List of Prime Ministers of Canada
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List of Prime Ministers of Canada

Canada's prime ministers during its first century

The prime minister of Canada is an official who serves as the primary minister of the Crown, chair of the Cabinet, and thus head of government of Canada. Officially, the prime minister is appointed by the Governor General of Canada, but by constitutional convention, the prime minister must have the confidence of the elected House of Commons. Normally, this is the leader of the party caucus with the greatest number of seats in the house. But if that leader lacks the support of the majority, the governor general can appoint another leader who has that support or may dissolve parliament and call a new election. By constitutional convention, a prime minister holds a seat in parliament and, since the early 20th century, this has more specifically meant the House of Commons.[1]

The office is not outlined in any of the documents that constitute the written portion of the Constitution of Canada; executive authority is formally vested in the sovereign and exercised on their behalf by the governor general. The prime ministership is part of Canada's constitutional convention tradition. The office was modelled after that which existed in Britain at the time. Sir John A. Macdonald was commissioned by the Viscount Monck on 24 May 1867, to form the first government of the Canadian Confederation. On 1 July 1867, the first ministry assumed office.[2]

The date for which a prime minister begins their term has been determined by the date that he or she is sworn into their portfolio, as an oath of office as prime minister is not required.[3] However, since 1957, the incoming prime minister has sworn an oath as prime minister.[3] Before 1920, prime ministers' resignations were accepted immediately by the governor general and the last day of the ministries were the date he died or the date of resignation.[3] Since 1920, the outgoing prime minister has only formally resigned when the new government is ready to be formed.[3] The Interpretation Act of 1967 states that "where an appointment is made effective or terminates on a specified day, that appointment is considered to be effective or to terminate after the end of the previous day".[3] Thus, although the outgoing prime minister formally resigns only hours before the incoming ministry swears their oaths, both during the day, the ministries are effectively changed at midnight the night before. Some sources, including the Parliament of Canada, apply this convention as far back as 1917.[4] Two prime ministers have died in office: Sir John A. Macdonald (1867-1873, 1878-1891), and John Thompson (1892-1894). All others have resigned, either after losing an election or upon retirement.

Prime ministers

Abbreviation key: No.: Incumbent number, Min.: Ministry, Refs: References
Colour key:
Provinces key: AB: Alberta, BC: British Columbia, MB: Manitoba, NS: Nova Scotia,
ON: Ontario, QC: Quebec, SK: Saskatchewan
No. Portrait Name
(Birth-Death)
District
Term of office Electoral mandates (Parliaments) Political party Min. Refs
1
Macdonald1872.jpg
Sir John A. Macdonald
(1815-1891)
1867

1873
Liberal-Conservative Party 1st [2][5]
Minister of Justice; Integration of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory into Canada; Manitoba Act; Red River Rebellion; British Columbia and Prince Edward Island join confederation; Creation of the North-West Mounted Police; Resigned over Pacific Scandal
2
Alexander MacKenzie - portrait.jpg
Alexander Mackenzie
(1822-1892)
1873

1878
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1873
2nd [6][7]
Pacific Scandal; Creation of the Supreme Court; Passage of the Indian Act; Establishment of the Royal Military College; Created the office of the Auditor General
(1)
Sir John A Macdonald circa 1878 retouched.jpg
Sir John A. Macdonald
(1815-1891)


1878

1891
Liberal-Conservative Party 3rd [8][9]
National Policy; Railway to the Pacific; North-West Rebellion; Hanging of Louis Riel. Died in office (stroke).
3
Johnabbott.jpg
Sir John Abbott
(1821-1893)
1891

1892
Liberal-Conservative Party 4th [10][11]
Minister without Portfolio; Succeeded on Macdonald's death due to objections to the Catholic John Thompson. In ill health; retired. First prime minister born in what would become Canada, and first of only two prime ministers to serve while in the Senate.
4
Sir John SD Thompson.jpg
Sir John Thompson
(1845-1894)
1892

