Lonnie Mack
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Lonnie Mack
Lonnie Mack
LonnieMackRisingSun.jpg
Mack performing at Rising Sun, Indiana, in 2003
Background information
Lonnie McIntosh
Born (1941-07-18)July 18, 1941
West Harrison, Indiana, U.S.
Died April 21, 2016(2016-04-21) (aged 74)
Smithville, Tennessee, U.S.
Genres Blues rock, instrumental rock, blues, country, country-soul, southern rock, rockabilly, blue-eyed soul, bluegrass, gospel
Musician, singer-songwriter
Instruments Vocals, guitar
1954-2004
Labels Alligator, Elektra, Fraternity, Capitol, Flying V Records, Jewel, King, Ace, Epic, Sage Records, Dobbs Records

Lonnie McIntosh (July 18, 1941 - April 21, 2016), known by his stage name Lonnie Mack, was an American rock, blues, soul and country singer-guitarist. He spent most of his half-century (1954-2004) career "well outside the spotlight of fame".[1] Yet, by the time of his death in 2016, he was considered "one of the most important and influential" guitarists of early rock[2] and one of the best blue-eyed soul singers of any era.[3]

He is best known for his breakthrough 1963 guitar singles, Memphis and Wham!, and that year's critically-acclaimed singer-guitarist album, The Wham of that Memphis Man.[4] These recordings are considered close stylistic forerunners of the blues-rock and Southern rock genres.[5]

He was praised for both his vocals and guitar, but was more influential as a guitarist.[6] In the early 1960s, he pioneered the "edgy, aggressive, loud and fast" guitar solo, which soon became a hallmark of rock music.[7] His solos raised rock guitar's virtuosity bar to new heights and helped "pave the way" for the lead guitarists of blues-rock, psychedelic rock and Southern rock.[8]

Mack has been inducted into the International Guitar Hall of Fame, the Southern Legends Entertainment and Performing Arts Hall of Fame and the Rockabilly Hall of Fame.[9]

Early life and musical influences

Shortly before Mack's birth, his family left the coalfields of Owsley County, Kentucky to work as sharecroppers in Dearborn County, Indiana.[10] One of five children, he was born to parents Robert and Sarah Sizemore McIntosh on July 18, 1941, in West Harrison, Indiana.[11] He was raised nearby on farms along the Ohio River.

His family used a primitive radio powered by a truck battery to listen to the Grand Ole Opry country music show. Continuing to listen after the rest of the family had retired for the night, Mack became a fan of rhythm and blues and traditional black gospel music.[12]

He began playing guitar at the age of seven, after trading his bicycle for a "Lone Ranger" model acoustic guitar.[13] His mother taught him basic chords,[14] and he was soon playing bluegrass guitar in the family band.[15] Around the age of ten, Mack learned to merge finger-picking country guitar with acoustic blues-picking, to produce a hybrid sound and playing style later identified with rockabilly guitar.[16] About this time, he was mentored by a local country gospel singer-guitarist, Ralph Trotto.[17]

He considered country picker Merle Travis, pop/jazz guitarist Les Paul and electric blues guitarist T-Bone Walker his biggest guitar influences.[18] He considered R&B singers Jimmy Reed, Ray Charles, Bobby "Blue" Bland, and Hank Ballard, country singer George Jones and gospel singer Archie Brownlee his biggest vocal influences.[19] As an adult, he recorded tunes associated with each of these artists.

Career chronology

Mack dropped out of school in the sixth grade, after a fight with a teacher. At thirteen, in 1954, he obtained a fake ID and began performing professionally in bars and clubs with bands in the Cincinnati, Ohio area.[20] He played guitar on several low-circulation recordings in the late 1950s.[21] Between 1963 and 1990, he released thirteen original albums. His recordings drew from black and white American roots music genres.[22]

In the early 1960s he became a session guitarist with Fraternity Records, a small Cincinnati label. In 1963, he recorded two hit singles for Fraternity, the proto-blues-rock guitar instrumentals "Memphis" and "Wham!"[23] He soon recorded additional tunes to flesh out his debut album, The Wham of that Memphis Man (1963). Mack made some notable recordings later, but The Wham of that Memphis Man is widely regarded as his best effort.[24] Based as much on Mack's vocals as his guitar-playing, Jimmy Guterman ranked the album No. 16 in his book, The 100 Best Rock 'n' Roll Records of All Time.[25]

Mack recorded more than thirty additional sides for Fraternity between 1963 and 1967. However, their commercial prospects were undercut by the sudden, overwhelming popularity of the British Invasion and Fraternity's persistent financial problems.[26] Most weren't released until Ace Records (UK) packaged all of Mack's output from his Fraternity days in a series of compilations starting in 1992.[27] Meanwhile, with his solo career stalled out in the mid-'60s, Mack turned to R&B session work, playing on recordings by James Brown, Freddie King, Joe Simon and others.[28]

In late 1968, the newly founded Rolling Stone magazine re-focused the spotlight on Mack with a retrospective review of The Wham of that Memphis Man.[29] He soon moved to Los Angeles for a three-album contract with Elektra Records.[30] As an Elektra artist, he performed in major rock venues, including the Fillmore East, the Fillmore West and the Cow Palace. He opened for The Doors[31] and Crosby, Stills & Nash and shared the stage with Johnny Winter, Elvin Bishop and other popular rock and blues artists of the time.[32]

It was the hippie era, however, and Mack's rustic, blue-collar persona was an uneasy fit with commercial rock's target demographic. John Morthland wrote: "[All] the superior chops in the world couldn't hide the fact that chubby, country Mack probably had more in common with Kentucky truck drivers than he did with the new rock audience."[33] After two mildly successful multi-genre Elektra albums, Mack was dissatisfied. "My music wasn't working that good then. I ain't really happy with a lot of the stuff I did there."[34] In 1971, Mack moved to Nashville to record his final (and mostly country) Elektra album, which attracted little attention. He then went home to southern Indiana, where, for more than a decade, he kept a low profile, working as a sideman, nightclub proprietor, occasional small-venue performer, and unheralded country recording artist.[35]

Asked in 1977 about his disappearance from the rock spotlight, Mack said: "Seems like every time I get close to really making it, to climbing to the top of the mountain, that's when I pull out. I just pull up and run."[36] Music historian Dick Shurman said that Mack's temperament wasn't suited to fortune or fame, adding: "I think he'd rather have been hunting and fishing. He didn't like cities or the (music) business."[37]

In 1983, after twelve years of "semi-obscurity",[38] Mack relocated to Austin, Texas at the urging of his friend and guitar disciple, Stevie Ray Vaughan.[39] Two years later, with Vaughan's help and encouragement, Mack staged a "full-fledged comeback"[40] with the blues-rock album, Strike Like Lightning (Alligator, 1985) and a nationwide tour featuring guest appearances by guitar luminaries Vaughan, Ry Cooder, Keith Richards, Ronnie Wood, Albert Collins and Roy Buchanan.[41]

He released three more albums over the next four years, including his recording career epilogue, Lonnie Mack Live - Attack of the Killer V! (Alligator, 1990). Then, weary from the constant touring required of recording artists,[42] he ended his recording career.[43] However, he continued on as a low-profile roadhouse performer for another fourteen years.[44] In 2004, with his health in decline, he retired from performing as well.[45]

"Memphis" and "Wham!"

On March 12, 1963,[46] at the end of a recording session backing up The Charmaines, Mack was offered the remaining twenty minutes of studio-rental time.[17] Not expecting the tune to be released, he recorded an energetic instrumental take-off on Chuck Berry's "Memphis, Tennessee".[47] He had improvised it a few years earlier, when the band-member assigned to sing and play it missed a club date. Not knowing the lyrics, Mack turned the song into a guitar piece. It was well-received, so he kept it as part of his live act. He shortened the title to "Memphis".

