There are a thousands of political parties in Japan. Any organization that supports any candidate needs to register itself as a political party. Each of these parties have some local or national influence. This article lists political parties in Japan with representation in the National Diet, either in the House of Representatives (Japan's lower house) and/or in the House of Councillors (Japan's upper house).
Parties currently represented in the national Diet
||Liberal Democratic Party
Jiy? Minshu-t? ,
|Shinz? Abe PM Reps.
||A centre-right to right-wing party. The LDP is made up of various conservative, nationalist and centrist factions. It is supported by the "Japan Conference", the "Shinto Association of Spiritual Leadership" which is Japanese ethnic religious conservative organization and Japan Business Federation. Before 2009, the LDP had been in power almost continuously since 1955, when it was formed as a merger of early postwar Japan's two conservative parties, the Liberal Party of Japan, and the Japan Democratic Party.
||Constitutional Democratic Party
|Yukio Edano Reps.
||The Constitutional Democratic Party is a centre-left party and advocates for Constitutionalism. The party was formed in late 2017 from the more left-leaning members of the Democratic Party, formerly Japan's second largest party, which was dissolved a few days earlier.
||Democratic Party for the People
||Yuichiro Tamaki Reps.
||A centre-right, liberal conservative party. The party was formed in May 2018 as part of a merger between remaining centrist and right-leaning members of the Democratic Party and members of the centre-right Party of Hope. The centrist Liberal Party merged into the party in April 2019.
("Clean Government", "Fairness" or "Justice Party")
|Natsuo Yamaguchi Coun.
||The Komeito Party was formerly known as the Clean Government Political Assembly, K?meit? (1962-1998) and New Komeito. At its foundation, the party was centre-left, but it has drifted rightwards as a participant in the LDP's governing coalitions, and is now considered a centre-right conservative party. It is supported by the Buddhist new religious movement S?ka Gakkai. It was Japan's third largest party in the House of Representatives of Japan until the formation of People's Life First in 2012. The party dropped the word "New" from its English title in September 2014.
||Japanese Communist Party
|Kazuo Shii Reps.
||The Japanese Communist Party is Japan's oldest party. It was formed in 1922 as an underground organization in the Empire of Japan, but was legalized after World War II during the Occupation. It is under the surveillance of the Public Security Intelligence Agency.|
||Nippon Ishin no Kai
Gov. of Osaka
|Nippon Ishin no Kai advocates for economic liberalism, limited government, and administrative reform. The party was formed by Osaka mayor T?ru Hashimoto from the split of the Japan Innovation Party. It is considered more neoliberal than the Liberal Democratic Party. It is the sister party of the regional Osaka Restoration Association.
||Social Democratic Party
|Seiji Mataichi Coun.
||The SDP is a social-democratic party. It is a successor of the Japan Socialist Party, which had been Japan's largest opposition party in the 1955 System. It was in the ruling coalition during 1993-1996 and 2009-2010. It had a prime minister named Tomiichi Murayama from 1994 to 1996.
||Reiwa shinsengumi was formed by actor-turned-politician Tar? Yamamoto shortly after Ichir? Ozawa announced that the Liberal Party would merge with the DPFP in 2019. It mainly advocates for the abolition of the consumption tax and is often considered as a left-wing populist party.
||The Party to Protect the People from NHK
||The Party to Protect the People from NHK was formed by Takashi Tachibana, a former employee of NHK. All it advocates is the abolition the current mandatory payment of subscription fees to NHK, the public broadcaster.
Legal status as political party (seit?) is tied to having five members in the Diet or at least two percent nationally of either proportional or local vote in the last Representatives or one of the last two Councillors elections. Political parties receive public party funding (¥ 250 per citizen, about ¥ 32 bill. in total per fiscal year, distributed according to recent national elections results - last HR general and last two HC regular elections - and Diet strength on January 1), are allowed to concurrently nominate candidates for the House of Representatives in an electoral district and on a proportional list, may take political donations from legal persons, i.e. corporations, and other benefits such as air time on public broadcaster NHK.
Parties currently represented in prefectural and municipal assemblies (incomplete)
Note: In legal terms, all of the parties below are "political organizations" (seiji dantai), not "political parties" (seit?, see above).
