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The power to award Greek university degrees is regulated by law and it is an offence for an institution to award a Greece university degree if it is not public and state-owned. The State University System of Greece operates on the term system of two semesters per academic year, shares a common national academic curriculum set forth by the Ministry of Education (?..?.).
Higher education institutions
Higher education institutions' (HEIs; ? ) undergraduate programmes in Greece are government funded and have free education without any payment of tuition fee. About one-fourth of postgraduate programmes are offered without tuition and 30% of students can be entitled to attend tuition-free postgraduate programmes after they are assessed on individual criteria. The Hellenic Qualification Framework (HQF) sets out the different levels of education qualifications and the requirements for each of these and is linked to the European Qualifications Framework (EQF), and thus to other qualifications frameworks across the European Union.
The regulated framework for Greece higher education qualifications, which is tied to the HQF, covers degree-levels qualifications of Greece degree-awarding bodies and is linked to the Qualifications Framework in the European Higher Education Area (QF-EHEA) established by the Bologna process where Greece is a full member since 1999. Joining to the Bologna process Greece began education reforms in order to get higher education meeting the common European Union standards. Now the process is implemented in all higher education institutions. The programmes of EHEA are set at three levels of study which are usually referred to as the three cycle system.
First (entry level), a four-year cycle of study at EQF level 6 to attain a bachelor's degree or its equivalent (Greek: ; transliterated to Ptychio in dhimotiki from 1976-present; or defunt ?; Ptychion in polytonic, katharevousa up until 1976). A second cycle of study follows at EQF level 7 lasting one or two years to attain a master's degree (Greek: ? ? (?.?.?.), lit. 'postgraduate specialized diploma', also known as ? ? (?.?.?.), 'diploma of postgraduate studies') or equivalent, which is distinguished from a postgraduate diploma, typically having 120 ECTS, as opposed to a full master's degree which usually has 180. The third cycle of study at EQF level 8, lasting three years, awards a doctorate's degree (Greek: ?) or equivalent.
Technical universities, also known as polytechnics (Greek: ), grant degrees at the integrated master's, master's, and doctorate level. In specific disciplines, only the undergraduate programme is five years with awarded qualification (Greek: ?, Latinised version: Diploma) that is legally equivalent to an integrated master's degree, which is often the standard route to chartered status for a regulated profession in Greece. The integrated master's degree is a specialized degree corresponding to a master-level degree which has integrated part of an undergraduate degree. It is also called an undergraduate master's degree, where instead of studying for two separate degrees, a student will study for a single, longer programme. The most common integrated master's is in engineering, for example a Dipl.-Eng or Dip.Arch.Eng/M.Arch, and also others along with some programmes in the fine arts.
In medical schools, six years of studying are required to earn a bachelor's degree.
In addition to earning an academic degree in specific disciplines only, state license is required to practice independently within the country of Greece, and some disciplines have further licensing requirements to bestow a recognized appellation (chartered accountant, attorney at law, doctor of medicine, etc.). Diploma is a prerequisite for registration as a chartered professional, so it is also known as professional degree. The use of specific professional titles for some professions is legally regulated. For a regulated profession, access to professional practice requires holding a particular specific degree (e.g. professional degree), taken special exams that are required to earn state practice credential such as it must pass the National Council Licensure Examination, a period of practical training under supervision similar to internship, and/or registration with a professional body.
Technological educational institutes (TEIs; Greek: ) was a classification of Greek public HEIs (government subsidised) from 1983 to 2019, also called Technological Educational Institutes (TEIs) of Higher Education, Technological Institutes, Institutes of Technology, and Technological Universities.
The undergraduate degree programmes consisted of four years and 240 ECTS-credits, previously a three and a half years (law 1404/24-11-1983, 1983-1995) and 210 ECTS, in line with the Bologna Process equivalent to a Level 6 ISCED bachelor's degree; the postgraduate degree programmes were one-and-a-half years full-time or three years part-time with 90 credits and awarded qualification equivalent to a master's degree, ISCED 7. All TEIs in Greece were reformed between 2013 and 2019 and their departments incorporated into existing Higher Education Institutions.
