The Scrophulariaceae are a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the figwort family. The plants are annual and perennial herbs, as well as one genus of shrubs. Flowers have bilateral (zygomorphic) or rarely radial (actinomorphic) symmetry. The Scrophulariaceae have a cosmopolitan distribution, with the majority found in temperate areas, including tropical mountains. The family name is based on the name of the included genus ScrophulariaL.
This article needs attention from an expert in taxonomy or botany. The specific problem is: This article needs a comparison between the current and obsolete circumscriptions of the group, its current composition, and the present location of excluded taxa. None of these issues is adequately dealt with here.WikiProject Taxonomy or WikiProject Botany may be able to help recruit an expert.(August 2015)
In the past, it was treated as including about 275 genera and over 5,000 species, but its circumscription has been radically altered since numerous molecular phylogenies have shown the traditional broad circumscription to be grossly polyphyletic. Many genera have recently been transferred to other families within the Lamiales, notably Plantaginaceae and Orobanchaceae, but also several new families. Several families of the Lamiales have had their circumscriptions enlarged to accommodate genera transferred from the Scrophulariacae sensu lato.
^Olmstead, R. G. (2003). "Whatever happened to the Scrophulariaceae?". Fremontia. 30: 13-22. - on line here
^Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 105-20, doi:10.1111/boj.12385
^Gándara, Etelvina; Victoria Sosa (March 2013). "Testing the monophyly and position of the North American shrubby desert genus Leucophyllum (Scrophulariaceae: Leucophylleae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 171 (3): 508-518. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2012.01327.x.
^ abKornhall, Per & Bremer, Birgitta (2004). "New circumscription of the tribe Limoselleae (Scrophulariaceae) that includes the taxa of the tribe Manuleeae". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 146 (4): 453-467. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2004.00341.x.
^Oxelman, B.; Kornhall, P.; Olmstead, R.G.; Bremer, B. (2005). "Further disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae". Taxon. 54 (2): 411-425. doi:10.2307/25065369. JSTOR25065369.
^"Lindernia All". A Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. Missouri Botanical Garden and Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.
^Haston, E., Richardson, J. E., Stevens, P. F., Chase, M. W., Harris, D. J. (2007). "A linear sequence of Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II families". Taxon. 56 (1): 7-12. doi:10.2307/25065731. JSTOR25065731.
^Nelson D. Young; Kim E. Steiner; Claude W. dePamphilis (Autumn 1999). "The Evolution of Parasitism in Scrophulariaceae/Orobanchaceae: Plastid Gene Sequences Refute an Evolutionary Transition Series". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 86 (4): 876-893. doi:10.2307/2666173. JSTOR2666173.
Fischer, E. (2004). "Scrophulariaceae". In Kubitzki, K.; Kadereit, J. W. (eds.). Flowering Plants - Dicotyledons: Lamiales. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. VII. Springer. pp. 333-432. ISBN978-3-540-40593-1.