- Assembly to Energize Japan (Nippon o genki ni suru kai), founded in January 2015 by former Your Party members, initially including several members of the Diet
- New Socialist Party (Shin-Shakait?), a left breakaway group from the Japanese Socialist Party, created in 1996 when the latter formed the Social Democratic Party; the New Socialist Party was represented in the national Diet from 1996 to 1998
- Greens Japan (Midori no T?, lit. "Green Party"), created in 2012 as successor of Greens Japan (Midori no Mirai, lit. "Green Future"), a green party formed by the merger of the conservative-green Greens Japan (Midori no Table, "Green Table") and the left-wing-green Rainbow and Greens (Niji to Midori) in 2008
- Several member organizations of the Japan People's Political Network, a federation of local consumer movements that entered politics in the 1970s (includes the Tokyo Seikatsusha Network and the Kanagawa Network Movement)
Prefectural and local parties
- Chiiki Seit? Iwate ("Iwate regional party", 2010-) of former Social Democrats and independents
- Kyoto Party (Ky?to-t?, 2010-)
- Osaka Restoration Association (?saka Ishin no Kai), the dominant party in ?saka prefecture formed by former governor T?ru Hashimoto who wants to dissolve ?saka city and Sakai city and turn them into Special wards of ?saka. Affiliated with the Osaka Ishin no Kai that was formed in October 2015.
- Tokyoites First Party (Tomin First no Kai)
- Party of Hope (Kib? no t?)
- Okinawa Social Mass Party (Okinawa Shakai Taish?-t?), formerly the Okinawa Socialist Mass Party.
- Political Group of Okinawa Revolution (S?z?, lit. Creation), Okinawa regionalist party formed by LDP defectors in 2005, represented in the national Diet from 2005 to 2008, merged with the PNP Okinawa prefectural federation in 2012, keeping its name
- Green Niigata, Midori Niigata (Niigata, communist)
- formerly Niigata New Party for People, Shimin Shin-t? Niigata (Niigata, communist)
- Kariyushi Club Kariyushi Kurabu (Okinawa, independentist)
Other minor parties
Existing national parties represented in the Diet in the past
Current political parties that used to be in the Diet but are not currently represented:
This section needs to be updated. (October 2016)
Japan has other minor parties not represented in Parliament (which have never been represented before), some are new, others with communist and socialist ideologies, as well as a few nationalist, reformist, and far-right parties. Some of them include:
- Japan Revolutionary Communist League (Trotskyist, 1957-) (1957-present)
- Japan Revolutionary Communist League, National Committee (Middle Core Faction) (far left, 1963-) (1963-present)
- Japan Revolutionary Communist League (Revolutionary Marxist Faction) (Trotskyist, 1963-) (1963-present)
- National Socialist Japanese Workers' Party (far right, 1982-) (1982-present)
- Japan Nation Party (nationalist, 1988-) (1988-present)
- Women's Party (Joseit?, 1993-), feminist party that regularly contests House of Councillors proportional elections (1993-present)
- Ishin Seit? Shimp? (far right, 1995-) (1995-present)
- Happiness Realization Party (far right, 2009-)(2009-present)
- Tokyo Tea Party (inspired by the U.S. Tea Party movement 2010-) (2010-present)
- Ainu Party, party representing the rights of the Ainu people.
- Japan First Party (far right, 2016-) (2016-present)
Timeline of major Non-LDP mainstream political parties.
