Geographical and historical region of Serbia
Map of the Ma?va region
Ma?va (Serbian Cyrillic: , pronounced [mâ:tv?a]) is a geographical and historical region in the northwest of Central Serbia, on a fertile plain between the Sava and Drina rivers. The chief town is ?abac. The modern Ma?va District of Serbia is named after the region, although the region of Ma?va includes only the northern part of this district. A small northern part of Ma?va region is in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, in the Syrmia District.
The region is named after a town of Ma?va, which existed in the Medieval Ages near the river Sava. In the past, the region was also known as Lower Srem, while the neighbouring region on the northern bank of the river Sava (present-day Srem) was known as Upper Srem.
Throughout history, the region of Ma?va has successively been a part of the Roman Empire (1st-4th century); the Byzantine Empire (4th-5th century; 5th-7th century; and 11th-12th century), the Hun Empire (5th century), Avar Khaganate (7th century), the Slavic-controlled territories (7th-9th century), the Bulgarian Empire (9th-11th century), the Kingdom of Hungary (12th-13th century; 14th century; 15th century; 16th century), the State of Serb king Stefan Dragutin (13th-14th century), the Serbian Empire (14th century), the State of Nikola Altomanovi? (14th century), the Moravian Serbia (14th century), the Serbian Despotate (15th century), the Ottoman Empire (15th century; 16th-18th century; 18th-19th century), the Kingdom of Serbia under the Habsburg Monarchy (1718-1739), Kara?or?e's Serbia (1804-1813), the vassal Principality of Serbia (1815-1878), the independent Principality of Serbia (1878-1882), the Kingdom of Serbia (1882-1918), the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918-1929), the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929-1941), the area governed by the Military Administration in Serbia (1941-1944), the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1944-1992), the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992-2003), and Serbia and Montenegro (2003-2006). Since 2006, the region is part of an independent Serbia.
Ma?va was inhabited since the Stone Age. Before the Roman conquest, the region was inhabited by Illyrians and Celtic Scordisces. In the first century BC, the region was conquered by the Romans, and Scordisces were pushed to the northern side of the Sava river. During the Roman rule, the region was part of the provinces of Moesia and Pannonia.
The region was then included into Byzantine Empire, Frankish Kingdom, and Bulgarian Empire. In the 11th century, the Byzantine province known as the Theme of Sirmium included both, the present-day region of Srem and Ma?va, thus the name of Srem became designation for the both regions.
In the 13th century, the region was included into the Kingdom of Hungary and Banovina of Ma?va was formed in 1247. Banovina was named after a town called Ma?va, but the location of this settlement has not been clearly established in modern times. It is suspected that the town of Ma?va existed a few kilometers down the river from modern ?abac.
During the Hungarian administration the region was ruled by several powerful bans. Hungarian king Béla IV granted authority over Ma?va to Rostislav Mikhailovich, a refugee Russian prince. In the 13th century, Béla of Macsó (grandson of Béla IV) ruled Ma?va as well as Usora and Soli (areas across Drina river in today's northeastern Bosnia).
Between 1282 and 1316 the Serb King Stefan Dragutin ruled the Kingdom of Srem, which consisted of Ma?va, Usora, Soli and some adjacent territories. His capital cities were Debrc (between Belgrade and ?abac) and Belgrade. In that time the name Srem was designation for two territories: Upper Srem (present day Srem) and Lower Srem (present day Ma?va). Kingdom of Srem under the rule of Stefan Dragutin was located in Lower Srem. According to some sources, Stefan Dragutin also ruled over Upper Srem, but other sources are mentioning another local ruler, Ugrin Csák, who ruled over Upper Srem and Slavonija.
At first, Stefan Dragutin was a vassal of the Hungarian king, but since the central power in the Kingdom of Hungary collapsed, both, Stefan Dragutin and Ugrin Csák were de facto independent rulers. Stephen Dragutin died in 1316, and was succeeded by his son, King Vladislaus II (1316-1324). Vladislaus II was defeated by the king of Serbia, Stefan De?anski, in 1324, and after this, Ma?va became a subject of dispute between the Kingdom of Serbia and the Kingdom of Hungary.
In the 14th century, the bans of the Garay family (Paul Garay, Nicholas I Garay and his son Nicholas II Garay) which were under the Hungarian suzerainty expanded their rule not only to Bosnia but to Srem and the last one also became the ban of Slavonia and Croatia, which was also part of the Kingdom of Hungary at the time. Ma?va was part of the Serbian Empire of Stefan Du?an and part of the state of the Serbian prince Lazar Hrebeljanovi?.
In the 15th century, Ma?va was part of Serbian Despotate, and since 1459, it was part of the Ottoman Empire. In the 16th-17th century, Ma?va was part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Zvornik, which was part of the Pashaluk of Bosnia. It was under Ottoman administration until 1718, when it was captured by the Habsburgs. Between 1718 and 1739, Ma?va was part of the Habsburg-administered Kingdom of Serbia, and since 1739, it was again part of the Ottoman Empire. In this time, the region was part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Smederevo. In 1788, the "Ma?vanska kne?ina" ("Princedom of Ma?va" - a local administrative unit) had 25 villages with 845 houses. The name of the local administrator ("oberknez") was Uro? Drmanovi?. Between 1804 and 1815, Ma?va was part of Serbia ruled by Kara?or?e. Since 1817, it was part of the autonomous Principality of Serbia, and since 1882, part of the Kingdom of Serbia.
During World War I, the Austro-Hungarian army occupied the region and committed war crimes against innocent Serb civilians in Ma?va and Podrinje.  Beginning in 1918, the region was part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia). Between 1918 and 1922 the region was part of Podrinjski okrug, between 1922 and 1929 part of Podrinjska oblast, while between 1929 and 1941 it was part of Drina Banovina. Between 1941 and 1944, Ma?va was part of the area governed by the Military Administration in Serbia, and since 1945, it has been part of the Socialist Republic of Serbia and new socialist Yugoslavia. After the breakup of Yugoslavia and Yugoslav wars, Ma?va became part of an independent Serbia.
Ma?va is located in the southern edge of Pannonian basin, between the Cer and Fru?ka Gora Mountains. Territory of Ma?va is divided among 3 municipalities: ?abac (including 18 settlements of Ma?va), Bogati? (including 14 settlements of Ma?va), and Sremska Mitrovica (including 7 settlements of Ma?va). Total number of settlements in Ma?va is 39, of which 37 are rural, and 2 (?abac and Ma?vanska Mitrovica) are urban.
List of largest inhabited places in Ma?va (with population figures):
Several teachers' associations exist in Ma?va.