List of Presidents of Croatia
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List of Presidents of Croatia

Coat of arms

politics and government of
Croatia

This is a list of heads of state of the Republic of Croatia (as distinct from the preceding hereditary monarchs), since the introduction of a republican system in 1943.

Historically, the first republican heads of state of Croatia (then a constituent republic of the SFR Yugoslavia) were the Presidents of the Presidium of the Croatian Parliament, an office notably distinct from the Speaker of the Parliament (Predsjednik Sabora). When the Presidium was abolished in the constitutional reforms of 1953, the position defaulted to the Presidents of the Parliament. In 1974, a new constitution brought about the collective Croatian Presidency, with the President of the Presidency as head of state of the Republic. The next constitution of 1990 abolished the Presidency and established a single office of the President, which (under a new semi-presidential system) was now much more empowered than any of the previous offices. Up until this point, the various heads of state wielded far less real executive power than the Prime Ministers.

Since 1990, the President of the Republic of Croatia (Predsjednik) is directly elected to a five-year term and is limited to a maximum of two terms. However, with the Constitution of 2001, the powers of the President (much expanded in 1990) were now again severely curtailed, as Croatia shifted from a semi-presidential system, to an incomplete parliamentary system. As in most parliamentary systems, the President is now by-and-large a ceremonial office, with the Prime Minister de facto heading the executive branch.

Heads of state of the Socialist Republic of Croatia (1943-1990)

  League of Communists of Yugoslavia (15)

  Croatian Democratic Union (1)

No. Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
Term Political party Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
President of the State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Croatia (ZAVNOH)
1943-1945
-- Vladimir Nazor Vladimir Nazor
(1876-1949)
13 June 1943 21 August 1945 2 years, 69 days Independent[1] From 1943 to 1945, formal head of state as Speaker of the ZAVNOH (Croatian wartime assembly). After WWII, served as head of state in the function of President of the Presidium of the Parliament. First head of state of socialist Croatia. Died in office.
Presidents of the Presidium of Parliament
1943-1953
1 Vladimir Nazor Vladimir Nazor
(1876-1949)
26 February 1946 19 June 1949 3 years, 302 days Independent[2]
2 Karlo Mrazovi? Karlo Mrazovi?
(1902-1987)
15 October 1949 1952 2-3 years Communist Party of Yugoslavia
3 Vicko Krstulovi? Vicko Krstulovi?
(1905-1988)
February 1952 6 February 1953 1 year Communist Party of Yugoslavia
(renamed to League of Communists of Yugoslavia in 1952)
Speakers of the Parliament (Sabor)
1953-1974
4 Zlatan Sremec Zlatan Sremec
(1898-1971)
6 February 1953 December 1953 9 months League of Communists of Yugoslavia Speaker of Parliament since 1946, became formal head of state (as Speaker) on 6 February 1953 with the abolition of the Presidium
5 Vladimir Bakari? Vladimir Bakari?
(1912-1983)
December 1953 December 1963 10 years League of Communists of Yugoslavia Longest term to date as Croatian head of state, also served as Prime Minister of Croatia, People's Hero of Yugoslavia
6 Ivan Kraja?i? Ivan Kraja?i?
(1906-1986)
December 1963 June 1967 3 years, 6 months League of Communists of Yugoslavia
7 Jakov Bla?evi? Jakov Bla?evi?
(1912-1996)
June 1967 April 1974 6 years, 10 months League of Communists of Yugoslavia
8 Ivo Peri?in Ivo Peri?in
(1925-2008)
April 1974 8 May 1974 1 month League of Communists of Yugoslavia Ceased to be the head of state with the establishment of the Collective Presidency on 8 May 1974; continued on as Speaker until 1978. Also at one time held the positions of Prime Minister of Croatia, and Mayor of Split.
Presidents of the Presidency of the Socialist Republic of Croatia
1974-1990
(7) Jakov Bla?evi? Jakov Bla?evi?
(1912-1996)
8 May 1974 May 1982 7 years, 11 months League of Communists of Yugoslavia
9 Marijan Cvetkovi? Marijan Cvetkovi?
(1920-1990)
May 1982 May 1983 1 year League of Communists of Yugoslavia
10 Milutin Balti? Milutin Balti?
(1920-2013)
May 1983 10 May 1984 1 year League of Communists of Yugoslavia
11 Jak?a Petri? Jak?a Petri?
(1922-1993)
10 May 1984 10 May 1985 1 year, 0 days League of Communists of Yugoslavia
12 Pero Car Pero Car
(1920-1985)
10 May 1985 15 November 1985+ 189 days League of Communists of Yugoslavia Died in office
13 Ema Derossi-Bjelajac Ema Derossi-Bjelajac
(1926-2020)
20 November 1985 10 May 1986 171 days League of Communists of Yugoslavia First female head of state of modern Croatia
14 Ante Markovi? Ante Markovi?
(1924-2011)
10 May 1986 May 1988 1 year, 11 months League of Communists of Yugoslavia Also at one time Prime Minister of Croatia and last Prime Minister of Yugoslavia. Led reforms terminated by the ensuing Yugoslav Wars.
15 Ivo Latin Ivo Latin
(1929-2002)
May 1988 30 May 1990 2 years League of Communists of Yugoslavia
President of the Presidency of the Republic of Croatia
30 May 1990 - 22 December 1990
16 Franjo Tu?man Franjo Tu?man
(1922-1999)
30 May 1990 22 December 1990 206 days Croatian Democratic Union Constitutional amendments in July 1990, following the first free Croatian Parliamentary elections, changed the formal title to "President of the Presidency of the Republic of Croatia" and expanded presidential powers. New constitution (third since 1945) drafted later that year.

