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. (November 2017)
There are and have been throughout recorded history a great many monarchies in the world.
Tribal kingship and Chiefdoms have been the most widespread form of social organisation from the Neolithic, and the predominance of monarchies has declined only with the rise of Republicanism in the modern era.
A monarchical form of government can be combined with many different kinds of political and economic systems, from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy and from a market economy to a planned economy. Some examples for certain forms of monarchy are:
Extant monarchies are listed in bold type.
Middle Ages and Renaissance
Enlightenment and later
Dates of the latest abolitions of monarchies in Europe
and the territories nearby. A green rectangle indicates that the monarchy was restored afterwards and is currently functioning. If a country has no date, it means that either it has never had a monarchical government (e.g. Switzerland
) or it has been functioning throughout the country's modern history (e.g. Sweden
). Note that the dates do not necessarily mark the end of the national independent monarchy but the territory it covered (e.g. Ukraine
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchical government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state.
Unitary constitutional monarchies
Unitary constitutional monarchies are unitary states which are governed constitutionally as one single unit, with a single constitutionally created legislature.
- Kingdom of England (c. 1630 - 1707; merged with Kingdom of Scotland to become Kingdom of Great Britain)
- Kingdom of Prussia (1701-1918)
- Kingdom of Great Britain (1707-1800, became United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland)
- Kingdom of France (1791-1792; Became republic in French Revolution)
- United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1800-1921; became United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)
- Kingdom of Bohemia (1806-1918; dissolved after World War I)
- Kingdom of Hungary (1806-1867; became part of Austro-Hungarian Empire)
- Kingdom of Spain (1812-1873; First Spanish Republic, 1873-1874; Restoration, 1874-1931; Second Spanish Republic, 1931-1939; Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939; dictatorship under Franco, 1939-1976; constitutional monarchy restored 1976-present)
- Kingdom of Norway (1814-present, Swedish Sovereign as King 1814-1905, independent in 1905)
- Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815-present)
- Kingdom of France (1814-1848; Became republic)
- First Mexican Empire (1821-1823); ended by forced abdication, Second Mexican Empire (1864-1867); ended by execution
- Kingdom of Portugal (1822-1910; ended by coup)
- Empire of Brazil (1822-1889; ended by coup)
- Kingdom of Belgium (1830-1980; became federal constitutional monarchy)
- Kingdom of Hawaii (1840-1894; ended by coup)
- Kingdom of Greece (1843-1924; republican interregnum; 1935-1974; ended by plebiscite)
- Kingdom of Denmark (1848-present)
- French Empire (1852-1870; became republic)
- Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946; ended by referendum)
- Principality of Liechtenstein (1862-present)
- Kingdom of Sweden (1866-present)
- Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (1867-present)
- Japan (1889-present)
- Principality of Romania (1859-1881; transformed into a Kingdom)
- Kingdom of Romania (1881-1947; ended by forced abdication)
- Principality of Serbia (1817-1882; transformed into a Kingdom)
- Kingdom of Serbia (1882-1918; merged into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes)
- Principality of Frickgau (1802-1803; 364 Days under French, merged with Switzerland)
- New Zealand (1907-present)
- Kingdom of Bulgaria (1908-1946; ended by referendum)
- Union of South Africa (1910-1961; ended by referendum)
- Princedom of Montenegro (1852-1910); transformed into a Kingdom
- Kingdom of Montenegro (1910-1918; merged into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes)
- Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918-1929, transformed into Yugoslavia)
- Kingdom of Finland (1918; ended by parliamentary vote after The Apparent abdicated willingly before entering on the throne)
- United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1921-present)
- Kingdom of Jordan (1921-present)
- Kingdom of Egypt (1922-1953; ended by military coup)
- Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929-1941; transformed into a Communist state in 1945)
- Kingdom of Iraq (1932-1958; Ended by coup)
- Kingdom of Thailand (1932-present)
- Kingdom of Laos (1949-1975)
- Kingdom of Morocco (1956-present)
- Jamaica (1962-present)
- Barbados (1966-present)
- Kingdom of Lesotho (1966-present)
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1969-present)
- The Bahamas (1973-present)
- Kingdom of Bahrain (1971-1975; constitution abrogated; 2002-present)
- Grenada (1974-present)
- Papua New Guinea (1975-present)
- Solomon Islands (1976-present)
- Tuvalu (1978-present)
- Saint Lucia (1979-present)
- Antigua and Barbuda (1981-present)
- Belize (1981-present)
- Saint Kitts and Nevis (1983-present)
- Kingdom of Nepal (1990-2008; transformed into a republic)
- Principality of Andorra (1993-present)
- Kingdom of Cambodia (1993-present)
- Kingdom of Bhutan (2008-present; unitary absolute monarchy from 1907 and transformed to constitutional monarchy in 2008)
Federal constitutional monarchies
Federal constitutional monarchies are federal states in which a number of federated entities are unified under a federal government and a single monarch, who acts as ceremonial head of state.
