludbrook, 1963
Yeadonian 315.5 314.5 age Carboniferous regional Yeadon (England) Hudson, 1945
Younger Dryas 12,700 BP 11,560 BP chron Weichselian Northern Europe Dryas octopetala (plant)
Ypeenian 470 468.1 age Ordovician Australia
Ypresian 55.8 ± 0.2 48.6 ± 0.2 age Eocene ICS Ypres, French name for
Ieper (Ieper) in Belgium
Dumont, 1849
Ynezian 61.5 55.8 age Paleocene California Mallory, 1959
Yuian 9.5 3.6 age Plio-Miocene Japan Ikebe, 1977
Yurmatian 1,375 1,100 age Proterozoic Russia Keller, 1952
Yuzanjian 1.5 0.75 age Pleistocene Japan Ikebe, 1977
Zanclean 5.332 3.60 age Pliocene ICS Zancla, old name for Messina (Italy) Sequenza, 1868
Zechstein[5] ±270 ±250 sub-period Permian Europe (unofficial) Lehmann, 1756
Zemorrian 33.5 22.0 age Oligo-Miocene California Kleinpell, 1938
Zhungxian 505 501 age Cambrian China
Zuzhungian 509 503 age Cambrian China

See also

References

  1. ^ Names from local versions of the geologic timescale can often be found in the local language. The English name is usually found by replacing the suffix in the local language for -an or -ian. Examples for "local" suffices are -en (French), -ano (Spanish), -ium (German), -aidd (Welsh) or -aan (Flemish Dutch). The English name "Norian", for example, becomes Noriano in Spanish, Norium in German, Noraidd in Welsh or Norien in French.
  2. ^ a b Time is given in Megaannum (million years BP, unless other units are given in the table. BP stands for "years before present". For ICS-units the absolute ages are taken from Gradstein et al. (2004).
  3. ^ Harland, W.B. 1989 A Geologic Time Scale, Cambridge University Press, p37
  4. ^ Hohenegger, Johann; ?ori?, Stjepan; Wagreich, Michael (2014). "Timing of the Middle Miocene Badenian Stage of the Central Paratethys" (PDF). Geologica Carpathica. 65 (1). doi:10.2478/geoca-2014-0004.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h This name is often still used in a chronostratigraphic or geochronologic sense, although it is now officially a lithostratigraphic unit.
  6. ^ Menning et al. 2005
  7. ^ a b Hoffmann et al. 2004
  8. ^ http://www.stratigraphy.org/index.php/ics-news-and-meetings/120-ics-chart-containing-the-quaternary-gssps-and-new-stages-v-2018-07-is-now-released
  9. ^ http://www.stratigraphy.org/index.php/ics-news-and-meetings/120-ics-chart-containing-the-quaternary-gssps-and-new-stages-v-2018-07-is-now-released
  10. ^ http://www.stratigraphy.org/index.php/ics-news-and-meetings/120-ics-chart-containing-the-quaternary-gssps-and-new-stages-v-2018-07-is-now-released
  11. ^ The status of the Tertiary is not yet decided. The ICS will probably make a decision in 2009.

Literature

  • Basset, M. G.; Cocks, L. R. M.; Holland, C. H.; Rickards, R. B.; and Warren, P. T.; 1975: The type Wenlock series, Report of the Institute of Geological Sciences, 75(13), pp. 1-19.
  • Cocks, L. R. M.; Holland, C. H.; Rickards, R. B.; and Strachan, I.; 1971: A correlation of Silurian rocks in the British Isles, Journal of the Geological Society 127(2), pp. 103-136.
  • Gradstein, F. M.; Ogg, J. G.; and Smith, A. G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ISBN 0-521-78142-6.
  • Hoffmann, K.-H.; Condon, D. J.; Bowring, S. A.; and Crowley, J. L.; 2004: U-Pb zircon date from the Neoproterozoic Ghaub Formation, Namibia: Constraints on Marinoan glaciation, Geology 32(9), pp. 817-820.
  • Holland, C. H.; Lawson, J. D.; Walmsley, V. G.; and White D. E.; 1980: Ludlow stages, Lethaia 13, p. 268, ISSN 0024-1164.
  • Menning, M.; Alekseev, A. S.; Chuvashov, B. I.; Davydov, V. I.; Devuyst, F.-X.; Forke, H. C.; Grunt, T. A.; Hance, L.; Heckel, P. H.; Izokh, N. G.; Jin, Y.-G.; Jones, P. J.; Kotlyar, G. V.; Kozur, H. W.; Nemyrovska, T. I.; Schneider, J. W.; Wang, X.-D.; Weddige, K., Weyer, D.; and Work, D. M.; 2005: Global time scale and regional stratigraphic reference scales of Central and West Europe, East Europe, Tethys, South China, and North America as used in the Devonian-Carboniferous-Permian Correlation Chart 2003 (DCP 2003), Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 240, pp. 318-372.
  • Rio, D.; Sprovieri, R.; Castradori, D.; and Di Stefano, E.; 1998: The Gelasian Stage (Upper Pliocene): a new unit of the global standard chronostratigraphic scale, Episodes 21(2), p. 82-87.

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