M1867 Werndl-Holub
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M1867 Werndl%E2%80%93Holub

M1867 Werndl-Holub
Werndl M1867.jpg
TypeService rifle
Place of originAustria-Hungary
Service history
In service1867-1886 (primary Austro-Hungarian service rifle)
1886-1921 (limited use)
Used byAustria-Hungary
See users
WarsSee conflicts
Production history
DesignerJosef Werndl and Karel Holub
Designed1860s
ManufacturerJosef und Franz Werndl & Comp. (ÖWG after 1869)
F. Fruwirth a Bentz (up to 1873)
Unit cost50 gulden (1867)
Produced1867-1888
No. built686,000 (by 1874)
VariantsM1873
M67/77
M73/77
Extra-Corps Carbine
Finance-Gewehr Carbine
Cavalry Carbine
Specifications
Mass9.65 lb (4.4 kg)
Length50.4 in (128.0 cm)
Barrel length33.3 in (84.6 cm)

Cartridge11.15×42mmR (M1867)
11.15×58mmR (1877 Upgrade)
Caliber11.15 mm
ActionRotating drum bolt
Rate of fire12-14 aimed shots per minute
24 unaimed shots per minute
Muzzle velocity439 m/s (1,440.3 ft/s)
Effective firing range300 m (328.1 yd) (point target)
Maximum firing range1,070 m (1,170.2 yd) (maximum setting on sights)
Feed systemSingle-shot breech-loading
SightsIron sights graduated from 200 to 1,400 paces

The M1867 Werndl-Holub was a single-shot breechloading rifle adopted by the Austro-Hungarian army on 28 July 1867. It replaced the Wanzl breechloader conversion of the muzzle-loading Lorenz rifle. Josef Werndl (1831-1889) and Karel Holub (1830-1903) designed and patented their rifle; Werndl later bought out all the rights, but was involved in name only.

ÖWG (Österreichische Waffenfabriksgesellschaft) produced the Werndl and chambered it for the 11mm scharfe Patrone M.67[1] (11.15×42mmR) cartridge. In 1877, the military rechambered the Werndl for the bottleneck 11mm scharfe Patrone M.77 (11.15×58mmR) cartridge.

Production

In 1867, the army ordered 611,000 of the new rifles. The first batch of 100,000 rifles cost 5 million gulden, or 50 gulden per rifle. The army received 14 million gulden in funding to acquire Werndl rifles and ammunition in 1868. The budget was then cut to just 1 million in 1869. As a result, by November 1870, only 316,650 Werndl breechloaders had been produced and the army still needed an additional 302,810 rifles to fulfill the needs of the regular troops, without taking into account the demands of the Imperial-Royal Landwehr and the Royal Hungarian Honvéd. In February 1873, the war minister Franz Kuhn von Kuhnenfeld stated a need for 370,000 more Werndl rifles for the army.

Use

In spite of the Werndl being long obsolete by World War I, the Austro-Hungarian forces issued Werndl rifles to rear-echelon units to free up more modern rifles for use by front-line troops.[1]