Elective constitutional monarchies
An absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the ruler has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force.
Unitary absolute monarchies
Unitary absolute monarchies are unitary states which are governed as one single unit by a single hereditary or elected leader. Some had or have a single legislature, which may or may not be constitutionally created.
Elective absolute monarchies
A subnational monarchy is a territory governed by a hereditary leader, but which is subordinate to a higher national government, either monarchical or republican in form.
- Sultanate of Kelantan (c. 2nd century - present; within Funan, Khmer Empire, Srivijaya, Siam, British Empire, Federation of Malaya, and Malaysia)
- Sultanate of Kedah (c. 7th century - present; within Malacca, Siam, British Empire, Federation of Malaya, and Malaysia)
- Sultanate of Pahang (c. 8th century - present; within Srivijaya, Siam, Sultanate of Malacca, Aceh, Johor, the British Empire, the Federated Malay States, the Federation of Malaya, and Malaysia)
- Principality of Perlis (c. 8th century - present; within Kedah, Siam, the British Empire, the Malayan Union, and Malaysia)
- Kingdom of Bohemia (c. 9th century - 1806; within Holy Roman Empire; became constitutional monarchy)
- Kingdom of Germany (c. 11th century - 1806; within Holy Roman Empire; became Austrian Empire)
- Luxembourg (963 - 1867; within the Holy Roman Empire, Bohemia, the Netherlands, Austria, France and Belgium; became constitutional monarchy)
- Kingdom of Pattani (c. 11th century - 1909; within Srivijaya, Kingdom of Ayutthaya, Siam, dissolved between Thailand and Malaysia)
- Murcia (1243-1304; within the Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon; absorbed into Castile)
- Vaduz (1342 - 1806; within the Holy Roman Empire; became absolute monarchy of Liechtenstein)
- Sultanate of Selangor (1740-present; within the Netherlands, the British Empire, Federated Malay States, the Federation of Malaya, and Malaysia)
- Sultanate of Yogyakarta (1755-present; within Netherlands Indies, Japanese Empire, United States of Indonesia (1945-1951), and Republic of Indonesia
- Sultanate of Terengganu (c. 15th century - present; within Malacca, Siam, the British Empire, Federation of Malaya, and Malaysia)
- Sultanate of Sulu (1405-present; within Philippines)
- Grand Duchy of Finland (1809-1918; within Russian Empire; ended when The Grand Princely Throne became vacant at the Russian Revolution; became constitutional monarchy, Kingdom of Finland)
- Barotseland (1845-present); within Zambia
- M?ori Kingship (1865-present; within Dominion of New Zealand)
- Kingdom of Lesotho (1868-1966); within the British Empire; became an independent constitutional monarchy)
- Kingdom of Bavaria (1871-1918); held a privileged status (Reservatrechte) within the German Empire
- Negeri Sembilan (1873-present; within the British Empire, the Federation of Malaya, and Malaysia)
- Sultanates of Lanao (c. 16th century - present; within Philippines)
- Sultanate of Perak (1874-present; within the British Empire, Federated Malay States, Federation of Malaya, and Malaysia)
- Principality of Bulgaria (1879-1908; within the Ottoman Empire; became constitutional monarchy)
- Wogodogo Monarchy (1896-present; within France and Burkina Faso)
- Bunyoro (1899-1966; within the British Empire, and Uganda; abolished; 1993-present; within Uganda)
- Ashanti (1900-present; within Ghana)
- Ankole (1901-1966; abolished; 1993-present; within Uganda)
- Kingdom of Egypt (1917-1922; within the British Empire, became constitutional monarchy)
- Kingdom of Aztlan (1924-present; within Mexico)
- Sultanate of Johor (1946-present; within the Malayan Union, the Federation of Malaya, Malaysia)