As recorded in 1963, "Memphis" featured a brisk blues solo within a rockabilly framework, augmented by an aggressive drum-beat.[48] "Translating Chuck Berry's vocal line into a sliding, multi-string melody, Mack created an an exceptional version of Berry's song; his 12-bar blues solo is saturated with bends, blues scale maneuvers, and the warble from a Bixby vibrato."[49] "Memphis" was first broadcast in the spring of 1963. By late June, it had risen to No. 4 on Billboard's R&B chart and No. 5 on Billboard's pop chart.[50] According to The Book of Golden Discs, it sold over one million copies.[51] The popularity of "Memphis" led to bookings at larger venues, tours in the UK and performances with Chuck Berry.[52]

Still in 1963, Mack released "Wham!", a guitar rave-up that reached No. 24 on Billboard's Pop chart in September.[47] Although Memphis was Mack's biggest hit, it is the faster-paced Wham! that many associate with his aggressive guitar style.[53] Some commentators consider "Memphis" and "Wham!" the first recordings of the virtuoso blues-rock guitar genre.[54] Others consider them stylistically-close forerunners.[55]

Guitar style and technique

By his late teens, Mack was well-versed in blues guitar, rockabilly guitar, and the percussive chords and riffs of early rock's most influential guitarist, Chuck Berry.[56]

He augmented these fundamentals with rapid-fire melodies and runs, performance elements sometimes heard in early rock saxophone and keyboard solos, but essentially absent from rock guitar before Mack.[57] Commentators attribute Mack's technical proficiency to his childhood mastery of traditional country and bluegrass guitar.[58] He repeatedly switched back-and-forth between agile melodic leads and rhythmic chordal riffs, in a pattern later heard in the playing of Jeff Beck, Stevie Ray Vaughan and others.[59] In addition, "...he became so famous for working the [vibrato] that the [vibrato] bar became known worldwide as a "whammy bar" after Mack's early hit Wham!."[60] In the early 1960s, Mack combined these ingredients with the liquid-sounding tremolo of a '50s-era Magnatone amplifier.[61]

The result "was highly distinctive, dare I say, unique; in the early rock era only Link Wray and Duane Eddy could match him for instant recognition."[62]

Mack's role in the evolution of rock guitar

Rock guitar historian Peter Brown wrote: "[Mack] is something of a rock 'n' roll enigma. He spent most of his career well out of the spotlight of fame. Yet, for all his obscurity, he is one of the most important and influential rock guitarists of the pre-Yardbirds 1960s. [H]is bluesy solos predated the pioneering blues-rock guitar work of Jeff Beck, Eric Clapton and Mike Bloomfield by nearly two years. [Since] they are considered "before their time", the chronological significance of Lonnie Mack for the world of rock guitar is that much more remarkable."[63]

His guitar solos formed an evolutionary "missing link" between the chords and riffs of 1950s rockabilly and the blues-based melodies of the 1960s[64] and his unprecedented virtuosity challenged and schooled succeeding generations of rock guitarists. [65] Not least, he pioneered the "edgy, aggressive, loud and fast" guitar solo, which became an enduring hallmark of rock music.[66]

In 1979, musicologist Richard T. Pinnell, Ph.D., called Memphis as an "historic milestone of early rock and roll guitar".[67] In 1980, Memphis appeared first on Guitar World magazine's list of rock guitar's top five "landmark" recordings, a list including entire albums by Jimi Hendrix, Eric Clapton and Mike Bloomfield.[68]

Mack is said to have inspired Joe Bonamassa, Eric Clapton, Stevie Ray Vaughan, Jeff Beck, Duane Allman, Mike Bloomfield, Keith Richards, Jimmy Page and Ted Nugent.[69] Guitarists Vaughan, Beck, Nugent, Dickey Betts, Warren Haynes, Ray Benson, Bootsy Collins, Adrian Belew, and Tyler Morris have each cited Mack as a significant influence.[70]

Mack was proud of his role in the evolution of rock guitar. "It's a great honor to be able to [inspire other artists]. What you do in this business, your whole thing is givin' stuff away. But that makes you feel good, makes you feel like you've really done something." [71]

Mack's 1958 Gibson Flying V Guitar, "Number 7"

Mack was closely identified with the distinctive, arrow-shaped Gibson Flying V model guitar that first appeared in 1958. When he was seventeen, Mack bought the seventh Flying V off the first-year production line, becoming one of its earliest players. He named it "Number 7". He used it exclusively in his recordings and throughout his career[72] and named his final album, Attack of the Killer V, after it.

In 1993, Gibson Guitar Corporation issued a limited-run "Lonnie Mack Signature Edition" of Number 7.[73] In 2011, Walter Carter, author of "The Guitar Collection", named Number 7 one of the worlds "150 most elite guitars".[74] In 2012, Rolling Stone magazine named it one of "20 iconic guitars".[75]

"Blue-eyed soul" vocals

Most of Mack's vocals appeared only on albums, and just one early single, "Baby, What's Wrong?", charted.[76] However, his vocals consistently drew high praise:[77]

  • 1968: "It is truly the voice of Lonnie Mack that sets him apart. Lonnie's songs have a sincerity and intensity that's hard to find anywhere."[78] - Alec Dubro, Rolling Stone
  • 1983: "Lonnie Mack wailed a soul ballad as gutsily as any black gospel singer. The anguished inflections which stamped his best songs had a directness which would have been wholly embarrassing in the hands of almost any other white vocalist."[79] - Bill Millar, History of Rock
  • 1992: "The first of the guitar-hero records is also one of the best. And for perhaps the last time, the singing on such a disc was worthy of the guitar."[80] - Jimmy Guterman, The 100 Best Rock 'n' Roll Records Of All Time
  • 2009: "...the greatest deep soul record ever made...you can feel the ground shaking under [Mack's] feet...a cry of anguish so extreme you have to close your eyes in shame over witnessing it...Mack's scream at the end has never been matched. God help us if anyone ever tops it". [81] - Greil Marcus, Ballad of Sexual Dependency
  • 2016: "Lonnie Mack was the best white soul singer in the world, so good that he could even be mentioned in the same sentence as some of the all-time great black stars of what is essentially a black genre."[82] - Dave Stephens, Toppermost

Representative blue-eyed soul vocals from his catalog include Why (1963), Where There's A Will (1963), She Don't Come Here Anymore (1969), Stop (1985), and I Found A Love (1990).

Final years

Still fond of appearing before appreciative audiences,[83] but with his health in decline,[84] Mack retired in 2004.