Comparison with contemporary rifles

Comparison of 1880s rifles[2]
Calibre System Country Velocity Height of trajectory Ammunition
Muzzle 500 yd (460 m) 1,000 yd (910 m) 1,500 yd (1,400 m) 2,000 yd (1,800 m) 500 yd (460 m) 1,000 yd (910 m) 1,500 yd (1,400 m) 2,000 yd (1,800 m) Propellant Bullet
.433 in (11.0 mm) Werndl-Holub rifle Austria-Hungary 1,439 ft/s (439 m/s) 854 ft/s (260 m/s) 620 ft/s (190 m/s) 449 ft/s (137 m/s) 328 ft/s (100 m/s) 8.252 ft (2.515 m) 49.41 ft (15.06 m) 162.6 ft (49.6 m) 426.0 ft (129.8 m) 77 gr (5.0 g) 370 gr (24 g)
.45 in (11.43 mm) Martini-Henry United Kingdom 1,315 ft/s (401 m/s) 869 ft/s (265 m/s) 664 ft/s (202 m/s) 508 ft/s (155 m/s) 389 ft/s (119 m/s) 9.594 ft (2.924 m) 47.90 ft (14.60 m) 147.1 ft (44.8 m) 357.85 ft (109.07 m) 85 gr (5.5 g) 480 gr (31 g)
.433 in (11.0 mm) Fusil Gras mle 1874 France 1,489 ft/s (454 m/s) 878 ft/s (268 m/s) 643 ft/s (196 m/s) 471 ft/s (144 m/s) 348 ft/s (106 m/s) 7.769 ft (2.368 m) 46.6 ft (14.2 m) 151.8 ft (46.3 m) 389.9 ft (118.8 m) 80 gr (5.2 g) 386 gr (25.0 g)
.433 in (11.0 mm) Mauser Model 1871 Germany 1,430 ft/s (440 m/s) 859 ft/s (262 m/s) 629 ft/s (192 m/s) 459 ft/s (140 m/s) 388 ft/s (118 m/s) 8.249 ft (2.514 m) 48.68 ft (14.84 m) 159.2 ft (48.5 m) 411.1 ft (125.3 m) 75 gr (4.9 g) 380 gr (25 g)
.408 in (10.4 mm) M1870 Italian Vetterli Italy 1,430 ft/s (440 m/s) 835 ft/s (255 m/s) 595 ft/s (181 m/s) 422 ft/s (129 m/s) 304 ft/s (93 m/s) 8.527 ft (2.599 m) 52.17 ft (15.90 m) 176.3 ft (53.7 m) 469.9 ft (143.2 m) 62 gr (4.0 g) 310 gr (20 g)
.397 in (10.08 mm) Jarmann M1884 Norway and Sweden 1,536 ft/s (468 m/s) 908 ft/s (277 m/s) 675 ft/s (206 m/s) 504 ft/s (154 m/s) 377 ft/s (115 m/s) 7.235 ft (2.205 m) 42.97 ft (13.10 m) 137.6 ft (41.9 m) 348.5 ft (106.2 m) 77 gr (5.0 g) 337 gr (21.8 g)
.42 in (10.67 mm) Berdan rifle Russia 1,444 ft/s (440 m/s) 873 ft/s (266 m/s) 645 ft/s (197 m/s) 476 ft/s (145 m/s) 353 ft/s (108 m/s) 7.995 ft (2.437 m) 47.01 ft (14.33 m) 151.7 ft (46.2 m) 388.7 ft (118.5 m) 77 gr (5.0 g) 370 gr (24 g)
.45 in (11.43 mm) Springfield model 1884 United States 1,301 ft/s (397 m/s) 875 ft/s (267 m/s) 676 ft/s (206 m/s) 523 ft/s (159 m/s) 404 ft/s (123 m/s) 8.574 ft (2.613 m) 46.88 ft (14.29 m) 142.3 ft (43.4 m) 343.0 ft (104.5 m) 70 gr (4.5 g) 500 gr (32 g)
.40 in (10.16 mm) Enfield-Martini United Kingdom 1,570 ft/s (480 m/s) 947 ft/s (289 m/s) 719 ft/s (219 m/s) 553 ft/s (169 m/s) 424 ft/s (129 m/s) 6.704 ft (2.043 m) 39.00 ft (11.89 m) 122.0 ft (37.2 m) 298.47 ft (90.97 m) 85 gr (5.5 g) 384 gr (24.9 g)
The unique breechloading system of the Werndl

Users

Conflicts

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Scarlata, Paul (1 August 2011). "Austro-Hungarian Rifles of World War 1 - Part One: Many Peoples - Many Rifles!". Shotgun News. 65 (21): 48.
  2. ^ "The New Martini-Enfield Rifle" (PDF). The Engineer. 2 July 1886. p. 16. Retrieved 2017 – via Grace's Guide to British Industrial History.
  3. ^ "The military rifle cartridges of Afghanistan part 1: from Alexander to Enfields. - Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 2018.
  4. ^ Elsie, Robert (24 April 2015). The Tribes of Albania,: History, Society and Culture. ISBN 9780857739322.
  5. ^ ".: Full Aventura :. - Armas - Armas de nuestra historia - 1º parte". Fullaventura.com. Retrieved 2018.
  6. ^ http://www.legionitaliana.com.ar/FuerzasSitioBuenosAires1880.PDF
  7. ^ "Ethiopian military rifle cartridges part 1: from the Queen of Sheba to Adowa. - Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 2018.
  8. ^ electricpulp.com. "FIREARMS i. HISTORY - Encyclopaedia Iranica". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2018.
  9. ^ "RIA: Gewehr 29/40 Mauser". Forgottenweapons.com. 8 February 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  10. ^ "OKOP - Sklep z Militariami Kolekcjonerska Bro? Deko". Okop.com.pl. Retrieved 2018.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 August 2018. Retrieved 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "Blog - Osprey Remembers - Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia and the Ukraine - Osprey Publishing". ospreypublishing.com.
  13. ^ "?ASOPIS ZA ZGODOVINO IN NARODOPISJE : Review for History and Ethnography" (PDF). Sistory.si. Retrieved 2018.
  14. ^ Teinovi?, Bratislav. "Srpski ustanak u Bosni 1875-1878., Banjaluka 2006". Academia.edu. Retrieved 2018.
  15. ^ Farmanfarmaian, Roxane (30 January 2008). War and Peace in Qajar Persia: Implications Past and Present. Routledge. p. 63. ISBN 9781134103089. Retrieved 2018 – via Google Books.
  16. ^ McCollum, Ian (29 January 2017). "1867 Werndl (Video)". Forgotten Weapons.
  17. ^ "Sokolstvo v bojoch o Slovensko | Slovenské národné noviny".
  18. ^ "Karabin i karabinek Werndl-Holub wz.1873/77". dobroni.pl. 6 February 2013.

External link

Media related to Werndl rifle at Wikimedia Commons



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