1894
Liberal-Conservative Party 5th [12][13]
Minister of Justice; First Catholic Prime Minister. Manitoba Schools Question. Died in office (heart attack).
5
Hastings County Archives HC01485 (35445640115).jpg
Sir Mackenzie Bowell
(1823-1917)
1894

1896
Conservative Party (historical) 6th [14][15]
Minister of Customs; Minister of Militia and Defence; Manitoba Schools Question. Last prime minister to serve while in the Senate.
6
Chas Tupper - GG Bain.jpg
Sir Charles Tupper
(1821-1915)
Did not serve in Parliament while Prime Minister
1896

1896
  • Appointment (no parliament)
Conservative Party (historical) 7th [16][17]
Minister of Customs, Minister of Railways and Canals; Oldest Canadian PM. Aimed to defeat Patrons of Industry, but dominated by Manitoba Schools Question. Never sat in parliament as Prime Minister.
7
The Honourable Sir Wilfrid Laurier Photo C (HS85-10-16873) - medium crop.jpg
Sir Wilfrid Laurier
(1841-1919)
1896

1911
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1887
8th [18][19]
Manitoba Schools Question; Boer War; Alberta and Saskatchewan created; Creation of the Royal Canadian Navy; Reciprocity with the US; Department of External Affairs established; First French Canadian Prime Minister; Removed the right of status Indians to vote.
8
Sir Robert Laird Borden, 1915.png
Sir Robert Borden
(1854-1937)

1911

1917
Conservative Party (historical)
Named leader in 1901
9th [19][20][21]


Unionist Party 10th
First World War; Military Service Act; Conscription Crisis of 1917; Union government; National Research Council; Introduction of income tax; Nickle Resolution; Women's suffrage; Suppression of Winnipeg General Strike; Canada sits at the Paris Peace Conference, signs the Treaty of Versailles and joins League of Nations.
9
Arthur Meighen-.jpg
Arthur Meighen
(1874-1960)
1920

1921
National Liberal and Conservative Party
Named leader in 1920
11th [22][23]
Solicitor General of Canada, Minister of Mines, Secretary of State for Canada, Minister of the Interior, Superintendent Indian Affairs; Grand Trunk Railway placed under control of Canadian National Railways.
10
King1922.jpg
William Lyon Mackenzie King
(1874-1950)

1921

1926
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1919
12th [24][25]
Minister of Labour; Chanak Crisis; lower tariffs; reinstated Crowsnest Pass Agreement; 1923 Imperial Conference; Halibut Treaty; Continued after 1925 with third party Progressive support until resigning after his request for an election was refused by Governor General Lord Byng.
(9)
Former PM Arthur Meighen.jpg
Arthur Meighen
(1874-1960)
1926

1926
Conservative Party (historical) 13th [22][26]
Appointed as a result of the King-Byng Affair.
(10)
William Lyon Mackenzie King - William Lyon Mackenzie King (39973407352).jpg
William Lyon Mackenzie King
(1874-1950)
1926

1930
Liberal Party 14th [24][27]
Balfour Declaration; Introduction of old age pensions; first Canadian envoys with full diplomatic status sent to foreign countries (USA, France, Japan); Great Depression.
11
Richard Bedford Bennett.jpg
R. B. Bennett
(1870-1947)
1930

1935
Conservative Party (historical)
Named leader in 1927
15th [28][29]
Minister of Justice, Minister of Finance; Great Depression; Imperial Preference; Statute of Westminster; Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission; Canadian Wheat Board; Creation of the Bank of Canada.
(10)
Wm Lyon Mackenzie King.jpg
William Lyon Mackenzie King
(1874-1950)

1935

1948
Liberal Party 16th [24][30]
Creation of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation; National Film Board of Canada; Unemployment Insurance Act of 1940; Nationalization of the Bank of Canada; Second World War; Japanese Canadian internment; Conscription Crisis of 1944; Canada's entry into the United Nations; Trans-Canada Airlines; Gouzenko Affair.
12
Louis St. Laurent 1954 37112.jpg
Louis St. Laurent
(1882-1973)
1948