However, over the next several years, he appeared at a handful of special events and informal gatherings. On February 17, 2007, he performed at a benefit concert for Pure Prairie League singer-bassist Michael Reilly.[85] On November 15, 2008, Mack performed Wham! at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 93rd birthday salute to one of his own guitar heroes, Les Paul.[86] On April 4, 2009, Mack borrowed a guitar and, backed by the house band, spontaneously entertained the patrons of a Tennessee roadhouse with his tune, Cincinnati Jail.[87] In 2010, again with a borrowed a guitar, he performed Memphis at the final reunion of his original band's surviving members.[88]

Mack died at age 74 on April 21, 2016, at a country hospital near his Smithville, Tennessee home.[89]

Original Album Discography

  • 1963: The Wham of That Memphis Man! (Fraternity, reissued many times, most recently by Ace-UK)
  • 1969: Glad I'm in the Band (Elektra)
  • 1969: Whatever's Right (Elektra)
  • 1971: The Hills of Indiana (Elektra)
  • 1973: Dueling Banjos, with Rusty York (QCA, reissued on CD Baby, 2009)
  • 1977: Home At Last (Capitol)
  • 1978: Lonnie Mack with Pismo (Capitol)
  • 1980: South (Flying V, rel. 1999)
  • 1983: Live at Coco's (Flying V, rel. 1999)
  • 1985: Strike Like Lightning (Alligator)
  • 1986: Second Sight (Alligator)
  • 1988: Roadhouses and Dance Halls (Columbia)
  • 1990: Lonnie Mack Live: Attack of the Killer V (Alligator)

Career recognition and awards

Year Award or recognition
1992 Mack's first album ranked #16 in The 100 Best Rock 'n' Roll Records of All Time.[90]
1993 Gibson issued a limited-run "Lonnie Mack Signature Edition" of "Number 7".[73]
1998 First Cincinnati Enquirer Pop Music Award ("Cammy") for "Lifetime Achievement".[91]
2001 Southeastern Indiana Musician's Association Hall of Fame induction.[92]
2001 International Guitar Hall of Fame induction.[93]
2002 Second "Lifetime Achievement" Cammy.[94]
2005 Rockabilly Hall of Fame induction.[95]
2006 Southern Legends Entertainment & Performing Arts Hall of Fame induction.[96]
2011 The Guitar Collection named "Number 7" one of the world's 150 "most elite guitars".[97]
2012 Rolling Stone named "Number 7" one of "20 Iconic Guitars".[98]