This section is for HEIs that are defunct due to either closure or merger.
The progressive education reforms of the "ATHENA" reform plan restructured higher education from 2013 to 2019.
Military HEIs offer 4-year undergraduate programs which lead to a bachelor's degree-level in military studies. They have been called Higher Military Education Institutions (ASEI; Greek: ? ). Since 2010, they have offered studies for master's degree-level specialized diplomas and doctoral degrees. They conduct officer training for the Hellenic Armed Forces and have been considered national defense universities since 1961. Students at Military Forces Academies are referred to as cadets and receive a monthly stipend during education. All cadets reside on campus and receive meals in dining halls. Cadets are not referred to as freshmen, sophomores, juniors, or seniors but instead fourth class, third class, second class, and first class cadets, respectively. All foreign cadets are commissioned into the military forces of their home countries. Upon graduation, all cadets become commissioned as second lieutenants, entry-level rank, and are employed in the Hellenic Armed Forces for a compulsory minimum term of duty service.
Military School of Officers Corps, with programs in Economy, Dentistry, Legal Advisors, Medical, Pharmacy, Psychology, Veterinary Medicine.
Hellenic National Defense College
In Greece, private colleges are not considered universities and are not recognized as HEIs or degree-awarding bodies by the Greek government. The Post-secondary Education Centres (Greek: ? ; ?) accredited by the Ministry of Education to which the Private Colleges belong, also they can be called Post-secondary Colleges (non-tertiary), they are bodies of non-typical education ( ? ) known as non-formal education bodies.
According to the State Constitution of Greece, "education at university level must be provided exclusively by institutions which are fully self-governed public law legal bodies". This prohibits private companies from operating post-secondary education that provides studies at Level 6 and higher on the Greek Qualifications Framework. However, it does not prohibit colleges from collaborating in Greece with foreign universities to offer undergraduate and postgraduate programmes.
Founded in 1998, the Hellenic Colleges Association (HCA; ) is the representative official body for the Greece located private colleges. All the private colleges located in Greece are for-profit. Generally, any individual who wants to found a college in Greece must obtain a Higher Education Accreditation by the National Authority for Higher Education (NAHE) and a license by the Ministry of Education, but has no obligation to become a participatory member of HCA.
The vast majority of colleges are offering programmes of study under franchise or validation agreements with universities established in other European Union countries, primarily in the UK, leading to degrees which are awarded directly by those universities. The monitoring of those agreements as well as of additional provisions for the operation of colleges is carried out by the Ministry of Education and confirmed by Parliament by a 2008 law. Amendments were passed in 2010, 2012, 2013,, and 2014. They are also monitored by the respective educational authorities of the countries of the partnered universities, for example QAA and NARIC for a British university.
One example of a college which neither operating as a franchise nor was validated through arrangements in the UK was the University of Indianapolis - Athens Campus, which ceased operations in July 2014. By contrast, this college was wholly owned and operated by its home campus, and is therefore accredited by the same agency which accredits the home campus. Consequently, students of the University of Indianapolis could switch between campuses at any time.
Degrees, diplomas, certificates, and any other type of attestation awarded by universities in European Union and European Free Trade Association countries to students that have completed their studies in an accredited private college located in Greece, can be recognized as professionally equivalent "in terms of the professional (practice) rights only" (Greek: ) to higher education titles awarded in the formal Greek education system. Recognition of professional equivalence permits access to a specific economic activity that the title-holder can exercise on the same rules, rights, terms as holders of comparable titles of Greece HEIs education system.
Recognition of legally-recognized professional degree rights in Greece can only be granted by the Independent Department of Implementation of European Legislation (ATEEN; ? ?; ?.?.?.?.?.) of the Ministry of Education (?..?.), as of the 2005 Directive of the European Parliament and Council, implemented domestically by a presidential decree in 2010.
Higher Education qualifications obtained from abroad foreign countries are recognised by the Interdisciplinary Organization of Recognition Academic Titles and Information (D.O.A.T.A.P.; Greek: ? ; ?.?.?.?.?.?.) supervised by the Ministry of Education (?..?.). The "Hellenic National Academic Recognition and Information Center (Hellenic NARIC)" is the official international name of DOATAP. In most cases, it can obtain a "statement of comparability" of a qualification (certificate of qualification equivalency information), stating how it compares to the qualifications delivered in Greece.