Former major parties
- Liberal Party (Jiy?t?): initially Constitutional Liberal Party (Rikken Jiy?t?)), the strongest party in the early House of Representatives and the mainstream liberal opposition to government military spending and foreign policy (1890-1898)
- Progressive Party (Shinpot?): created during a temporary alliance between Liberals and the oligarchy (1896-1898)
- Constitutional Party (Kenseit?): formed by a merger of Liberal and Progressive Party (1898-1900)
- True Constitutional Party (Kensei Hont?): breakaway of liberals discontented with the alliance with the government (1898-1910)
- Rikken Seiy?kai: formed in 1900 by a now permanent alliance between parts of the Meiji oligarchy, the bureaucracy and members of the liberal parties it became the dominant force in party politics throughout the Empire (1900-1940)
- Constitutional People's Party (Rikken Kokumint?, created in a merger of the True Constitutional Party with smaller groups, the party pushed the government for an expansion of constitutional rights (1910-1922)
- Rikken D?shikai (1913-1916), another attempt by Katsura Tar? to form a strong opposition to the Seiy?kai (1913-1916)
- Constitutional Assembly (Kenseikai, the core group of the constitutional movement in the Taish? era (1916-1927)
- True Seiy? Party (Seiy? Hont?): a Seiy?kai breakaway during the "three constitutional factions" (goken sampa) alliance between Seiy?kai, Kenseikai and Kakushin Club ("Reform Club") (1923-1926)
- Constitutional Democratic Party (Rikken Minseit?, main opponent of the Seiy?kai in the final years of party rule and during the rise of the military (1927-1940)
- Imperial Rule Assistance Association(1940-1945)
- Japanese Liberal Party (JLP or LP; Nihon Jiy?t?, mainstream democratic conservative party around former Seiy?kai politicians (1945-1948)
- Japanese Progressive Party (Nihon Shinpot?): conservative party around former Minseit? politicians (1945-1947)
- Japanese Socialist Party (JSP; Nihon Shakait?): divided into leftist JSP and rightist JSP in the early 1950s), a small minority before the war, the Socialists became the main opposition to the soon united conservatives, but continually lost ground to more centrist opposition parties over the decades (1945-1996)
- Summer breeze assembly (Ryokuf?kai, reestablished several times after)), created as the largest parliamentary group in the first House of Councillors by conservatives and some liberals and moderate socialists including a number of former House of Peers members, it had a centrist approach and was willing to work with centre-left and centre-right cabinets (1947-1960)
- Democratic Party (1947) (DP; Minshut?): created by the Progressive Party and a Liberal breakaway group, the party tried to occupy the "centre" between Liberals and Socialists, but was soon divided over cooperation with either group (1947-1950)
- Democratic Liberal Party (DLP or LP; Minshujiy?t?, created from the Liberal Party when Democrats opposed to the coalition with the Socialists joined it (1948-1950)
- Liberal Party (LP; Jiy?t?): created after the Democrats had finally split over cooperation with the Liberal government, but soon divided itself into followers of first JLP president Hatoyama Ichir? who returned to politics when the SCAP purge was lifted and the "Yoshida school" of his successor Yoshida Shigeru. forefather of Liberal Democratic Party (1950-1955)
- Japanese Democratic Party (JDP; Nihon Minshut?): Hatoyama-led breakaway from the liberals merged with smaller groups including the opposition remnants of the Democratic Party; the "conservative merger" (hoshu g?d?) of 1955 united Liberal Party and Japanese Democratic Party in the Liberal Democratic Party that dominated postwar politics for decades. Forefather of Liberal Democratic Party. (1954-1955)
- New Frontier Party (NFP; Shinshint?, lit. "New Progressive Party"), formed after an anti-LDP government had collapsed to create a unified opposition party ranging from socialists to conservatives (1994-1997)
- Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ; Minshut?): the DPJ was founded in 1998 as a result of the merger of several anti-LDP opposition parties, and was the ruling party in 2009-2012. Its membership covered a broad spectrum of political beliefs, but it was generally considered a centrist party. (1998-2016)
- Japan Restoration Party (JRP; Nippon Ishin no Kai): the JRP was founded by T?ru Hashimoto the Governor of Osaka Prefectire in 2012 as a result of the merger of several right-wing regional parties, and was the third biggest political block in the National Diet. (2012-2014)
- Japan Innovation Party (JIP; Ishin no T?): formed by a merger of the right-wing JRP and centre-right Unity Party, the Osaka regional group split off the JIP as Initiatives from Osaka in 2015 and the centre-right JIP later merged with the DPJ. (2014-2016)
- Democratic Party (DP; Minshint?): formed by a merger of the remainder of JIP and the DPJ, the party splinter during the 2017 general election among four groups: the centre-left CDP, the centre-right Kib? no T?, group of centre align independent block, and the a centre align block remain with the DP. After the election the more left-leaning centre group join the CDP or remain as independent, while the right-leaning centre group merged with the Kib? no T? to established the DPP. (2016-2018)
Pre- and early constitutional era
- Freedom and People's Rights Movement and liberal parties in the early House of Representatives
- Public Party of Patriots (Aikoku K?t?, 1874, briefly reestablished in 1890 and merged into the (Rikken) Jiy?t?)