1957
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1948
17th [31][32]
Minister of Justice, Secretary of State for External Affairs; Dominion of Newfoundland joins confederation; right of appeal to Judicial Committee of the Privy Council ended; Canada's entrance into NATO; Suez Crisis; Creation of the United Nations Emergency Force; London Declaration; Newfoundland Act; Equalization; Trans-Canada Highway; St. Lawrence Seaway; Trans-Canada Pipeline; Pipeline Debate.
13
John Diefenbaker 1961.png
John Diefenbaker
(1895-1979)
1957

1963
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 1956
18th [33][34]
Avro Arrow cancellation; Coyne Affair; Cuban Missile Crisis; NORAD; Establishment of Board of Broadcast Governors; Canadian Bill of Rights; Allowed status aboriginals to vote in federal elections 1960; Alouette 1 satellite programme.
14
Lester B. Pearson at desk (crop).jpg
Lester B. Pearson
(1897-1972)
1963

1968
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1958
19th [35][36]
Secretary of State for External Affairs; Bomarc missile program; Federal involvement in universal healthcare; Canada Pension Plan; Canada Student Loans; Creation of a new Canadian flag; Auto Pact; Rejection of troop deployment to Vietnam; Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism; Unification of the Armed Forces; Canadian Centennial Celebrations.
15
Pierre Trudeau (1975).jpg
Pierre Trudeau
(1919-2000)
1968

1979
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1968
20th [37]
Minister of Justice; "Trudeaumania"; "Just Society"; October Crisis and Use of the War Measures Act; Official Languages Act; Establishment of relations with Communist China; Victoria Charter; Creation of Petro-Canada; Membership in the G7; Metric Commission, Metrication of Canada, Creation of Via Rail.
16
JoeClark.jpg
Joe Clark
(b. 1939)
1979

1980
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 1976
21st [38]
Youngest Canadian PM. Defeated in a motion of no confidence on first budget.
(15)
Pierre Elliot Trudeau-2.jpg
Pierre Trudeau
(1919-2000)
1980

1984
Liberal Party 22nd [37]
1980 Quebec referendum; Access to Information Act; Patriation of the Canadian Constitution; Montreal Protocol; Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms; National Energy Program; Canada Health Act; Western alienation.
17
John Turner by Gage Skidmore.jpg
John Turner
(1929-2020)
Did not serve in Parliament while Prime Minister
1984

1984
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1984
23rd [39]
Minister of Justice, Minister of Finance; Trudeau Patronage Appointments. Never sat in parliament as Prime Minister.
18
Brian Mulroney (cropped).jpg
Brian Mulroney
(b. 1939)

1984

1993
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 1983
24th [40]
Cancellation of the National Energy Program; Meech Lake Accord; Petro-Canada privatization; Canada-US Free Trade Agreement; Introduction of the Goods and Services Tax; Charlottetown Accord; Gulf War; Oka Crisis; Environmental Protection Act; Privatization of Air Canada, North American Free Trade Agreement; Nunavut Land Claims Agreement; Airbus affair.
19
Kim Campbell.jpg
Kim Campbell
(b. 1947)
1993

1993
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 1993
25th [41]
Minister of Justice, Minister of Veterans Affairs, Minister of National Defence, Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs; first female Prime Minister of Canada. Defeated and lost her seat in 1993 election.
20
Chrétien crop Sept 9 2002.jpg
Jean Chrétien
(b. 1934)
1993

2003
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1990
26th [42]
Minister of Finance, Minister of Indian Affairs, Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources, Minister of Justice and Energy Minister, President of the Treasury Board, Minister of National Revenue, Deputy Prime Minister of Canada; Privatization of Canadian National Railway, Red Book; Harmonized Sales Tax; 1995 Quebec referendum; Clarity Act; Assassination attempt; Kosovo War; 1997 Red River flood; Social Union Framework Agreement; Creation of Nunavut Territory; Youth Criminal Justice Act; Operation Yellow Ribbon; Invasion of Afghanistan; Opposition to the Invasion of Iraq; Sponsorship scandal; Kyoto Protocol; Gomery Inquiry.
21
Paul martin 2004.jpg
Paul Martin
(b. 1938)
2003