See also

Links to further reading

References

  1. ^ Brown & Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, at p. 24. See also, Dansby, Music and Death 2016, Houston Chronicle, December 29, 2016, as preserved at https://www.houstonchronicle.com/entertainment/columnists/dansby/article/Music-and-death-2016-You-want-it-darker-10820590.php, describing Mack as "semi-obscure". He was a low-profile roadhouse performer during three long periods of his career, 1964-1968, 1971-1984 and 1990-2004. See, section below entitled "Career chronology".
  2. ^ Brown & Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, at p. 24. (2)To the same effect: (a) Mack described as "a seminal influence on a long list of British and American artists". : Grimes, "Lonnie Mack, Singer and Guitarist Who Pioneered Blues-Rock, Dies At 74", New York Times on-line, April 22, 2018, at https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/23/arts/music/lonnie-mack-singer-and-guitarist-who-pioneered-blues-rockdies-at-74.html. (b) McArdle, "Lonnie Mack, guitarist and singer who influenced blues and rock acts, dies at 74", Washington Post on-line, April 25, 2016, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/lonnie-mack-guitarist-and-singer-who-influenced-blues-and-rock-acts-dies-at-74/2016/04/25/5c581f3c-0a44-11e6-bfa1-4efa856caf2a_story.html?noredirect=on (c) Dansby, Music and Death 2016, Houston Chronicle on-line, December 29, 2016, as preserved at https://www.houstonchronicle.com/entertainment/columnists/dansby/article/Music-and-death-2016-You-want-it-darker-10820590.php; (d) Kreps, "Lonnie Mack, Blues-Rock Guitar Great, Dead at 74", Rolling Stone online, April 23, 2018, at https://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/lonnie-mack-blues-rock-guitar-great- dead-at-74-20160423; and (d) Staff article, "Pioneering Guitarist Lonnie Mack Dead at 74", Guitar World on-line, April 22, 2018, at https://www.guitarworld.com/artists/pioneering-guitarist-lonnie-mack-dead-74/. (3) See, list of guitarists Mack inluenced in section below entitled "Mack's role in the evolution of rock guitar".
  3. ^ See, section below entitled "Blue-eyed soul vocals".
  4. ^ (1) "...best known...": See, sections below entitled "Career chronology" and "Memphis and Wham!". (2) "...critically-acclaimed..." (a) 1968: Dubro, Review of "The Wham of that Memphis Man", Rolling Stone magazine, November 23, 1968 (praising the hard-to-find 1963 Fraternity album and requesting Elektra to re-issue it, which Elektra did, under a new title, in 1970); (b) 1987: Himes, "Lonnie Mack", The Washington Post, Februar 20, 1987 ("...this album sounds surprisingly modern. Not many have done it this well, though."; (c) 1992: Guterman, The 100 Best Rock 'n' Roll Records of All Time, 1992, Citadel Publishing, p. 34 (Ranking the album No. 16 out of the "100 best rock and roll records of all time"); (d) 2016: Stephens, "Lonnie Mack", TopperPost #522, April, 2016 at http://www.toppermost.co.uk/lonnie-mack/ (calling the album "absolutely essential").
  5. ^ (1) "...blues-rock...": See, e.g., (a) "Talkin' Blues: Lonnie Mack and the Birth of Blues-Rock". Guitar World. Retrieved May 18, 2014; (b) Hagood, "Lonnie Mack: Remembering His Trailblazing Blues-Rock Guitar Virtuosity", Keeping the Blues Alive, April 29, 2016, at https://keepingthebluesalive.org/lonnie-mack-remembering-his-trailblazing-blues-rock-guitar-virtuosity/. (2) "...Southern rock...": (a) McCardle, "Lonnie Mack, Guitarist and Singer Who Influenced Blues and Rock Acts, Dies at 74", Washington Post, April 25, 2016, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/lonnie-mack-guitarist-and-singer-who-influenced-blues-and-rock-acts-dies-at-74/2016/04/25/5c581f3c-0a44-11e6-bfa1-4efa856caf2a_story.html (quoting music historian Dick Shurman, who called Mack "a prototype...of Southern rock"); (b) "Thus, through King Records and local legend Lonnie Mack, Cincinnati has helped shape Southern rock...". Sandmel, "The Allman Brothers Band Live at Ludlow Garage - 1970", at http://www.spectratechltd.com/extrapages/Allman%20Brothers%20- %20Live%20at%20Ludlow%20Garage%20CD%20-%20cover%20&%20notes.pdf; and (c) Mayhew, "Southern Rock Legend Lonnie Mack Dies at 74", reverb.com, April 22, 2016, at https://reverb.com/news/southern-rock-legend- lonnie-mack-dies-at-743
  6. ^ See, sections below entitled "Blue-eyed soul vocals" and "Mack's role in the evolution of rock guitar".
  7. ^ (1) "...pioneered...: Mack was described as a "pioneer", "ground-breaker" or "trailblazer" of virtuoso rock guitar soloing in the following five commentaries, among others: See, e.g., (a) "Twenty Iconic Guitars", Rolling Stone online at https://www.rollingstone.com/music/pictures/20-iconic-guitars-20120523/lonnie-macks-flying-v-0534574, 05/23/2012; (b) McDevitt, "Unsung Guitar Hero Lonnie Mack", Gibson online at http://www.gibson.com/News-Lifestyle/Features/en-us/Unsung-Guitar-Hero-Lonnie-Mack.aspx, 09/05/2007; (c) Kreps, "Lonnie Mack, Blues-Rock Guitar Great, Dead at 74", Rolling Stone online at https://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/lonnie-mack-blues-rock-guitar-great- dead-at-74-20160423, 04/23/2016; (d) Kerzner, "Breaking: Pioneering Guitarist Lonnie Mack Dead at 74", 4/22/2016, at https://www.americanbluesscene.com/2016/04/breaking-pioneering-guitarist-lonnie-mack-dead-at-74/"; and (e) Hagood, "Lonnie Mack: Remembering His Trailblazing Blues-Rock Guitar Virtuosity", Keeping the Blues Alive, April 29, 2016, at https://keepingthebluesalive.org/lonnie-mack-remembering-his-trailblazing-blues-rock-guitar-virtuosity/. (2) "...edgy, aggressive, etc...: "[In 1963] Mack's playing was more aggressive than anything people were used to hearing....Much of rock music might not have been the same - without his innovative way of treating the electric guitar as a lead soloing instrument in rock - edgy, aggressive, loud and fast." Reiser, "Lonnie Mack: Remembering His Trailblazing Blues-Rock Guitar Virtuosity", Website:"Keeping the Blues Alive", April 29, 2016, at https://keepingthebluesalive.org/lonnie-mack- remembering-his-trailblazing-blues-rock-guitar-virtuosity/. (2) "...soon became, etc...: See, popflock.com resource articles entitled "Guitar solo" and "Blues Rock".
  8. ^ (1) "...new heights, etc...: "Now, at that time, there was a popular song on the radio called 'Memphis'--an instrumental by Lonnie Mack. It was the best guitar-playing I'd ever heard. All the guitar-players were [saying] 'How could anyone ever play that good? That's the new bar. That's how good you have to be now.'" Guitarist Mike Johnstone, as quoted in Poe, "Skydog: The Duane Allman Story", Backbeat, 2006, at p. 10. (2) "Pave the way": (a) Southern rock lead guitarist Warren Haynes wrote: "Between the era of Chuck Berry and the era of Hendrix there were a handful of guitar players like Lonnie Mack who were making ground-breaking music that paved the way for the Revolution. People like Dickey Betts and Stevie Ray Vaughn would tell you that without Lonnie they wouldn't be who they were. That goes for all of us." Warren Haynes, April 23, 2016 posting on Official Warren Haynes website, preserved at http://www.warrenhaynes.net/news/detail/warren_haynes_reflects_on_lonnie_mack. (b) "[Mack] is essentially the missing link between the twangy, multi-string riffing of the rockabilly guitarists and the bluesy, string-pushing players of the mid-sixties...and later on, the psychedelic guitarists...He also made the crucial bridge between the black blues and white hillbilly music via his lead work...He infused his breaks with string bends, pentatonic runs, and mature blues chops, all of which eventually became trademarks of [blues-rock lead guitarists] Eric Clapton, Mike Bloomfield and Stevie Ray Vaughan." Rock guitar historian Peter Brown, in Brown & Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, at p. 24-25. (c) Mack saw himself similarly: "I was a bridge between the standard country licks and the screamin' kinda stuff." Lonnie Mack, as quoted in Grimes, "Lonnie Mack, Singer and Guitarist Who Pioneered Blues-Rock, Dies at 74", New York times, April 22, 2016, at https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/23/arts/music/lonnie-mack-singer-and-guitarist-who-pioneered-blues-rockdies-at-74.html