- Buganda (1961-1966; abolished; 1993-present; within Uganda)
- Busoga (1961-1966; abolished; 1993-present; within Uganda)
- Emirate of Abu Dhabi (1971-present; within the United Arab Emirates)
- Emirate of Ajm?n (1971-present; within the United Arab Emirates)
- Emirate of Dubai (1971-present; within the United Arab Emirates)
- Emirate of Fujairah (1971-present; within the United Arab Emirates)
- Emirate of Sharjah (1971-present; became subnational monarchy of the United Arab Emirates)
- Emirate of Umm al-Quwain (1981-present; within the United Arab Emirates)
- Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah (1973-present; within the United Arab Emirates)
A monarch may reign over multiple kingdoms, dominions or realms in various forms of political, dynastic, personal union or association.
- Between 925 and 1035 the Kingdom of Aragon shared a monarchy with the Kingdom of Navarre.
- From 1150 to 1319, the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona (actually the Principality of Catalonia) formed a dinastical union named Crown of Aragon; from 1319 to 1479, the Crown was a federation of these two countries and the Kingdom of Valencia.
- The Kingdoms of León and Castile were united three times under the same monarch, first between 1037 and 1078, again from 1072 to 1157, and finally between 1230 and sometime in the 16th century.
- Between 1072 and 1095 León, Castile, and Galicia were united under a common monarch, whereafter Portugal separated under a different dynasty, and the others were absorbed by Spain.
- The Kalmar Union was a period between 1397 and 1536 in which Denmark, Norway and Sweden shared the same monarch as three independent countries. Norway and Denmark continued to share a monarchy from 1536 to 1814. Norway was then united under a common monarchy with Sweden from 1814 to 1905.
- From 1490 to c. 1740 Hungary and Bohemia (part of the Holy Roman Empire) shared a monarchy. These kingdoms shared a monarch from the Habsburgs who were Archdukes of Austria and Holy Roman Emperors. Briefly Naples and Sardinia in 1707, and Sicily in 1714 to their departure in 1735, 1720 and 1734, respectively. The Habsburgs declared themselves Emperors of Austria in 1804. The three countries remained in this situation until the union was ended in the aftermath of World War I, in 1918. The Austro-Hungarian Empire was the union of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary between 1867 and 1918 under a new constitution, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, or Ausgleich.
- From 1541, King Henry VIII of England was declared King of Ireland, after being excommunicated by the pope and losing the title of Lord of Ireland. England and Ireland were joined in a personal union until 1603, when the James VI of Scotland became king of England and Ireland. All three crowns remained in personal union until 1707 when England and Scotland were united by the Acts of Union 1707 to become the Kingdom of Great Britain. The two crowns remained under personal union until the Acts of Union 1800 when the kingdoms became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. This union lasted until Irish Independence in 1921 when with the departure of the 26 southern counties of Ireland, the UK officially became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
- From 1580 to 1640, Portugal was under a united monarchy with Spain, in the period known as the Iberian Union.
- Between 1867 and 1890 Luxembourg and the Netherlands shared the same monarch.
- Elizabeth II currently reigns over 16 Commonwealth realms.
- The King of France was also the co-prince of Andorra. After the abolition of the French monarchy the co-prince is now the president of the French Republic.