Presidents of the Republic of Croatia (1990-present)

On 30 May 1990 Franjo Tu?man was elected by Parliament as the President of the Presidency of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, then still a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and held office together with several Vice Presidents of the Presidency of SR Croatia. The collective presidency was reduced to seven members on 25 July 1990 and the name of the constituent Yugoslav republic was changed to the Republic of Croatia by removing the word Socialist from its name and the names of its institutions. The collective presidency was completely abolished in favor of the post of President of the Republic of Croatia with the adoption of a new constitution on 22 December 1990. The Croatian Parliament then declared independence on 25 June 1991, when Tu?man formally became the first president of an independent Croatian nation under the name the Republic of Croatia. Thus, the current office is not considered a continuation of the line of heads of state who held office while Croatia was a constituent republic in Yugoslavia, called SR Croatia (until 25 July 1990) and the Republic of Croatia (25 July-22 December 1990), and whose heads of state held a sub-national office.

(*)The constitutional amendments of November 2000 abandoned a semi-presidential system for a parliamentary system (with a directly elected president) and also made the presidency a non-partisan office, meaning that even if they are elected to office as a candidate of a particular political party, he or she must resign membership in that party before taking office as president.

  Social Democratic Party of Croatia (2)

  Croatian Democratic Union (2)

  Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats (1)