  9. ^ See, section of this article entitled "Career Recognition and Awards"
  10. ^ During the migration of refugees from the coal mine closures in Southern Appalachia before World War II, most sought jobs in industrialized cities. See, popflock.com resource article entitled Hillbilly Highway. However, Mack's parents settled twenty miles downriver from Cincinnati, living and working on sharecropping farms.
  11. ^ "Lonnie Mack, July 18, 1941 - April 21, 2016". alligator.com. 
  12. ^ Sandmel, "Lonnie Mack is Back of the Track", Guitar World, May 1984, pp. 55-56.
  13. ^ (1) Forte, "Lonnie Mack: That Memphis Man is Back", 1978, p. 20; (2) Murrells, The Book of Golden Discs, Barrie & Jenkins, 1978, p.163
  14. ^ Grimes, "Lonnie Mack, Singer and Guitarist Who Pioneered Blues-Rock, Dies at 74", New York times, April 22, 2016, at https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/23/arts/music/lonnie-mack-singer-and-guitarist-who-pioneered-blues-rockdies-at-74.html.
  15. ^ "Mack began performing guitar in the family bluegrass band at 7." McCardle, "Lonnie Mack, Guitarist and Singer Who Influenced Blues and Rock Acts, Dies at 74", Washington Post, April 25, 2016, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/lonnie-mack-guitarist-and-singer-who-influenced-blues-and-rock-acts-dies-at-74/2016/04/25/5c581f3c-0a44-11e6-bfa1-4efa856caf2a_story.html.
  16. ^ (1) Hear Mack interview at http://www.popflock.com/video?id=1mYxmVf6Xik: "When I was about 10 years old, my uncle came in from Texas--- Harry Dawes, he was half-Indian---and he took me and introduced me to an old black man in northern Indiana. He played gutbucket and slide and all this real Robert Johnson-style guitar. And I was into Merle Travis and finger-pickin' style guitar, and never really realized I could adapt it over to some other kind of music. And I learned from, uh, Wayne (?-phonetic) Clark how to do that, and got real happy about it. And thought I had somethin' new, and then all of a sudden rocakabilly came out, and I thought (chuckles), "I been playin' that!" (2) Matre, Van (May 2, 1985). "Lonnie Mack Back In The Swing Of Things" (http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1985-05-0 2/features/8501270055_1_mack-doesn-t-stevie-ray-vaughan-lonnie-mack). Chicago Tribune, Lifestyle Section. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  17. ^ a b Bill Millar, liner notes to Ace (UK) early Mack compilation album entitled "Memphis Wham!"
  18. ^ (1) Liner notes to Ace, UK, CD entitled "Memphis Wham!"; (2) Dahl, Bill. "Lonnie Mack profile at" (https://www.allmusic.com/artist/p438). allmusic.com. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  19. ^ (1) "Unsung Guitar Hero: Lonnie Mack" at http://www2.gibson.com/News-Lifestyle/Features/en-us/Unsung-Guitar-Hero-Lo nnie-Mack.aspx, July 14, 1985. Retrieved May 18, 2014; (2) McNutt, Guitar Towns, University of Indiana Press, 2002, p. 175.
  20. ^ (1) "At 15, Mr. Mack was too young to be playing in a bar. But built big and already in command of his guitar and soulful voice, he seemed older. By then, he'd been in the clubs for two years. Along with his Kalamazoo electric guitar and Gibson amp, he carried another piece of equipment vital for an underage musician -- a fake I.D." Larry Nager, "Guitar Greatness", Cincinnati Enquirer (Cincinnati.com), March 13, 1998, as preserved at http://www2.cincinnati.com/freetime/weekend/031398_weekend.html. (2) McNutt, Guitar Towns, 2002, p. 175.
  21. ^ One, "Hey Baby" (Sage, 1959), a bluegrass/rockabilly tune by two of his cousins, was reissued by Bear Family Records in 2010. Album, "That'll Flat Git It", V. 27, track 17, ISBN 978-3-89916-577-7. It was published in the U.S. as "That'll Flat Git It! Vol. 27: Rockabilly & Rock 'n' Roll From The Vault Of Sage & Sand Records: Various Artists" On it, seventeen-year-old Mack can be heard providing a Travis-picking guitar accompaniment, punctuated by a brief rockabilly solo.Harley Gabbard & Aubrey Holt - Hey Baby ~ Rockabilly on YouTube
  22. ^ (1) Watrous, "Lonnie Mack in a Melange of Guitar Styles", New York Times, September 18, 1988, at https://www.nytimes.com/1988/09/18/arts/review-rock-lonnie-mack-in-a-melange-of-guitar-styles.html; (2) McNutt, Guitar Towns, University of Indiana Press, 2002, p. 174.
  23. ^ See, section below entitled "'Memphis' and 'Wham!'".
  24. ^ (1) "...notable recordings later...": The albums Strike Like Lightning (1985), and Lonnie Mack Live: Attack of the Killer V (1990), were commercially successful and drew critical acclaim. (2) "...best effort...": Days after Mack's death, the author of two books on rock music, Dave Stephens, put together a list of Mack's greatest tunes. "Half of my Top Ten comes from Lonnie's first album. To say that Lonnie's career was front-loaded would be an understatement. Yes he did go on and do other things but few tracks from his, in pop terms, quite long career, match some of the tracks on this set." Stephens, "Lonnie Mack", TopperPost #522, April 2016, at http://www.toppermost.co.uk/lonnie-mack/.
  25. ^ "The first of the guitar-hero records is also one of the best....and for perhaps the last time, the singing [on one of these records] is worthy of the guitar histrionics." Guterman, The 100 Best Rock 'n' Roll Records of All Time, Citadel Publishing, 1992, at p.34.
  26. ^ Apart from "Memphis" (Billboard #5) and Wham!" (Billboard #24), only two additional Mack Fraternity singles charted: "Honky-Tonk '65" (#78) and "Baby, What's Wrong?" (#93). See, Billboard's "Chart History" list for Mack at http://www.billboard.com/artist/307816/lonnie-mack/chart.
  27. ^ See, Ace's Lonnie Mack page and links at https://www.acerecords.co.uk/search?query=lonnie+mack.
  28. ^ See, Mack discography at http://wdd.mbnet.fi/lonniemack.htm.
  29. ^ Alec Dubro, Rolling Stone magazine, November 23, 1968.
  30. ^ Mack's three Elektra albums were Glad I'm in the Band (1969), Whatever's Right (1969) and The Hills of Indiana (1971). These were eclectic collections of country and soul ballads, blues tunes, and updated versions of earlier recordings. Both 1969 albums emphasized Mack's vocals and de-emphasized his guitar work. They were modest commercial successes. Mack's final Elektra effort, The Hills of Indiana, was a country album recorded in Nashville that attracted little attention. In 1970, Elektra also reissued Mack's Fraternity debut album, The Wham of that Memphis Man!, with two bonus tracks from 1964, calling it "For Collectors Only".
  31. ^ During that period, he famously played bass guitar on The Doors' hit record, "Roadhouse Blues". According to their drummer, John Densmore, author of the book "Riders on the Storm" (Dell, 1990), The Doors' personnel considered Mack a "living legend" of the blues. They recorded an instrumental in his honor, "Blues for Lonnie", that did not appear on any of their contemporary releases, but can be heard here: http://www.popflock.com/video?id=4zpNnje-GRs
  32. ^ (1) Deccio, "Lonnie Mack Dead", April 24, 2016, http://www.inquisitr.com/3029420/lonnie-mack-dead-guitarist-and-vocalist-who-pioneered-blues-rock-dies-at-74/; (2) Poster for Mack's six-day run at the Fillmore West in July 1969 at http://www.classicposters.com/Johnny_Winter/poster/Bill_Graham/180; (3) Poster of Mack's Cow Palace appearance with the Doors and Elvin Bishop at http://www.classicposters.com/Lonnie_Mack; (4) Mack's reference to appearing with C, S &N at the Fillmore East in his 1985 Carnegie Hall interview at http://www.popflock.com/video?id=CHAcMm8pxvo.
  33. ^ (1) Morthland, "Lonnie Mack", Output, March 1984; (2) "Lonnie was a real country boy". Elektra producer Russ Miller, in Holzman, Follow the Music, First Media, 1998, p. 367.
  34. ^ Mack, as quoted in McDevitt, "Unsung Guitar Hero Lonnie Mack", Gibson on-line, September 5, 2007, at http://www.gibson.com/News-Lifestyle/Features/en-us/Unsung-Guitar-Hero-Lonnie-Mack.aspx.