- Self-help Society (Risshisha, 1874-1883)
- Patriot Society (Aikokusha, 1875-1880)
- Liberal Party (Jiy?t?, 1881-1884)
- Constitutional Progressive Party (Rikken Kaishint?, 1882-1896), merged with other groups to form the Progressive Party (Shinpot?)
- Daid? Club (1889-1890)
- Liberal Party (Jiy?t?, 1890), merged with other groups to form the Rikken Jiy?t?
- Oriental Liberal Party (T?y? Jiy?t?, 1892-1893), asianist, radical liberal
- Opponents and "moderate faction" (onwa-ha, meaning pro-government; also rit?, "official parties") in the early House of Representatives
- Constitutional Imperial Rule Party (Rikken Teiseit?, 1882-1883)
- Great Achievement Association (Taiseikai, 1890-1891)
- People's Liberal Party (Kokumin Jiy?t?, 1890-1891)
- Central Negotiations Assembly (Ch K?sh?kai, 1892-1893)
- People's Association (Kokumin Ky?kai, 1892-1899)
- Great Japanese Association (Dainihon Ky?kai, 1893)
- Independent Club (Dokuritsu Club)
- Same-minded Club (D?shi Club)
Empire of Japan until 1940
Socialist and labour movement
- Social Democratic Party (Shakaiminshut?, 1901)
- Japanese Socialist Party (Nihon Shakait?, 1906-1907)
- Japanese Commoners Party (Nihon Heimint?, 1906-)
- Farmers and Workers Party (N?minr?d?t?, 1925)
- Workers and Farmers Party (R?d?n?mint?, 1926-1928)
- Japanese Workers and Farmers Party (Nihon R?n?t?, 1926-1928)
- Japan Farmers Party (Nihon N?mint?, 1926-1928)
- Socialist Masses Party (Shakai Minsh?t?, 1926-1932)
- Workers and Farmers Party (R?d?shan?mint?, 1928-)
- Japanese Masses Party (Nihon Taish?t?, 1928-1930)
- Workers and Farmers Party (R?n?t?, 1929-1931)
- National Masses Party (Zenkoku Taish?t?, 1930-1931)
- National Workers and Farmers Mass Party (Zenkoku R?n?taish?t?, 1931-1932)
- Socialist Masses Party (Shakai Taish?t?, 1932-1940)
In 1940, all remaining political parties with the exception of the T?h?kai became part of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association or were banned.
Note: Postwar parties often give themselves "English" names which sometimes differ significantly from translations of their Japanese names.
LDP precursor and breakaway parties
- Japanese Cooperative Party (Nihon Ky?d?t?, centrist party promoting cooperativism by prewar Minseit? politician Sanehiko Yamamoto (1945-1946),
- Cooperative Democratic Party (Ky?d? Minshut?, created by a merger of the Japanese Cooperative Party with smaller groups (1946-1947),
- National Party (Kokumint?, centrist party formed by independents and mini-parties (1946-1947),
- National Cooperative Party (Kokumin Ky?d?t?, 1947-1950), merger of Cooperative Democratic Party and People's Party (1947-1950),
- Japan Farmers' Party (Nihon N?mint?, farmers' party mostly represented in Hokkaid?