No. Picture Name
(Birth-Death)
Term of office Election Political party
No. Term start Term end
1 Franjo Tu?man
Signature of Franjo Tu?man.png
Franjo Tu?man
(1922-1999)
-- 22 December 1990** 12 August 1992 -- Croatian Democratic Union
1 12 August 1992 11 August 1997 1992 (56.73%)
2 12 August 1997 10 December 1999 1997 (61.41%)
Parliament elected him the President of the Presidency of SR Croatia in May 1990, but with the adoption of a new constitution on 22 December 1990, the title of the office was changed to President of the Republic of Croatia and the Presidium of Croatia (Presidency) was completely abolished. The referendum on independence was held in May 1991, with 93% of voters supporting independence. It was followed by a formal declaration of independence on 25 June 1991, the same date as neighboring Slovenia. Croatia and Slovenia gained recognition by the European Union on 15 January 1992 and joined the United Nations in May 1992. Tu?man won re-election to a de facto second and third term in 1992 and 1997, winning election outright both times without the need for a run-off. He is the only president to have been elected in the first round of elections. He died in office in December 1999.
A Vlatko Pavleti?
(1930-2007)
-- 10 December 1999 2 February 2000 Acting President Croatian Democratic Union
Tu?man was incapacitated since 26 November 1999 and died on 10 December 1999. Pavleti? became acting president as Speaker of the Croatian Parliament. He was succeeded by Zlatko Tom?i? when the 4th Assembly of Parliament was replaced by the 5th Assembly after the 2000 election.
A Zlatko Tom?i? Zlatko Tom?i?
(1945-)
-- 2 February 2000 18 February 2000 Acting President Croatian Peasant Party
Became acting president as Speaker of Parliament when the 4th Assembly of Parliament (1995-2000) was replaced by the 5th Assembly (2000-2003). Served until Stjepan Mesi? was sworn in as the new President on 18 February 2000.
2 Stjepan Mesi?
Signature of Stjepan Mesi?.png
Stjepan Mesi?
(1934-)
3 19 February 2000 18 February 2005 2000 (56.01%) Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats* (formally independent)
4 19 February 2005 18 February 2010 2005 (65.93%)
He defeated Dra?en Budi?a in the 2000 presidential elections. He was the first president with reduced powers, as the semi-presidential system was replaced by an incomplete parliamentary system in November 2000. Mesi? was re-elected in 2005, defeating Jadranka Kosor in a landslide.
3 Ivo Josipovi?
Accession Treaty 2011 Ivo Josipovi? signature.svg
Ivo Josipovi?
(1957-)
5 19 February 2010 18 February 2015 2009-10 (60.26%) Social Democratic Party* (formally independent)
He defeated Milan Bandi? by a wide margin in the 2010 election. He was narrowly defeated by Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? in his re-election bid in 2015.
4 Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi?
Kolindacestitka (presidential siganute).jpg
Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi?
(1968-)
6 19 February 2015 18 February 2020 2014-15 (50.74%) Croatian Democratic Union* (formally independent)
She defeated incumbent president Ivo Josipovi? in the second round of the 2015 election. She is the first female president since independence and also the youngest, aged 46. She was defeated by Zoran Milanovi? in her reelection bid in 2020.
5 Zoran Milanovi?
Milanovic potpis.gif
Zoran Milanovi?
(1966-)
7 19 February 2020 Incumbent 2019-20 (52.66%) Social Democratic Party* (formally independent)
He defeated incumbent president Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? in the second round of the 2020 election.

A - Acting President
(**) From the abolishment of the collective Presidency of the Republic of Croatia on 22 December 1990

Spouses of Croatian Presidents

The First Lady or First Gentleman of Croatia is the informal title given to the wife or husband of the President of Croatia. It is used almost exclusively outside the country itself or by foreign media sources, while within Croatia itself the spouse of the President is usually referred to as either the wife of the President of the Republic or the husband of the President of the Republic, rather than being referenced as a First Spouse. The title carries no official or formal duties and is purely honorary.

Facts and records of Presidents of Croatia

Age

  • Oldest first-term president: Franjo Tu?man (68 years, 222 days) - Note: technically first term but regarded as interim term (1990-1992) until direct elections could take place in 1992.
  • Oldest president upon second inauguration: Franjo Tu?man (70 years, 91 days) - Note: technically second term (1992-1997) but regarded as first term under constitutional provision and first following introduction of direct elections.
  • Oldest President at beginning of final term: Franjo Tu?man (75 years, 91 days)- Note: technically third term (1997-1999) but regarded as second under constitutional provision and second following introduction of direct elections
  • Oldest president upon end of final term: Franjo Tu?man (77 years, 210 days)
  • Oldest head of state (overall) upon entering office: Vlatko Pavleti? (as acting President) (69 years, 8 days)
  • Youngest president upon inauguration: Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? (46 years, 295 days)
  • Youngest president upon second inauguration: Stjepan Mesi? (70 years, 56 days)
  • Youngest president upon end of term: Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? (51 years, 295 days)
  • Youngest president upon end of second term: Stjepan Mesi? (75 years, 56 days)
  • Youngest head of state (overall) upon end of term: Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? (51 years, 295 days)