  35. ^ Mack went mostly unnoticed during this period, but he was not idle. (1) In 1973, Mack and Rusty York released an all-acoustic bluegrass LP, Dueling Banjos. (2) In 1974, Mack played lead guitar for country-soul artist Dobie Gray. Mack's guitar work from this period can be found on Gray's 1974 album Hey, Dixie. Mack wrote or co-wrote three tunes on the album, including the title track. See credits under "track listings"/"show track credits" for Hey Dixie at https://rateyourmusic.com/release/album/dobie-gray/hey-dixie/. In March 1974, he performed as Gray's lead guitarist at the last broadcast of The Grand Ole Opry from Nashville's Ryman Auditorium. (3) In 1977, Mack recorded Home at Last, an album of country ballads and bluegrass tunes. (4) Also in 1977, he was shot by a drunken off-duty police officer. The experience resulted in one of his better-known late-career tunes, "Cincinnati Jail". (5) In 1978, he recorded Lonnie Mack with Pismo, a somewhat faster-paced album, of country, southern rock and rockabilly tunes. (6) During this period, he owned and operated a nightclub in nearby Covington, Kentucky. He broke up bar fights by swinging his guitar at the combatants. See, posting of Mike Pumphrey near the bottom of comments at http://www.tributes.com/obituary/print_selections/103505970?type=6
  36. ^ Mack, as quoted in Guralnick, Pickers, "Lonnie Mack: Fiery Picker Goes Country", 1977, pp. 16-18).
  37. ^ (1) Dick Shurman, as quoted in McArdle, "Lonnie Mack, Guitarist and Singer Who Influenced Blues and Rock Acts, Dies at 74", Washington Post April 25, 2016, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/lonnie-mack-guitarist-and-singer-who-influenced-blues-and-rock-acts-dies-at-74/2016/04/25/5c581f3c-0a44-11e6-bfa1-4efa856caf2a_story.html.1). (2) Shurman's observation about Mack's dislike of cities finds support in the lyrics of two Mack tunes: (a) "L.A. made me sick." (A Long Way From Memphis, 1985); (b) "I don't care what you think of me, I'm a-gonna live my life bein' country. Had a fancy job out in Hollywood, everybody said I was doin' good. Had lots of money and opportunities, but I'm a-gonna live my life bein' country." (Country, 1976). (3) Shurman's observation about Mack's dislike of the music business was echoed by Stuart Holman, Mack's bass guitarist in the early 1970s: "Lonnie had no tolerance for the internal politics of the music business." Holman interview on the broadcast "Lonnie Mack Special", July 16, 2011, at http://wvxu.org/post/lonnie-mack-special#stream/0.
  38. ^ Andrew Dansby, Music and Death 2016, Houston Chronicle, December 29, 2016, as preserved at https://www.houstonchronicle.com/entertainment/columnists/dansby/article/Music-and-death-2016-You-want-it-darker-10820590.php.
  39. ^ Vaughan called Mack "the baddest guitar player I know" (Vaughan, as heard on DVD entitled "American Caravan: Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble", recorded in 1986 at the Orpheum Theatre in Memphis. It can be seen and heard here: http://www.popflock.com/video?id=IkBqTWBIkKw.) and credited much of his own guitar style to Mack. ("Lonnie invented a lot of this stuff." Newton, "My First Interview With Stevie Ray Vaughan", at https://earofnewt.com/2015/08/26/my-first-interview- with-stevie-ray-vaughan-when-he-sang-me-three-lines-of-an-earl-king-song/.) Vaughan also said, "I got a lot of the fast things I do from Lonnie" (Menn, Secrets From The Masters, Miller-Freeman, Inc, 1992, p. 278, ISBN 0-87930-260-7). Three years before his death, Vaughan listed Mack first among the guitarists he had listened to, both as a youngster and as an adult. (Vaughan interview at http://www.popflock.com/video?id=GcrkPrxj698). As a teen-ager, Vaughan honed his guitar skills by playing along with Wham!, starting and stopping the record-player repeatedly as he attempted to copy Mack's guitar. (Vaughan interview, https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=GImi3eGVbSI, at counter 17:36; Patoski, "SRV: Caught in the Crossfire", 1993, Backbeat: 15-16.) In his teens, Duane Allman did the same with Memphis. (Poe, "Skydog: The Duane Allman Story", Backbeat, 2006, at p. 10 et seq.) Vaughan went on to record Wham! several times, and called his own instrumental, Scuttle-Buttin, "just another way of playin' [Mack's 1964 instrumental] Chicken-Pickin." (Vaughan, as quoted in review of the album Couldn't Stand The Weather at http://www.musicradar.com/news/guitars/s tevie-ray-vaughan-couldnt-stand-the-weather-legacy-edition-album-review-265255. Musicradar.com. Retrieved October 28, 2017.)
  40. ^ Brown & Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, at p. 25.
  41. ^ (1) See, July, 1985 photo of Richards and the Wood backing Mack's performance at New York's Lone Star Cafe at https://www.iorr.org/talk/read.php?1,2317009; Attendees included Mick Jagger, Paul Simon and Bob Dylan. See, review of Mack's appearance at the Lone Star, NY Times, Sunday, July 14. 1985. (2) The tour culminated in a Carnegie Hall concert with Collins and Buchanan. See: (a) Lonnie Mack - Satisfy Susie on YouTube; (b) Lonnie Mack Stop on YouTube; and (c) Lonnie Mack, Albert Collins & Roy Buchanan on YouTube
  42. ^ Lonnie Mack, as quoted in Nager, "Guitar Greatness", Cincinnati Enquirer (Cincinnati.com), March 13, 1998, as preserved at http://www2.cincinnati.com/freetime/weekend/031398_weekend.html.
  43. ^ Although he never recorded again as a solo artist, he made guest appearances on two albums of other artists. (1) Baber, Bo (May 31, 2000). "Review of Franktown Blues" (http://www.warehousecreek.com/frank/reviews.htm). Warehousecreek.com. Retrieved July 27, 2011. (2) "Lonnie Mack - Biography - Amoeba Music" (http://www.amoeba.com/lonnie-mack/artist/161293/bio). Amoeba.com. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
  44. ^ A Mack performance from this period at a small blues club can be seen here: http://www.popflock.com/video?id=uP-GMyKWPJY
  45. ^ (1) Stephens, "Lonnie Mack", TopperPost #522, April 2016, at http://www.toppermost.co.uk/lonnie-mack/. (2) Alligator Records' founder, Bruce Iglauer, said that over the years Mack's body paid for substance abuse and "hard-living" on the one-night-stand roadhouse circuit. (See, Bruce Iglauer interview in Vitale, "RIP Lonnie Mack", WTTW Chicago Tonight, April 22, 2017 at http://chicagotonight.wttw.com/2016/04/22/rip-lonnie-mack)
  46. ^ 1963 Stewart Colman, liner notes to album "From Nashville to Memphis", March 2001
  47. ^ a b "We Lost Another Guitar Hero on April 21--Lonnie Mack Passes at 74". GuitarPlayer.com. Retrieved 2017. 
  48. ^ (1) Richard T. Pinnell, Ph. D., "Lonnie Mack's Version of Chuck Berry's 'Memphis' -- An Analysis of an Historic Rock Guitar Instrumental", Guitar Player Magazine, May 1979, p. 41. (2) Interviewed in 2011, the recording engineer on "Memphis", Chuck Seitz, recalled that it took ten minutes to "set up" and less than ten minutes to record the tune twice. "Lonnie Mack Special", http://wvxu.org/post/lonnie-mack-special#stream/0
  49. ^ Brown & Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, 1997, Hal Leonard Publishing, "Lonnie Mack", at p. 25.
  50. ^ "Memphis" was the fourth rock guitar instrumental to reach Billboard's "Top 5", preceded by "Twang" and "Surf" classics, including The Virtues' "Guitar Boogie Shuffle" (1958), The Ventures' "Walk, Don't Run" (1960), and Duane Eddy's "Because They're Young" (1960).
  51. ^ Murrells, Joseph (1978). The Book of Golden Discs (2nd ed.). London: Barrie and Jenkins Ltd. p. 163. ISBN 0-214-20512-6. 
  52. ^ (1) "Swampland:Lonnie Mack". www.swampland.com. Retrieved 2017. ; (2) "Remembering Lonnie Mack and his visits to Pike - Milford PA - Letters to the Editor". Pikecountycourier.com. Retrieved 2017. 
  53. ^ Brown, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997 at p.25.
  54. ^ See, e.g., (1) "Talkin' Blues: Lonnie Mack and the Birth of Blues-Rock". Guitar World. Retrieved 2014. ; (2) Guitar Player, "101 Forgotten Greats and Unsung Heroes", 2/1/2007, at https://www.guitarplayer.com/players/101-forgotten-greats-andamp-unsung-heroes
  55. ^ See, e.g., Brown & Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997 at p.25.
  56. ^ Brown, Legends of Rock Guitar, entries on Chuck Berry and Lonnie Mack, Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, at p. 13-14 (Berry) and 24-25 (Mack).