- New Farmers' Party (N?minshint?, (1947-1949)
- Farmers' Cooperative Party (N?min Ky?d?t?, in 1952 some members joined the Progressive Party, others joined the Cooperative Party, a breakaway of right-wing socialists from the JSP (1949-1952)
- People's Democratic Party (Kokumin Minshut?, created after the Democratic Party split by a merger of the Democratic opposition wing with the People's Cooperative Party of Takeo Miki (1950-1952)
- New Political Club (Shinsei Club, group around prewar Minseit? politicians returning to politics after the SCAP purge had been lifted, joined the Progressive Party (1951-1952)
- Japanese Reconstruction League (Nihon Saiken Renmei, group around prewar Minseit? politicians returning to politics after the SCAP purge had been lifted, joined the Liberal Party (1952-1953)
- Progressive Party (Kaishint?, merger of People's Democratic Party with parts of the Farmers' Cooperative Party and the Shinsei Club, became part of Hatoyama's Japanese Democratic Party in 1954 (1952-1954)
- Japanese Liberal Party (Nihon Jiy?t?, 1953), generally referred to as Secessionist Liberal Party (bunt?ha jiy?t?) or Hatoyama Liberal Party, a first breakaway of Ichir? Hatoyama and his followers from the Liberal Party, a majority including Hatoyama returned to the Liberal Party later that year (1953-1953)
- Japanese Liberal Party (1953) (Nihon Jiy?t?, small group from Hatoyama's Liberal Party that didn't want to return to Yoshida's Liberal Party, joined Hatoyama's Japanese Democratic Party in 1954 (1953-1954)
- New Liberal Club (Shin Jiy? Club, 1976-1986), breakaway of LDP Diet members predominantly from urban constituencies, in a joint parliamentary group with the Social Democratic Federation in the early 1980s, then part of a coalition government with the LDP under Yasuhiro Nakasone, most returned to the LDP in 1986 (1976-1986)
- Tax Party (Zeikint?, 1983-1990), party of former New Liberal Club member Chinpei Nozue (1983-1990)
- Progressive Party (Shinpot?, party of New Liberal Club member Seiichi Tagawa who didn't return to the LDP, dissolved after Tagawa's retirement from politics (1987-1993)
- New Party Harbinger (Shint? Sakigake, centrist, reformist-ecologist, LDP breakaway in the 1993 no-confidence vote against the Miyazawa Cabinet (1993-1998)
- New Future Party (Shint? Mirai, 1994), breakaway of five Mitsuzuka faction Representatives, joined the New Frontier Party (1993-1994)
- Japan Renewal Party (Shinseit?, lit. "Renewal Party", liberal, breakaway of the Hata-Ozawa faction from the LDP in the 1993 no-confidence vote against the Miyazawa Cabinet, joined the New Frontier Party (1993-1994)
- K?shikai (1994), breakaway of LDP Diet members opposed to the Grand Coalition with the JSP, joined the New Frontier Party (1994-1994)
- Sakigake Party (Sakigake, lit. "Harbinger", New Party Harbinger successor after some Diet members had joined the Democratic Party (1998-2002)
- Japan Greens (Midori no Kaigi, lit. "Green Conference", Sakigake successor of Councillor (until 2004) Atsuo Nakamura (2002-2004)
- Japan Greens (Midori no Table, lit. "Green Table", "Green Conference" successor, merged with left-wing ecologist Rainbow and Greens to form "Japan Greens" (Midori no Mirai) (2004-2008)
- People's New Party (PNP; Kokumin Shint?,2005-2013 ) (2005-2013)
- Sunrise Party (Taiy? no T?, "Party of the Sun"), formed in November 2012 by Takeo Hiranuma's Sunrise Party of Japan (Tachiagare Nippon, "Rise up, Japan") and Shintar? Ishihara who resigned as governor of Tokyo to return to national politics, merged into Japan Restoration Party in November 2012 (2010-2012)
JSP breakaway parties
- Socialist Reform Party (Shakai Kakushint?, renamed (1948-1951)
- Workers and Farmers Party (R?d?shan?mint?,rejoined the JSP (1948-1957)
- Social Democratic Party (Shakaiminshut?, 1951-1952), renamed
- Cooperative Party (Ky?d?t?, 1952), (re-)joined the right-wing Socialists (1952-1952)
- Democratic Socialist Party (Japan) (Minshu-shakait?, abbreviated and later officially Minshat?, social-democratic, broke off from the JSP over the US-Japanese security treaty of 1960, joined the NFP (1960-1994)
- Socialist Citizens' Federation (Shakai Shimin Reng?, right-wing JSP breakaway around Sabur? Eda (1977-1978)