2006
Liberal Party
Named leader in 2003
27th [40]
Minister of Finance; Minority government. Civil Marriage Act; Kelowna Accord; Rejection of US Anti-Missile Treaty; Sponsorship scandal; Gomery inquiry; G20; Atlantic Accord; Martin and his father Paul Martin Sr have the honorific title of Right Honourable.
22
Stephen Harper 2014 (cropped).jpg
Stephen Harper
(b. 1959)
2006

2015
Conservative Party
Named leader in 2004
28th [43]
Accountability Act; Softwood Lumber Agreement; Afghanistan Mission; 2006 Ontario terrorism plot; Québécois nation motion; 2008 Financial crisis; Coalition crisis; Economic Action Plan; Afghan detainee issue; Parliamentary contempt; Withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol; Repeal of the Long-Gun Registry; Senate expenses scandal; Anti-terrorism Act, 2015.
23
Prime Minister Trudeau - 2020 (cropped).jpg
Justin Trudeau
(b. 1971)
2015

Liberal Party
Named leader in 2013
29th [44]
Eldest son of 15th Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau; Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs and Youth; Senate appointment reform; Paris Agreement; 150th anniversary celebrations; Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement; Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership; Cannabis Act; United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement; SNC-Lavalin affair; COVID-19 pandemic; WE Charity scandal.
Min. Minority government
LS Party won the election, but prime minister lost own seat
* The Interpretation Act of 1967 states that "where an appointment is made effective or terminates on a specified day, that appointment is considered to be effective or to terminate after the end of the previous day." Under the Act, prime ministers' tenures are therefore credited as having concluded at the end of their last full day in office (the earlier date given), although their resignation was received by the Governor General on the following day. This provision applies to P. Trudeau in 1979[45] and 1984,[46] Clark,[47] Turner,[48] Mulroney,[49] Campbell,[50] Chrétien,[51] Martin,[51] and Harper.[51]

Timeline

Justin TrudeauStephen HarperPaul MartinJean ChrétienKim CampbellBrian MulroneyJohn TurnerJoe ClarkPierre Elliott TrudeauLester B. PearsonJohn DiefenbakerLouis St. LaurentR. B. BennettWilliam Lyon Mackenzie KingArthur MeighenRobert BordenWilfrid LaurierCharles TupperMackenzie BowellJohn Sparrow David ThompsonJohn AbbottAlexander Mackenzie (politician)John A. Macdonald

Living former prime ministers

As of November 2020, there are six living former prime ministers of Canada, the oldest being Jean Chretien (born 1934; served 1993-2003). The most recent former prime minister to die was John Turner (1929-2020; served in 1984) on 19 September 2020. The living former prime ministers, in order of service, are:

See also

References

  1. ^ Forsey, Eugene (2005), How Canadians Govern Themselves (PDF) (6 ed.), Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada, p. 38, ISBN 0-662-39689-8, archived from the original (PDF) on 29 December 2009, retrieved 2011
  2. ^ a b "Guide to Canadian Ministries since Confederation". Privy Council Office. 14 October 2009. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 2011.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Guide to Canadian Ministries since Confederation: Life of a Ministry". Government of Canada Privy Council Office. 14 October 2009. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 2011.
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  5. ^ "PARLINFO - Parliamentarian File - Federal Experience - MACKENZIE, The Hon. Alexander, P.C." Parliament of Canada. Retrieved 2011.
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  7. ^ "PARLINFO - Parliamentarian File - Federal Experience - MACDONALD, The Right Hon. Sir John Alexander, P.C., G.C.B., Q.C., D.C.L., LL.D." Parliament of Canada. Retrieved 2011.
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Further reading

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

List_of_prime_ministers_of_Canada
 



 



 
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