Ludovic Stewart, 2nd Duke of Lennox
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Ludovic Stewart, 2nd Duke of Lennox

The Duke of Lennox
Ludovic Stewart, 2nd Duke of Lennox, by English School of the 17th century.jpg
Born29 September 1574
Died16 February 1624 (aged 49)
Resting placeWestminster Abbey, London
Title2nd Duke of Lennox
1st Duke of Richmond
Sophia Ruthven
Jean Campbell
Frances Howard
Parent(s)Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox and Catherine de Balsac
John Smith's The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles (1624) recounts early English attempts to settle New England.

Ludovic Stewart, 2nd Duke of Lennox and 1st Duke of Richmond (29 September 1574 – 16 February 1624), was a Scottish nobleman and politician. He was the son of Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox, and his wife, Catherine de Balsac. Ludovic was involved in the Plantation of Ulster in Ireland and the colonization of Maine in New England. Richmond's Island and Cape Richmond, as well as Richmond, Maine (formerly Fort Richmond), are named for him.


On 14 November 1583, after the death of Esmé Stewart, Ludovic returned from France and was taken to meet James VI at Kinneil House.[1] In December, James VI issued instructions for the education of Ludovic. The young Duke was to remain in the king's household under the care of Mr. Gilbert Moncreiff. He played cards with the king, on 4 October 1590 for the stake of a new "black castor hat lined with velvet".[2]

In 1591 he was appointed to the post of Lord High Admiral of Scotland following the disgrace of Francis Stewart, Earl of Bothwell. On 13 February 1593 Lennox decided to play golf with Sir James Sandilands at Leith. On their way they met John Graham, a Lord of Session, who thought Sandilands was attacking him. The two groups of attendants fired on each other pistols, and John Graham and Sir Alexander Stewart, a companion of the duke, were killed.[3]

On 6 May 1593, the Duke and 15 friends subscribed to a frivolous legal document swearing to abstain from wearing gold and silver trimmings on their clothes for a year, and defaulters were to pay for a banquet for all at John Killoch's house. This "passement bond" was in part inspired by cheap counterfeit gold and silver thread used in "passements great or small, plain or 'a jour', bissets, lilykins, cordons, and fringes" which quickly discoloured. The signatories included; Lord Home, the Earl of Mar, Lord Spynie, the Master of Glamis, Sir Thomas Erskine, Walter Stewart of Blantyre, Sir George Home, and Sir William Keith of Delny.[4] At the tournament at Prince Henry's baptism in August 1594 Lennox rode in a Turkish costume.

Following his accession to the English throne in 1603, King James (now James I of England) created him Lord Settrington and earl of Richmond (1613), and earl of Newcastle and duke of Richmond (1623), all these titles being in the Peerage of England.[5] In 1623 he was granted the additional titles of Earl of Newcastle and Duke of Richmond.

Lennox was a conduit for patronage and court appointments, and those hoping to place their allies at court would solicit his favour. However, Lennox claimed that placing more Scottish people in the king's household had become difficult. He wrote to Sir William Livingstone of Kilsyth who had asked for a place for a Napier of the Merchiston family;

"although the King has this long time promised Merchiston ever the next vacant place, yet many has been placed over him and in this has found great impediments; for believe that a stranger shall find great difficulty to obtain any such place so long as there is any English man that does aim at it; for it is thought by them all that there is already too many Scots here in such places."[6]

On 9 February 1608 he performed in the masque The Hue and Cry After Cupid at Whitehall Palace as a sign of the zodiac, to celebrate the wedding of John Ramsay, Viscount Haddington to Elizabeth Radclyffe.[7]

Lennox acquired the licence to mint copper farthings. As part of the Plantation of Ulster, Lennox was granted lands at Portlough in the Barony of Raphoe in County Donegal in 1608. The Pynnar Survey of 1618 records Lennox as the chief undertaker for 2,000 acres in the Portlough area and represented locally by his agent Sir Aulant Aula. Newtownstewart in County Tyrone, now in Northern Ireland, may have been named after him. In the Muster Rolls of 1631 the 4th Duke of Lennox is described as being an undertaker of 4,000 acres. Mongavlin Castle was built by his son Sir John Stewart, who was also governor of Dumbarton Castle.

Ludovic was involved in the colonization of Maine in New England. Richmond Island and Cape Richmond, as well as Richmond, Maine (formerly Fort Richmond), are named after him.

He died in 1624 without legitimate issue,[5] aged 49, and was interred in Westminster Abbey, London.

His English title of Duke of Richmond became extinct, but his Scottish title of Duke of Lennox passed to his brother, Esmé Stewart, 3rd Duke of Lennox.[8]


Arms of Sir Ludovic Stewart, Duke of Lennox and Richmond, KG

James VI of Scotland had discussed the possibility of him marrying Arbella Stuart with Thomas Fowler.[9] Ludovic married, firstly, Sophia Ruthven, daughter of William Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie, before June 1590.

He married, secondly, Jean Campbell, great-granddaughter of James IV of Scotland, around August 1598. Lennox wrote in April 1605 to William Livingstone of Kilsyth, who managed some of his Scottish estates, that he wished to "rid me of her" and "be quit of her." In December 1610, after this marriage had ended and Jean had died, her brother Hugh Campbell of Loudon complained that the Duke had taken her fine things to England, leaving her "drowned in great debt" with only an old silver basin, three little cups, and their children.[10]

Frances Howard, Lennox's third wife

He married, thirdly, Frances Howard, daughter of Thomas Howard, 1st Viscount Howard of Bindon, on 16 June 1621.

His illegitimate son, Sir John Stewart of Methven, governor of Dumbarton Castle and builder of Mongavlin Castle was married to Margaret Hamilton, daughter of Sir Claud Hamilton of Shawfield. This Claud was a son of Claud Hamilton, 1st Lord Paisley and a younger brother of James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Abercorn.[11] Claud Hamilton also had a plantation in Ireland.

See also


  1. ^ Moysie, David, Memoirs of the Affairs of Scotland, vol.1 (1830), p.147.
  2. ^ Jemma Field, 'Dressing a Queen: The Wardrobe of Anna of Denmark at the Scottish Court of King James VI, 1590-1603', The Court Historian, 24:2 (2019), p. 165, citing National Records of Scotland E35/13.
  3. ^ Calendar State Papers Scotland, vol. 11 (Edinburgh, 1936), p. 49.
  4. ^ Historical Manuscripts Commission, Appendix 4th Report: Mrs. Erskine Murray (London, 1874), p. 527, these documents are held by the National Library of Scotland.
  5. ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lennox". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 420.
  6. ^ HMC Laing Maunscripts at the University of Edinburgh, vol. 1 (London, 1914), p. 106-7, modernised here.
  7. ^ Edmund Lodge, Illustrations of British History, vol. 3 (London, 1838), p. 223.
  8. ^ McNeill, Ronald John (1911). "Richmond, Earls and Dukes of" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 306.
  9. ^ Calendar State Papers Scotland, vol. 10 (Edinburgh, 1936), p. 17.
  10. ^ Reports on various collections: Arcibald Edmonstone of Duntreath and John James Graham of Fintry, vol.5, HMC (1909), 111-2, 114-7
  11. ^ [1][unreliable source]

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