The Hellenic Quality Assurance and Accreditation Agency for Higher Education (ADIP; Greek: ? ? ? ?; ?), established by Law 3374/2005, keeps the competent bodies of the state and the HEIs informed on current international developments and relevant issues. The ADIP was reformed by law 4653/2020 to form the National Authority for Higher Education (NAHE; Greek: ? ; .?.?.?.). At the end of each year, a Higher Education Quality Report is submitted to the Minister of Education. A "Quality Assurance Unit" (QAU) is established in every HEI in order to coordinate and support evaluation procedures. QAU meetings are chaired by the Vice-Rector or Vice-President of Academic Affairs of the relevant HEI and representatives of the staff and students take part in the QAU.
The internal evaluation is carried out with the responsibility of each academic unit (faculty or department) in cooperation with the Quality Assurance Unit. The academic units appoint Internal Evaluation Groups or Special Evaluation Groups (if undergraduate or postgraduate programmes are separately evaluated) and these groups compile the Internal Evaluation Report and submit it to the Quality Assurance Unit of the institution. The external evaluation process is repeated at longest every four years with the cooperation of HEIs and the NAHE. The evaluation is carried out by the External Evaluation Committee, which consists of five members from an NAHE register of independent experts.
^"Agricultural University of Athens - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2016. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-07-12. Retrieved ."The EEC was impressed by the high quality of undergraduate and postgraduate programs and faculty research. AUA is committed to competitive research and extension activities in both scientifically and economically important areas, notably in agriculture, food science and natural resource management."
^"Aristotle University of Thessaloniki - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2015. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-07-12. Retrieved ."AUTH from its inception to present time has a reputation of providing excellent education to its students in their respective fields of study. The research operations of the university are sizeable and impressive, both in the physical sciences and the humanities. They also include a few excellent examples of world-class research and recognition. The University has initiated the strategic planning process, which should be continued and completed."
^"AUEB - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2015. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-05-31. Retrieved ."AUEB is a leading Greek institution in its field and stands well in comparison to international institutions attaining excellence in the areas of entrepreneurship and internationalisation and in its social involvement and contribution."
^"Democritus University of Thrace - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2015. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-07-12. Retrieved ."The report was honest and clear in pointing out strengths as well as weaknesses. One dissenting member who finds the final rating as "Worthy of Merit" views it as a rating of "the totality of the internal evaluation process" with emphasis on the overall efficacy."
^"Harokopio University - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2016. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-05-31. Retrieved ."Consistently with its vision, Harokopio University addresses scientific areas that serve society, health education, technology and the environment. In considering further growth and academic development, the university should engage in more in-depth planning."
^ ab"TEI of Crete - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2016. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-05-31. Retrieved ."TEI Crete is blessed with a number of highly qualified academic faculty with internationally recognized research outputs.In general terms, there is a healthy underdog mentality to strive for improvement in research output and the institution appears to have a competitive status vis-à-vis other institutions. By design, the TEI of Crete overall deviates grossly from "model 1 campus/HEI". The Institution needs to resolve the inconsistencies in operations created by the dispersal of academic departments in different geographical areas. The mission of the Institution should be stated concisely."
^"Hellenic Open University - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2016. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-05-31. Retrieved ."HOU is a unique institution of HEI in Greece, offering distance learning degrees. The EEC has reached the conclusion that HOU meets our expectations in pursuing its academic and social mission. There is much that has been accomplished thus far and is now at a turning point that provides opportunities for strategic initiatives that will further raise its profile in Greece and abroad. HOU should consider raising the standard of its educational material and making it available in the open market."
^"International Hellenic University - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2015. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-05-31. Retrieved ."IHU should intensify efforts for the recruitment of international students. Some study programmes are rather overspecialized. A crucial step for the IHU's future development would be to improve and expand the university campus. For this reason it is important that IHU acquires the ownership of the campus and buildings."