Terms and elections

  • Three terms: Franjo Tu?man (1990-1992, 1992-1997, 1997-1999)
  • Two terms: Stjepan Mesi? (2000-2005, 2005-2010)
  • One term: Ivo Josipovi? (2010-2015), Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? (2015-2020), Zoran Milanovi? (2020-)
  • Longest serving president: Stjepan Mesi? (10 years, 0 days/ 3653 days)
  • Shortest serving president(s) with complete term: Ivo Josipovi? and Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? (both 5 years, 0 days / 1826 days)
  • Shortest serving head of state: Zlatko Tom?i? (as acting president) (16 days)
  • Highest vote percentage in an election (overall): Stjepan Mesi? (65.93%) - second round in 2000
  • Lowest vote percentage in an election (overall): Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? (26.65%) - first round in 2019
  • Highest vote percentage in an election (first round): Franjo Tu?man (61.4%) - in 1997
  • Highest vote percentage in an election (second round): Stjepan Mesi? (65.93%) - in 2000
  • Lowest vote percentage in an election (first round): Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? (26.65%) - in 2019
  • Lowest vote percentage in an election (second round): Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? (50.74%) - in 2015
  • Highest number of votes in an election (overall): 1,519,000 - Franjo Tu?man in 1992
  • Highest number of votes in first round: 1,519,000 - Franjo Tu?man in 1992
  • Highest number of votes in second round: 1,454,451 - Stjepan Mesi? in 2005
  • Lowest number of votes in an election (overall): 507,628 - Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? in first round in 2019
  • Lowest number of votes in first round: 507,628 - Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? in 2019
  • Lowest number of votes in second round: 1,034,389 - Zoran Milanovi? in 2020
  • Largest margin of victory in a direct election (%): 40.4% (Franjo Tu?man (61.4%) and Zdravko Tomac (21%) in 1997)
  • Largest margin of victory in a direct election (votes): 933,565 votes (Franjo Tu?man and Dra?en Budi?a in 1992)
  • Smallest margin of victory in a direct election (%): 1.48% (Kolinda Grabar Kitarovi? (50.74%) and Ivo Josipovi? (49.26%) in 2015 (second round)
  • Smallest margin of victory in a direct election (votes): 32.509 (Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? and Ivo Josipovi? in 2015 (second round)
  • Only indirectly elected president: Franjo Tu?man (by 281 of 338 votes of Members of Parliament in 1990)

Other facts and figures

  • First female president: Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? (2015-2020)
  • First former (post-independence) Prime Minister to become President: Zoran Milanovi? (2020-)
  • First former Speaker of Parliament to be elected President: Stjepan Mesi? (2000-2010)
  • Only former President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia to become President: Stjepan Mesi? (2000-2010)
  • Only President to have been head of state of more than one independent country: Stjepan Mesi? (as a member (and President of the Presidency) of Yugoslavia (1990-1991) and President of Croatia (2000-2010)
  • Only President to have held all three highest offices of government (President of the Republic, Speaker of Parliament and (pre-independence) Prime Minister): Stjepan Mesi? (2000-2010)
  • Only President who has at some point been Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement: Stjepan Mesi? (as President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia)
  • President with most Prime Ministers serving during term: Franjo Tu?man (6 Prime Ministers - Stjepan Mesi?, Josip Manoli?, Franjo Greguri?, Hrvoje ?arini?, Nikica Valenti?, Zlatko Mate?a)
  • Only president to die in office: Franjo Tu?man (1990-1999)

See also

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

List_of_presidents_of_Croatia
 



 



 
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