- Socialist Club (Shakai Club, right-wing JSP breakaway around Hideo Den (1977-1978)
- Social Democratic Federation (Shakaiminshu Reng?, merger of Socialist Citizens' Federation and Socialist Club, led by Hideo Den, then by Eda's son Satsuki, in a joint parliamentary group with the New Liberal Club in the early 1980s, dissolved in 1994, most members joined Japan New Party (1978-1994)
- New Party 'Liberals for Protecting the Constitution' (Shint? Goken Liberal, party around Hideo Den, opposed to the NFP and supporting the JSP-LDP Murayama Cabinet, split into Heiwa Shimin (Peace - Citizens) and Kenp? Midori-n? no Rentai (Constitution, Green Agriculture Collective), Den joined the Sangiin Forum (1994-1995)
- Citizens' League (Shimin Reng?,JSP breakaway opposed to the "Grand" Coalition with the LDP around Sadao Yamahana and Banri Kaieda, joined the Democratic Party (1995-1996)
Other NFP and DPJ precursor and breakaway parties
- Reng? no Kai formed as political arm of the newly formed RENGO trade union federation (a merger of JSP-aligned S?hy? and DSP-aligned D?mei), helped win an opposition majority in the House of Councillors in 1989, renamed (1989-1993)
- Japan New Party (Nihon Shint?, liberal, (1992-1994)
- Democratic Reform Party (Minshu Kaikaku Reng?, lit. "Democratic Reform League", joined the "new" Democratic Party (1993-1998)
- New K?mei Party (K?mei Shint?, "New Justice Party", 1994), one of two groups resulting from the dissolution of K?meit? (1994-1994)
- Sun Party (Taiy?t?, liberal reformist, NFP breakaway around Tsutomu Hata, joined Minseit? (1996-1998)
- Democratic Party of Japan (1996-1998) (Minshut?, "Democratic Party", liberal, 1996-1998), formed by Naoto Kan Yukio Hatoyama and of New Party Harbinger, then part of the Grand Coalition with LDP and SDP, together with SDP and NFP politicians; after the dissolution of the NFP most successor parties joined the DPJ parliamentary group and merged a few months later to form the "new" Democratic Party (1996-1998)
- From Five , NFP breakaway around Morihiro Hosokawa, joined Minseit? (1997-1998)
- New Fraternity Party (Shint? Y?ai, liberal reformist, 1998), NFP successor around Kansei Nakano (1998-1998)
- Liberal Party (Japan, 1998) (Jiy?t?, liberal, 1998-2003), party of Ichir? Ozawa followers after the New Frontier Party had dissolved, joined the LDP in a coalition government from 1999 to 2000 (1998-2003)
- Good Governance Party (Minseit?, "Democratic Party", liberal, 1998), merger of three member parties of the DPJ parliamentary group (1998-1998)
- Voice of the People (Kokumin no Koe, 1998), NFP successor around Michihiko Kano, joined Minseit? (1998-1998)
- Reform Club (Kaikaku Club, NFP successor around Tatsuo Ozawa (1998-2002)
- New Peace Party (Shint? Heiwa, 1998), NFP successor of former K?meit? Representatives, reestablished K?meit? (1998-1998)
- Dawn Club (Reimei Club, 1998), NFP successor of former K?meit? Councillors, merged with K?mei and reestablished K?meit? (1998-1998)
- Conservative Party (Japan) (Hoshut?, liberal, 2000-2002), breakaway group from the Liberal Party wanting to continue the coalition with the LDP and K?meit? (2000-2002)
- New Conservative Party (Hoshushint?, liberal, 2002-2003), merger of parts of the Conservative Party (others returned to the LDP) with a breakaway group from the Democratic Party, joined the LDP (2002-2003)
- Japan Renaissance Party (Kaikaku Club, lit. "Reform Club", conservative,formed during the "twisted Diet" (nejire kokkai, opposition majority in the House of Councillors) by Democratic and independent Councillors ready to cooperate with the LDP-K?meit? government, formed New Renaissance Party
- New Renaissance Party (Kaikaku Shint?, lit. "New Reform Party"; 2010-2016)
- Kizuna Party (Shint? Kizuna, "New Kizuna Party"), founded in December 2011 by former Ozawa Democrats, opposed to VAT hike, opposed to joining TPP, merged into People's Life First in 2012 (2011-2012)
- People's Life First (Kokumin no Seikatsu ga Daiichi, LF), founded by Ichir? Ozawa and other DPJ Diet members opposing a planned sales tax increase in Summer 2012, merged into TPJ in November 2012 (2012-2012)