^"Ionian University - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2016. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-05-31. Retrieved ."The Ionian University after 27 years of operation is one of the newest institutions of Higher Education in Greece, offering unique study programs for the new generation of Greek scientists ensuring high-level research in sectors with high social, scientific and economic added value and performance. The University needs important improvements in the strategic plan for high-level quality of research and a clear vision and policy of a coordinated process. The EEC finds that the Internationalization Strategy of the Institution needs further development."
^"University of Athens - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2015. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-07-12. Retrieved ."The EEC's assessment is that UOA is worthy of merit. We conclude by pointing out that the recommendations indicated in our report are intended as ways to improve an already excellent Institution. The culture of excellence in research and teaching that the Institution has established for itself was appreciated by every member of the EEC."
^"National Technical University of Athens - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2015. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-06-03. Retrieved ."For the most part, NTUA appears to be well organized. It enjoys outstanding reputation thanks to a subset of its top-notch students and faculty that pursue a broad range of high-caliber research. Over the years, such a top-notch human capital has made major contributions to the Nation, and serves as shining ambassadors of Greek Science and Technology worldwide."
^"Panteion University - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2016. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-07-12. Retrieved ."Panteion University is a very strong academic institution in teaching and research. The structure of the institution provides a perfect environment for the evolution of intrainsitutional interdisciplinary research and education structures. However, there are still dormant possibilities that have to be exploited, in order to secure the future and the prosperity of the Institution in a rapidly changing world."
^"Technical University of Crete - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2015. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-05-31. Retrieved ."Two members of the EEC give a lower evaluation (positive) due to the fact that QA of the Institution is actually not in place and also that the absence of a feasible strategic plan hampers the Institution's operation and its readiness to change."
^"University of the Aegean - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2015. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-05-31. Retrieved ."Very limited infrastructure. Insufficient welfare and social services for students. Insufficient personnel (academic, administrative, and technical support) and low ratios of faculty members to students and administration members to faculty members. Limited financial resources from the state, affecting the general development of the institution. There is a general lack of certified procedural approaches, although it is clear that procedures at the UoA are increasingly systematized and formalised. The University should insist on the implementation of its strategic plan despite external adversities and further emphasize internationalization, intensify and systematise quest for external funding, both from the EU and from the private sector. Capitalize on their assets and good name of the University, its alumni, as well as on its unique geographical location-rebranding."
^"University of Crete - External Evaluation Report of Institution"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2015. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-05-31. Retrieved ."Overall, the external evaluation committee was impressed by the commitment to excellence permeating all levels of the institution. For a relatively new university, UoC has made remarkable achievements in the Greek academic world and beyond. While there is a general acceptance of both internal and external evaluation, the institution needs to develop "tighter" formal processes for monitoring and recording the progress and implementation of changes. The institution needs to consider introducing mechanisms to further support faculty development and move expeditiously to further communicate and develop the strategic goals associated with the "2020-2025" vision statement."
^"University of Ioannina - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2015. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-06-07. Retrieved ."Overall, the University provides a positive and supportive environment for students and faculty. Further development of a mid-term strategic plan including feasibility studies, timelines, implementation plans, responsibilities and metrics (inclusive bottom up approach and stakeholders). Accelerate the pace of implementation of digital technologies for teaching and learning. Improve financial accounting and reporting."
^"University of Macedonia - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2016. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-05-31. Retrieved ."The UoM endeavours to play a central role as an academic institution in the Balkans. The general operation has been very positively evaluated and the EEC feels that the Institution has the potential to evolve into a major educational and cultural pole for northern Greece and the Balkans."
^"University of Patras - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2015. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-04-10. Retrieved ."The EEC evaluated and scored according to our estimate of where UPatras stands in relation to our understanding of an international norm of excellence. Although we are conscious of the severe constraints imposed by the Greek State, we have not used them as an excuse for not identifying areas of improvement. Please note that an EEC member gave a worthy of merit vote by taking into account with a heavier weight the negative influence of the external environment on the ability to plan, strategise and operate."
