Mahmud Shevket Pasha
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Mahmud Shevket Pasha

Mahmud Shawket

Mahmut Schevket Pascha.jpg
Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire

23 January 1913 - 11 June 1913
MonarchMehmed V
Kâmil Pasha
Said Halim Pasha

23 January 1913 - 11 June 1913
Personal details
Baghdad, Baghdad Eyalet, Ottoman Empire
Died11 June 1913
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
Military service
Allegiance Ottoman Empire
Branch/service Ottoman Army

Mahmud Shevket Pasha (Turkish: Mahmut ?evket Pa?a; 1856 - 11 June 1913)[1] was an Albanian Ottoman general and statesman, known for his active role in establishing a military aviation program. He was Prime Minister of the Ottoman Empire from 23 January 1913 until his death by assassination.

Early life and career

He was born in Baghdad, where he finished his primary education before going on to the Military Academy (Ottoman Turkish:Mekteb-i Harbiye) in Constantinople.[2] He joined the army in 1882 as a lieutenant. He spent some time in France investigating military technology and was stationed in Crete for a while. He then returned to the Military Academy as a faculty member.

He worked under Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz (Goltz Pasha) for a while and traveled to Germany. He was then appointed as governor of the Kosovo Vilayet, where he commanded the 3rd Army, which was later known as Hareket Ordusu ("Army of Action") after its involvement in suppressing the counter-revolutionary absolutist reactionaries in the 31 March Incident. A voice recording of Mahmud Shevket Pasha speaking to rally his troops against the counter-revolutionaries in 1909 was released by journalist Murat Bardakç? in 2012.[3]

He played an important role in ending the 31 March Incident and with it, the reign of Abdul Hamid II. He served as Grand Vizier to Mehmed V from 23 January 1913.[4] He was assassinated in Constantinople, on 11 June 1913 in a revenge attack by a relative of the assassinated Naz?m Pasha.[1]

Among other things, he is credited with the creation of the Ottoman Air Force in 1911 and bringing the first automobile to Constantinople. Mahmud Shevket Pasha gave much importance to a military aviation program and as a result the Ottoman Air Force became one of the pioneering aviation institutions in the world.[5]

Though raised as an Ottoman, various sources claim that he had Iraqi Arab,[6]Georgian,[7]Chechen,[8]Albanian or Circassian[9] ancestry.


  1. ^ a b David Kenneth Fieldhouse: Western imperialism in the Middle East 1914-1958. Oxford University Press, 2006 p.17
  2. ^ Finkel, Caroline, Osman's Dream, (Basic Books, 2005), 57; Istanbul was only adopted as the city's official name in 1930...
  3. ^
  4. ^ Feroz Ahmad (2014). Turkey: The Quest for Identity (second ed.). London: Oneworld. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-78074-301-1.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ Ali Bilgeno?lu, Osmanl? Devleti'nde Arap milliyetçi cemiyetler, Müdafaa-i Hukuk Yay?nlar?, 2007, p. 87.]
  7. ^ "The New York Times, May 17, 1909" (PDF). The New York Times. 17 May 1909.
  8. ^ ?smail Hâmi Dani?mend, Osmanl? Devlet Erkân?, Türkiye Yay?nevi, ?stanbul, 1971, p. 101. (in Turkish)
  9. ^ Nâz?m Tekta?, Sadrazamlar: Osmanl?'da ikinci adam saltanat?, Çat? Kitaplar?, 2002, p. .
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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