  57. ^ (1) Sandmel, Guitar World, May 1984, pp. 55-56. (2) They did not catch on with other guitarists immediately. As late as November, 1968, a Rolling Stone reviewer was moved to comment upon the "peculiar running quality" of Mack's guitar recordings of five years earlier. Alec Dubro, Review of "The Wham of that Memphis Man!", Rolling Stone, November 23, 1968.
  58. ^ (1) Bluegrass: (a) "I started off in bluegrass, before there was rock 'n' roll.". Grimes, "Lonnie Mack, Singer and Guitarist Who Pioneered Blues-Rock, Dies at 74", New York times, April 22, 2016, at https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/23/arts/music/lonnie-mack-singer-and-guitarist-who-pioneered-blues-rockdies-at-74.html. (b) "Mack began performing guitar in the family bluegrass band at 7." McCardle, "Lonnie Mack, Guitarist and Singer Who Influenced Blues and Rock Acts, Dies at 74", Washington Post, April 25, 2016, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/lonnie-mack-guitarist-and-singer-who-influenced-blues-and-rock-acts-dies-at-74/2016/04/25/5c581f3c-0a44-11e6-bfa1-4efa856caf2a_story.html; (c) "...a guitar style that owes as much to Bluegrass as The Blues...". "Lonnie Mack", Website: "All About Blues Music", April 2016 at https://www.allaboutbluesmusic.com/lonnie-mack/. (2) Country: (a) "When I was about 10 years old, my uncle came in from Texas--- Harry Dawes, he was half-Indian---and he took me and introduced me to an old black man in northern Indiana. He played gutbucket and slide and all this real Robert Johnson-style guitar. And I was into Merle Travis and finger-pickin' style guitar, and never really realized I could adapt it over to some other kind of music. And I learned from, uh, Wayne (?-phonetic) Clark how to do that...". Mack interview at http://www.popflock.com/video?id=1mYxmVf6Xik. (b) Mack told this same story as early as 1985, when interviewed by the Chicago Tribune. See, "Lonnie Mack Back In The Swing Of Things", Chicago Tribune, Lifestyle Section, May 2, 1985.
  59. ^ See, Brown and Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, at pp. 24-25.
  60. ^ (1) Vitale, "RIP Lonnie Mack", Website: WTTW (Chicago Tonight column, April 22, 2016, at https://chicagotonight.wttw.com/2016/04/22/rip-lonnie-mack; (2) "Wayback Machine" (https://web.archive.org/web/20080510181805/http://www.gibson.com/en-us/Lifestyle/Features/ Unsung%20Guitar%20Hero%20Lonnie%20Mack/). Web.archive.org. May 10, 2008. Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
  61. ^ He picked up the watery Magnatone tremolo sound from R&B guitarist Robert Ward (blues musician). See, Stephens, "Lonnie Mack", TopperPost #522, April 2016, at http://www.toppermost.co.uk/lonnie-mack/.
  62. ^ Stephens, "Lonnie Mack", TopperPost #522, April 2016, at http://www.toppermost.co.uk/lonnie-mack/.
  63. ^ Brown & Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, p. 24.
  64. ^ (1) Rock guitar historian Peter Brown wrote: "[Mack] is essentially the missing link between the twangy, multi-string riffing of the rockabilly guitarists and the bluesy, string-pushing players of the mid-sixties---and later on, the psychedelic guitarists of San Francisco." Brown, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, at p. 24-25. (2) Southern rock guitarist Warren Haynes said: "Between the era of Chuck Berry and the era of Hendrix there were a handful of guitar players like Lonnie Mack who were making ground-breaking music that paved the way for the Revolution. People like Dickey Betts and Stevie Ray Vaughn would tell you that without Lonnie they wouldn't be who they were. That goes for all of us." Warren Haynes, April 23, 2016 posting on Official Warren Haynes website, preserved at http://www.warrenhaynes.net/news/detail/warren_haynes_reflects_on_lonnie_mack.
  65. ^ (1) ...Challenged and schooled: (a) Rock music author Jimmy Guterman: "Lonnie Mack bent, stroked, and modified the sound of six strings in ways that baffled his contemporaries and served as a guide to future players." Guterman, "The 100 Best Rock 'n' Roll Records of All Time", 1992, Citadel Publishing, p. 34; (b) Interviewed for a book about his childhood friend, Duane Allman, guitarist Mike Johnstone said: "Now, at that time, there was popular song on the radio called 'Memphis'--an instrumental by Lonnie Mack. It was the best guitar-playing I'd ever heard. All the guitar-players were [saying] 'How could anyone ever play that good? That's the new bar. That's how good you have to be now.'" Johnstone recounted how Allman, at 17, had played along with Memphis, starting and stopping the record with his foot in the process of perfecting his own technique. Guitarist Mike Johnstone, as quoted in Poe, "Skydog: The Duane Allman Story", Backbeat, 2006, at p. 10. (2) ...upcoming generations of rock guitar soloists: "[Mack] is essentially the missing link between the twangy, multi-string riffing of the rockabilly guitarists and the bluesy, string-pushing players of the mid-sixties---and later on, the psychedelic guitarists of San Francisco. He made the crucial bridge between the black blues and white hillbilly music via his lead work. He infused his breaks with string bends, pentatonic runs, and mature blues chops, all of which eventually became trademarks of [blues-rock lead guitarists] Eric Clapton, Mike Bloomfield and Stevie Ray Vaughan." Rock guitar historian Peter Brown, in Brown & Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, at p. 24-25.
  66. ^ (1) Mack was described as a "pioneer", "ground-breaker" or "trailblazer" of virtuoso rock guitar soloing in the following five commentaries, among others: See, e.g., (a) "Twenty Iconic Guitars", Rolling Stone online at https://www.rollingstone.com/music/pictures/20-iconic-guitars-20120523/lonnie-macks-flying-v-0534574, 05/23/2012; (b) McDevitt, "Unsung Guitar Hero Lonnie Mack", Gibson online at http://www.gibson.com/News-Lifestyle/Features/en-us/Unsung-Guitar-Hero-Lonnie-Mack.aspx, 09/05/2007; (c) Kreps, "Lonnie Mack, Blues-Rock Guitar Great, Dead at 74", Rolling Stone online at https://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/lonnie-mack-blues-rock-guitar-great- dead-at-74-20160423, 04/23/2016; (d) Kerzner, "Breaking: Pioneering Guitarist Lonnie Mack Dead at 74", 4/22/2016, at https://www.americanbluesscene.com/2016/04/breaking-pioneering-guitarist-lonnie-mack-dead-at-74/"; and (e) Hagood, "Lonnie Mack: Remembering His Trailblazing Blues-Rock Guitar Virtuosity", Keeping the Blues Alive, April 29, 2016, at https://keepingthebluesalive.org/lonnie-mack-remembering-his-trailblazing-blues-rock-guitar-virtuosity/. (2) "...edgy, aggressive, loud and fast...": "[In 1963] Mack's playing was more aggressive than anything people were used to hearing....Much of rock music might not have been the same - without his innovative way of treating the electric guitar as a lead soloing instrument in rock - edgy, aggressive, loud and fast." Reiser, "Lonnie Mack: Remembering His Trailblazing Blues-Rock Guitar Virtuosity", Website:"Keeping the Blues Alive", April 29, 2016, at https://keepingthebluesalive.org/lonnie-mack- remembering-his-trailblazing-blues-rock-guitar-virtuosity/. (3) "...core, defining feature...: See, e.g., popflock.com resource articles entitled "Guitar solo" and "Blues-rock". (4) Suzie-Q and Chicken-Pickin are often mentioned along with Memphis and Wham! as influential early Mack solos. As recently Jeff Beck's 2015 and 2016 tours, he routinely performed another Mack solo from the same era, Lonnie on the Move. He can be seen playing it here: http://www.popflock.com/video?id=RX4J0bbE5cY/ref> and here: http://www.popflock.com/video?id=-ahwIuX80ic.
  67. ^ Pinnell, Richard T. (May 1979). "Lonnie Mack's 'Memphis': An Analysis of an Historic Rock Guitar Instrumental". Guitar Player. p. 40. 
  68. ^ "Landmark Recordings", Guitar World, July 1980, as republished in Guitar World, July 1990