^"University of the Peloponnese - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2016. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-05-31. Retrieved ."The UoP has high quality teaching staff. Also, the Institution has established good relationships with the community and its stakeholders. The Institution will benefit by developing more systematic approaches in the collection of data for the improvement of its programmes and internationalization strategy."
^"University of Piraeus - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2016. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-05-31. Retrieved ."University of Piraeus offers some unique programs in the undergraduate and Masters level that specifically address the needs of the economy, specific needs of important industries and those of the public sector. Specific strategies should be incorporated in the mission statement associated with specific measurable goals and objectives."
^"University of Thessaly - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2015. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-07-12. Retrieved ."UTH provides a positive and collegial work environment. The EEC believes that with hard work and dedication, the University of Thessaly will be able to reach its full potential in the near future."
^ ab"TEI of Athens - External Evaluation Report of Institution"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2015. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-05-31. Retrieved ."The EEC has reached the conclusion that TEI-A is operating at a level of excellence that transcends expectations, with great enthusiasm and commitment. However, there are specific points of criticism that have been specifically addressed in this report. The EEC believes that by considering our suggestions TEI-A has an opportunity to set a national or even European standard in the field of higher technological education."
^ ab"TEI of Piraeus - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2016. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-05-31. Retrieved ."PUAS is a modern, forwarding looking institution with a clear vision, committed to a process of continuous improvement. Recent successes in developing a research culture and running a wide range of MSc programs have paved the way for the potential introduction of third-cycle degree programs."
^"University of Western Macedonia - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2016. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-05-31. Retrieved ."The EEC has decided to give to UoWM a positive evaluation. UoWM has self-motivated, dynamic and recognized faculty. Several research units at UoWM are productive, visible, and deliver good quality research. The size, dispersion, and diversity of the Institution need to be thoroughly addressed, since they may produce serious obstacles to the viability of the Institution."
^"School of Pedagogical and Technological Education - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2016. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2018-11-11. Retrieved ."Several research units at ASPETE are productive, visible, and deliver good-quality research. However, strategic planning designed with clear goals and timetables, though considered as crucial in all aspects, does not exist at the moment. There is no coherent research orientation as a whole and research policy."
^"Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2015."Positive points: Modern disciplines producing graduates with high employability. Six-month practical training of students outside the Institution, in real employment/job environments. High quality teaching staff, with industrial experience. Convenient geographical location. Negative points: The Institution was first established 31 years ago, and absorbed all teaching staff of a previous Institution with lower qualifications. Not yet clearly determined Institution Research Policy or Strategy. Heavy teaching load of staff in all departments. Low student attendance of theoretical subjects."
^"Technological Educational Institute of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2015."High quality research activities in applied sciences and technology. Excellent ties and cooperation with society, local industry and stakeholders. The Institution should encourage inter and intra-departmental research collaboration. A higher level of participation of academic staff in research projects and scientific outputs (journals, conferences)should be pursued. The goals of the Institution, as expressed in the mission statement of Internal Evaluation Report, are rather broad and unrealistic or difficult to implement in full."
^ abcde"Law 4610, Government Gazette 70 A'/07.05.2019". Hellenic Parliament. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)(in Greek), "Synergies between Universities and TEIs, admission to Higher Education (Tertiary), Experimental Secondary Education Schools, General Archive of State and other provisions"
^"TEI of Central Greece - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2016. "Positive points: Well qualified and well trained graduates, with high employment potential. Negative points: Not well defined vision and associated goals with measurable outcomes. Poor internationalisation policy"
^ abc"Law 4589, Government Gazette 13 ?'/29.01.2019" (in Greek). Hellenic Parliament. Cite journal requires |journal= (help), "Synergies between National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (NKUA), Agricultural University of Athens (AUA), University of Thessaly (UTH) with the TEI of Thessaly and TEI of Central Greece, Panlimniako Fund and other provisions"
^"Technological Educational Institute of Epirus - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2016."Ongoing building and infrastructure investments by the TEIEP at the Igoumenitsa and Preveza campuses are not consistent with the parallel "wish" to evolve the TEIEP into a two-site (Arta and Ioannina) institute. The EEC recommends that priorities and milestones are set so that the gradual implementation of the institutional strategic goals has a chance to become reality."