- Japanese Women's Party (Nihon Joseit?, 1977), short-lived party of feminist leader Misako Enoki (1977-1977)
- Welfare Party (Fukushit?, 1983-?), party of Representative Eita Yashiro who joined the LDP in 1984, the party never won a seat in the Diet again and eventually dissolved
- Sports and Peace Party (Sup?tsu Heiwa T?, centrist, (1989-2004)
- Truth Party (Shinrit?, 1989-?), party of ?mu Shinriky? founder Sh?k? Asahara, its 25 candidates in the 1990 House of Representatives election altogether but a few thousand votes
- K?mei ("Justice", one of two groups resulting from the dissolution of K?meit?, merged with Reimei Club and reestablished K?meit? (1994-1998)
- Liberal League (Jiy? Reng?, libertarian, (1994-2005)
- House of Councillors Forum (Sangiin Forum, group formed by ex-SDF Councillor Hideo Den and independents (Motoo Shiina and others) (1995-1996)
- Rainbow and Greens (Niji to Midori, green, (1998-2008)
- formerly House of Councillors Club (Sangiin Club, centrist, parliamentary group of Motoo Shiina, Masami Tanabu and others (1998-1999)
- Independents (Mushozoku no Kai, lit. "assembly of independents", centrist, (1999-2004)
- The Spirit of Japan Party (Nippon S?shint?, lit. "Japan Innovation Party"), formed by prefectural and municipal politicians in 2010, dissolved to join Japan Restoration Party in 2012 (2010-2012)
- Genzei Nippon ("Tax Cuts Japan"), party founded by Nagoya mayor Takashi Kawamura in 2010, mainly active in Nagoya municipal and Aichi prefectural politics, won some seats in other areas in the 2011 local elections, had its first National Diet member in 2011, achieved party status in 2012, decided to merge into Datsu-Genpatsu in November 2012 (2010-2012)
- Tax Cuts Japan (Genzei Nippon - Han TTP - Datsu-Genpatsu o Jitsugen suru T?, "Tax Cuts Japan, Anti-TPP, Nuclear Phaseout Realization Party"; Datsu-Genpatsu), founded in a merger of Genzei Nippon ("Tax Cuts Japan") and Han-TPP in November 2012, merged into TPJ in November 2012 (2012-2012)
- "Anti-TPP, Nuclear Phaseout, Consumption Tax Hike Freeze Realization Party" (Han-TPP -- Datsu-Genpatsu -- Sh?hizei Z?zei T?ketsu wo Jitsugen Suru T?; Han-TPP), founded by Masahiko Yamada and Shizuka Kamei in November 2012 following their respective departures from the DPJ and the PNP, merged with Genzei Nippon in November 2012. (2012-2012)
- Tomorrow Party of Japan Nippon Mirai no T?, short-lived anti-nuclear party formed by a merger between Ichir? Ozawa's People's Life First and the Datsu-Genpatsu ("nuclear phaseout") party, itself a merger of Masahiko Yamada's Han-TPP ("anti-TPP") and Takashi Kawamura's Genzei Nippon ("Tax cuts Japan"), and the Representatives who had joined Green Wind. Lost all of its seats and dissolved into Green Wind in 2013. (2012-2013)
- Green Wind - Another short-lived anti-nuclear party. Dissolved in 2013. (2012-2013)
- Internet Breakthrough Party of Japan (led by Iron Chef Commentator and Judge and former LDP member Shinichir? Kurimoto)
Political parties in U.S. Okinawa
- Okinawa People's Party (Okinawa Jinmint?, communist, 1947-1973), joined the Japanese Communist Party after the return to the mainland
- Okinawa Social Mass Party (Okinawa Shakai Taish?t?, pro-reversion, socialist, 1950-), after the return to the mainland, a merger with the Japanese Socialist Party was planned, its only Representative joined the DSP, but the party continues to exist as a regional party
- Ryukyu Democratic Party (Ry?ky? Minshut?, conservative, 1952-1959)
- Okinawa Liberal Democratic Party (1959) (Okinawa Jiy?minshut?, 1959-?), split over the "Caraway whirlwind" of High Commissioner Lt. Gen. Paul W. Caraway
- Democratic Party (Minshut?, 1964-1967), renamed
- Okinawa Liberal Democratic Party (1967) (Okinawa Jiy?minshut?, 1967-1970), became the prefectural federation of the mainland Liberal Democratic Party
- Hrebenar, Ronald J. et al. Japan's New Party System. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
- Hunter, Janet. Concise Dictionary of Modern Japanese History. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1984.
- Kanda, Hiroki (?) (June 2014). [Changes of the postwar main parties and their strength in the Diet"] (PDF). 761. Chiyoda, Tokyo: National Diet Library. pp. 41-64.
"Reference", an NDL monthly (Archive))