  69. ^ See, e.g., (1) Brown, Legends of Rock Guitar, Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, at pp. 24-25; (2) Herbert, "Lonnie Mack dead: Blues guitar great dies at 74, Joe Bonamassa says", April 22, 2016 at http://www.syracuse.com/celebrity-news/index.ssf/2016/04/lonnie_mack_dead_blues_guitarist_joe_bonamassa.html; (3) Santoro, "Double-Whammy", Guitar World, January 1986, p. 34; (4) "Landmark Recordings", Guitar World, July 1980, as republished in Guitar World, July 1990; and (5) Eskow, "The Death of Prince and the Death of Lonnie Mack", Counterpunch.org, May 3, 2016, at http://www.counterpunch.org/2016/05/03/the-death-of-prince-and-the-death-of-lonnie-mack/
  70. ^ Vaughan: (1) Joseph, "Before the Flood", Guitar World Magazine, September 1983; (2) "The Lost Stevie Ray Vaughan Interview" at http://www.popflock.com/video?id=hhffhhnibQY; Beck: Miller, "Jeff Beck's Guitar Magic Conquers Boston's Orpheum Theater", The Patriot Ledger on-line, April 20, 2015 at http://www.patriotledger.com/article/20150420/blogs/304209997; Nugent: Nugent interview at http://www.musicradar.com/news/guitars/ted-nugent-picks-the-11-greatest-guitarists-of-all-time-533304; Betts: Sandmel, "The Allman Brothers: Live at the Clifton Garage 1970" at http://www.spectratechltd.com/extrapages/Allman%20Brothers%20-%20Live%20at%20Ludlow%20Garage%20CD%20-%20cover%20&%20notes.pdf; Haynes: http://www.warrenhaynes.net/news/detail/warren_haynes_reflects_on_lonnie_mack); Benson: Benson interview, VHS-DVD, "Further On Down the Road", Flying V, 1985; Collins: Collins interview, http://www.popflock.com/video?id=US1658nBJow; Belew: Munro, "Ex King Crimson Man Belew Pays Tribute to Lonnie Mack", April 29, 2016, at http://teamrock.com/news/2016-04-29/ex-king-crimson-man-belew-pays-tribute-to-lonnie-mack); Morris: Tyler Morris discussing Mack's influence on him at http://www.popflock.com/video?id=cy-Yr9PrJ08.
  71. ^ Nager, "Guitar Greatness: Lonnie Mack's style is heard 'round the world", Cincinnati Enquirer online "Freetime" section, March 13, 1998 at http://www2.cincinnati.com/freetime/weekend/031398_weekend.html.
  72. ^ McDevitt, "Unsung Guitar Hero Lonnie Mack", Gibson online at http://www.gibson.com/News-Lifestyle/Features/en-us/Unsung-Guitar-Hero-Lonnie-Mack.aspx, 09/05/2007.
  73. ^ a b Meiners, Larry [2001-03-01], Flying V: The Illustrated History of the Modernistic Guitar, Flying Vintage Publishing, p. 13.
  74. ^ Carter, "The Guitar Collection", Epic Ink Publishing, 2011, ISBN 978-1603801690. A page from the book depicting Mack's guitar can be seen here: https://uncrate.com/the-guitar-collection/
  75. ^ , Sullivan, "20 Iconic Guitars" Rolling Stone on-line, May 23, 2012, at https://www.rollingstone.com/music/pictures/20-iconic-guitars-20120523.
  76. ^ (1) "Baby, What's Wrong?" hit the low end of the charts at 93 in December, 1963. See, Billboard's "Chart History" list for Mack at http://www.billboard.com/artist/307816/lonnie-mack/chart. (2) The blue-eyed soul vocals on Mack's debut album, The Wham of that Memphis Man (1963) came at a time when the racial divide in American culture was epitomized by the difference between black and white pop music styles. (Kirkus Review of the book, Country Soul, by Charles L. Hughes, U. of North Carolina Press, 2015, at https://www.kirkusreviews.com/book-reviews/charles-i-hughes/country-soul/). When Mack's first vocal recordings were released in 1963, Mack's gospel-inspired version of the soul ballad "Where There's a Will" was played on R&B radio stations throughout the Deep South. Soon, he was invited to give a live radio interview with a prominent R&B disc jockey in racially polarized Birmingham, Alabama. Mack said that when he appeared at the radio station, the DJ said, "Baby, you're the wrong color" and canceled the interview on the spot. After that, Mack's vocals received little play on R&B radio stations. (a) "We Lost Another Guitar Hero on April 21--Lonnie Mack Passes at 74" (http://www.guitarplayer.com/artists/1013/we-l ost-another-guitar-hero-on-april-21-lonnie-mack-passes-at-74/57726). GuitarPlayer.com. Retrieved October 28, 2017. (b) Sandmel (May 1984). "Lonnie Mack is Back on the Track". Guitar World. p. 59.
  77. ^ Mack's singing style might be described today as country-soul. See, Watrous, "Lonnie Mack in a Melange of Guitar Styles", New York Times, September 18, 1988 (describing his soul-singing style as "country-esque").
  78. ^ Retrospective review of Mack's 1963 debut album, Alec Dubro, Rolling Stone magazine, November 23, 1968.
  79. ^ Music critic Bill Millar, 1983 essay entitled "Blue-eyed Soul: Colour Me Soul" (https://web.archive.org/web/20071122194241/http://www.soul-s/ ource.co.uk/soul-words/blue-eyed-soul-colour-me-soul.htm). Excerpted from The History of Rock. Archived from the original (http://w Archived July 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ww.soul-source.co.uk/soul-words/blue-eyed-soul-colour-me-soul.htm) on November 22, 2007. Retrieved November 14, 2007.
  80. ^ Guterman, "The 100 Best Rock 'n' Roll Records of All Time", 1992, Citadel Publishing, p. 34.
  81. ^ (1) "...the greatest deep soul...shame over witnessing it": Music and cultural critic Griel Marcus, regarding Mack's 1963 vocal, Why, in essay entitled "Songs Left Out Of Nan Goldin's Ballad of Sexual Dependency", Aperture #197 (Winter 2009), as reproduced at https://aperture.org/blog/songs-left-nan-goldins-ballad-sexual-dependency/. (2) "Mack's scream ...tops it": Attributed to a Marcus lecture of the same year and title as the essay above; presented at The Experience Project in Seattle. See comment below the Why Youtube video, here: http://www.popflock.com/video?id=GJgoZV0qiLE.
  82. ^ Dave Stephens, author of two books on rock music, in "Lonnie Mack", TopperPost #522, April 2016 at http://www.toppermost.co.uk/lonnie-mack/
  83. ^ In a 2007 interview Mack said he was contemplating a final comeback because "I miss the performing and making people happy." McDevitt, "Unsung Guitar Hero Lonnie Mack", Gibson online at http://www.gibson.com/News-Lifestyle/Features/en-us/Unsung-Guitar-Hero-Lonnie-Mack.aspx/.
  84. ^ (1) Stephens, "Lonnie Mack", TopperPost #522, April 2016, at http://www.toppermost.co.uk/lonnie-mack/. (2) Alligator Records' founder, Bruce Iglauer, said that Mack's health had paid the price for years of substance abuse and "hard-living" on the one-night-stand roadhouse circuit. (See, Bruce Iglauer interview in Vitale, "RIP Lonnie Mack", WTTW Chicago Tonight, April 22, 2017 at http://chicagotonight.wttw.com/2016/04/22/rip-lonnie-mack).
  85. ^ "Photo of Mack playing at concert" (https://web.archive.org/web/20110715132351/http://pureprairieleague.com/benefit/index. htm). Pureprairieleague.com. Archived from the original (http://pureprairieleague.com/benefit/index.htm) on July 15, 2011. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  86. ^ John Soeder, The Plain Dealer. "Guitar stars pay tribute to Les Paul in Cleveland concert". cleveland.com. Retrieved 2011. 
  87. ^ See, Lonnie Mack sat in with my band Sat night... | The Gear Page (https://www.thegearpage.net/board/index.php?threads /lonnie-mack-sat-in-with-my-band-sat-night.532235/).
  88. ^ He can be seen playing the tune at that event, on a borrowed guitar, here: http://www.popflock.com/video?id=utqP7q244mY
  89. ^ His death was officially attributed to "natural causes". (Kreps, "Lonnie Mack, Blues-Rock Guitar Great, Dead at 74", Rolling Stone magazine on-line, April 23, 2016, at https://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/lonnie-mack-blues-rock-guitar-great-dead-at-74-20160423).
  90. ^ Guterman, "The 100 Best Rock 'n' Roll Records of All Time", Citadel Publishing, 1992, p. 34)
  91. ^ Larry Nager, Cincinnati Enquirer, "Lonnie Mack Wins Lifetime Achievement Cammy", March 15, 1998
  92. ^ "Security Check Required". Facebook.com. Retrieved 2017. 
  93. ^ "Guitar Hall of Fame". Guitarhalloffame.com. Retrieved 2017. 
  94. ^ http://www.lonniemack.com/cammy.html
  95. ^ "List of Hall of Famers". Rockabillyhall.com. Retrieved 2011. 
  96. ^ "Full Inductee List". Widmarcs.com. Retrieved 2011. 
  97. ^ Walter Carter, "The Guitar Collection", Epic Ink Publishing, 2011, ISBN 978-1603801690. A page from the book depicting Mack's guitar can be seen here: https://uncrate.com/the-guitar-collection/
  98. ^ Sullivan, "20 Iconic Guitars". Rolling Stone on-line, May 23, 2012, at https://www.rollingstone.com/music/pictures/20-iconic-guitars-20120523

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