^"TEI of Western Macedonia - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2016."TEIWM is a student-centric Institution, with all the courses having the practical element and internships in the curriculum. There are some areas where weaknesses are identified such as research and internationalization of the institution and staffing problems. There is also improper allocation of staff to the 5 campuses."
^"TEI of Peloponnese - External Evaluation Report"(PDF). www.adip.gr. 2016."Lack of complementarities in the programmes of studies (both undergraduate and postgraduate) between the "technical" and "management" Departments of TEI-PEL. The TEI-PEL should respond effectively to the needs of the society and the economy at regional and local levels."
^"Law 4093/2012, Government Gazette 222 A' / 12.11.2012".(in Greek) "According to the laws 4093/12-11-2012 (Government Gazette 222 A') and 4111/25-1-2013 (Government Gazette 18 A'), private colleges in Greece are non-formal post-secondary (post Lyceum) education service and training providers (non-tertiary) offer at least three years first cycle qualification programmes of study at Level 6 of ISCED (first higher education degree, bachelor's degree level) and/or postgraduate studies (graduate qualifications) exclusively with the legal form of Validation and Franchising agreements with Higher Education Institution (HEIs) from foreign countries, that are officially fully recognised and accredited from their country competence authorities. Pursuant to the Greek current constitutional prohibition of Article 16? of Greek Parliament (Constitution of Greece - The Fifth Revisionary Parliament of the Hellenes Resolves. PART II Individual and social rights. Article 16, education, art, science. As revised by the parliamentary resolution of May 27th 2008 of the VIII Revisionary Parliament), do not academically recognize in Greece all university qualification titles have been awarded by private colleges in Greece after completion studies have been taken place in Greece either by cooperating universities from foreign countries. The university study titles have been awarded from universities of foreign countries after completion studies have been taken place by cooperating private colleges in Greece, even they recognized in regards professional rights in Greece, do not accept from Greek universities to continue studies for the obtainment postgraduate (level 7 ISCED) or doctoral qualification (level 8 ISCED). The prohibition is in force in the Greece only, as Greece located private colleges graduates are normally accepted for continuous studies (master's degree level, doctor's degree level) from universities in foreign countries."
^"Law 4635/2019, Article 128, Government Gazette 167 ?' / 30.10.2019"(PDF). Hellenic Parliament. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)(in Greek)"Invest in Greece and other provisions." "The Greek Council for the Recognition of Professional Qualifications () was reformed and replaced by Independent Department of Implementation of European Legislation (ATEEN; ? ?; ?.?.?.?.?.)"
^"Law 3374/2005, Paragraph 1, Article 10, Government Gazette 189 A' / 02.08.2005". Hellenic Parliament. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)(in Greek) "Quality assurance in higher education. System for transfer and accumulation of credit units - Diploma Supplement. This law introduces quality assurance in higher education, and also establishes the Hellenic Quality Assurance and Accreditation Agency for Higher Education (HQAA; Greek ? ? ?). It also provides for the organization of undergraduate and postgraduate programs based on the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) ( ? ? ?) as well as the issue of the Diploma Supplement."
^"Law 4009/2011, Paragraph 1, Article 64, Government Gazette 195 A' / 06.09.2011". Hellenic Parliament. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)(in Greek) "Structure, operation, quality assurance of studies and internationalisation of Higher Education Institutions. It provides general rules on the structure and operation of higher education. It regulates the framework for autonomy, structure and bodies of Higher Education Institutions. It provides for the assessment and transparency, as well as issues relating to reaching and other staff. It distinguishes studies between those of first, second and third cycle. It regulates student issues, issues pertaining to the funding of Higher Education Institutions, as well as issues relating to quality assurance and accreditation in higher education."
^"Law 4653/2020, Government Gazette 12 A' / 24.01.2020"(PDF). Hellenic Parliament. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)(in Greek), " ? (.?.?.?.) / National Authority for Higher Education (N.A.H.E.), special accounts for research funds of High Education Institutes (HEIs), research and technological bodies and other provisions."