Lower Sorbian Language
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Lower Sorbian Language
Lower Sorbian
dolnoserbina, dolnoserbski
Native toGermany
Native speakers
6,900 (2007)[1]
Latin (Sorbian alphabet)
Language codes
Linguasphere53-AAA-ba < 53-AAA-b < 53-AAA-b...-d (varieties: 53-AAA-baa to 53-AAA-bah)
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Lower Sorbian (dolnoserbina) is a Slavic minority language spoken in eastern Germany in the historical province of Lower Lusatia, today part of Brandenburg. It is one of the two literary Sorbian languages, the other being the more lively Upper Sorbian.

Lower Sorbian is spoken in and around the city of Cottbus in Brandenburg. Signs in this region are usually bilingual, and Cottbus has a Gymnasium where one language of instruction is Lower Sorbian. It is a heavily endangered language.[3] Most native speakers are in the oldest generation today.


Bilingual road sign in Cottbus, Germany

The phonology of Lower Sorbian has been greatly influenced by contact with German, especially in Cottbus and larger towns. For example, German-influenced pronunciation tends to have a voiced uvular fricative [?] instead of the alveolar trill [r]. In villages and rural areas German influence is less marked, and the pronunciation is more "typically Slavic".


Final devoicing and assimilation

Lower Sorbian has both final devoicing and regressive voicing assimilation:[14]

  • dub /dub/ "oak" is pronounced [dup]
  • susedka /'susedka/ "(female) neighbor" is pronounced ['susetka]
  • licba /'lit?sba/ "number" is pronounced ['l?id?zba]

The hard postalveolar fricative /?/ is assimilated to [?] before /t/:[15]

  • it /?tit/ "protection" is pronounced [?tit]


The vowel inventory of Lower Sorbian is exactly the same as that of Upper Sorbian.[16] It is also very similar to the vowel inventory of Slovene.


Stress in Lower Sorbian normally falls on the first syllable of the word:[18]

  • ?u?yca ['wut?sa] "Lusatia"
  • p?ija?el ['p?ijal] "friend"
  • Chó?ebuz ['xbus] "Cottbus"

In loanwords, stress may fall on any of the last three syllables:[18]

  • internat [int?r'nat] "boarding school"
  • kontrola [k?n'tr?la] "control"
  • september [s?p't?mb?r] "September"
  • policija [p?'l?it?sija] "police"
  • organizacija [?r?an?i'zat?sija] "organization"

Most one-syllable prepositions attract the stress to themselves when they precede a noun or pronoun of one or two syllables:[18]

  • na dwórje ['na dw?r] "on the courtyard"
  • p?i mnjo ['p?i mn] "near me"
  • do m?sta ['d? msta] "into the city" (note that the [i] of m?sto ['m?ist?] becomes [?] when unstressed)

However, nouns of three or more syllables retain their stress:

  • p?ed wucabnikom [pd 'ut?sabn?ik?m] "in front of the teacher"
  • na drogowanju [na 'drowan?u] "on a journey"


The Sorbian alphabet is based on the Latin script but uses diacritics such as acute accent and caron.


Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Lower Sorbian:

W?ykne lu?e su lichotne ro?one a jadnake po dostojnos?i a p?awach. Woni maju rozym a w?dobnos? a maju ze sobu w duchu brat?ojstwa wobchada?.

(All people are born free and equal in their dignity and rights. They are given reason and conscience and they shall create their relationships to one another according to the spirit of brotherhood.)[19]

See also


  1. ^ Lower Sorbian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Lower Sorbian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Moseley, Christopher, ed. (2010). Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger (3rd ed.). Paris: UNESCO Publishing. ISBN 978-92-3-104096-2.
  4. ^ a b c Stone (2002), p. 605.
  5. ^ Zygis (2003), pp. 180-181.
  6. ^ Hannusch (1988).
  7. ^ Stone (2002).
  8. ^ Zygis (2003).
  9. ^ This transcription follows Laver (1994:251-252). Other scholars may transcribe these sounds differently.
  10. ^ Zygis (2003), pp. 180-181, 190-191.
  11. ^ ?ewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 40-41.
  12. ^ Stone (2002), pp. 600, 605.
  13. ^ ?ewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 43, 46.
  14. ^ Hannusch (1998), p. 12.
  15. ^ Hannusch (1998), p. 13.
  16. ^ a b c d Stone (2002), p. 600.
  17. ^ Stone (2002), pp. 606-607.
  18. ^ a b c Hannusch (1998), p. 14.
  19. ^ Omniglot


  • Hannusch, Erwin (1998), Niedersorbisch praktisch und verständlich, Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag, ISBN 3-7420-1667-9
  • Laver, John (1994), Principles of Phonetics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-45655-X
  • ?ewc-Schuster, Hinc (1984), Gramatika hornjo-serbskeje re, Budy?in: Ludowe nak?adnistwo Domowina
  • Stone, Gerald (2002), "Sorbian (Upper and Lower)", in Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville G., The Slavonic Languages, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 593-685, ISBN 9780415280785
  • Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics, 3: 175-213

External links


Czech-Lower Sorbian and Lower Sorbian-Czech

German-Lower Sorbian

Lower Sorbian-German

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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