Malagasy Language
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Malagasy Language
Native toMadagascar
Native speakers
25 million (2015)[1]
Latin script (Malagasy alphabet)
Malagasy Braille
Official status
Official language in
Language codes
mlg - inclusive code
Individual codes:
xmv - Antankarana
bhr - Bara
buc - Bushi
msh - Masikoro
bmm - Northern Betsimisaraka
plt - Plateau Malagasy
skg - Sakalava
bzc - Southern Betsimisaraka
tdx - Tandroy-Mafahaly
txy - Tanosy
tkg - Tesaka
xmw - Tsimihety
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
A woman speaking Malagasy

Malagasy (;[3]Malagasy pronunciation: [?mala'?as?]) is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar. Most people in Madagascar speak it as a first language as do some people of Malagasy descent elsewhere.


The Malagasy language is the westernmost member of the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian language family.[4] Its distinctiveness from nearby African languages was already noted in 1708 by the Dutch scholar Adriaan Reland.[5]

It is related to the Malayo-Polynesian languages of Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, and specifically to the East Barito languages spoken in Borneo (e.g. Ma'anyan), with apparent influence from early Old Malay. There appears to be a Bantu influence or substratum in Malagasy phonotactics (Dahl 1988).

Decimal numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PAN, circa 4000 BC *isa *DuSa *telu *Sepat *lima *enem *pitu *walu *Siwa *puluq
Malagasy iray/isa roa telo efatra dimy enina fito valo sivy folo
Ma'anyan isa rueh telo epat dime enem pitu balu su'ey sapulu
Kadazan iso duvo tohu apat himo onom tu'u vahu sizam hopod
Tagalog isá dalawá tatló ápat limá ánim pitó waló siyám sampu
Ilocano maysá dua talló uppát limá inném pitó waló siam sangapúlo
Chamorro maisa/håcha hugua tulu fatfat lima gunum fiti guålu sigua månot/fulu
Malay satu dua tiga[6] empat lima enam tujuh lapan sembilan sepuluh
Javanese siji loro telu papat limo nem pitu wolu songo sepuluh
Tetum ida rua tolu haat lima neen hitu ualu sia sanulu
Fijian dua rua tolu v? lima ono vitu walu ciwa tini, -sagavulu
Tongan taha ua tolu f? nima ono fitu valu hiva -fulu
Samoan tasi lua tolu fa lima ono fitu valu iva sefulu


Malagasy is the demonym of Madagascar from which it is taken to refer to the people of Madagascar in addition to their language.


Malagasy Bible

Madagascar was first settled by Austronesian peoples from Maritime Southeast Asia from Borneo.[7] The migrations continued along the first millennium, as confirmed by linguistic researchers who showed the close relationship between the Malagasy language and Old Malay and Old Javanese languages of this period.[8][9] Far later, c. 1000, the original Austronesian settlers mixed with Bantus and Arabs, amongst others.[10] There is evidence that the predecessors of the Malagasy dialects first arrived in the southern stretch of the east coast of Madagascar.[11]

Malagasy has a tradition of oratory arts and poetic histories and legends. The most well-known is the national epic, Ibonia, about a Malagasy folk hero of the same name.[12]

Geographic distribution

Malagasy is the principal language spoken on the island of Madagascar. It is also spoken by Malagasy communities on neighboring Indian Ocean islands such as Réunion, Comoros and Mauritius. Expatriate Malagasy communities speaking the language also exist in Europe and North America, to a lesser extent, Belgium and Washington, DC in United States.

Legal status

The Merina dialect of Malagasy is considered the national language of Madagascar. It is one of two official languages alongside French in the 2010 constitution put in place the Fourth Republic. Previously, under the 2007 constitution, Malagasy was one of three official languages alongside French and English. Malagasy is the language of instruction in all public schools through grade five for all subjects, and remains the language of instruction through high school for the subjects of history and Malagasy language.


Map of the Malagasy dialects on Madagascar

There are two principal dialects of Malagasy; Eastern (including Merina) and Western (including Sakalava), with the isogloss running down the spine of the island, the south being western, and the central plateau and much of the north (apart from the very tip) being eastern. Ethnologue encodes 12 variants of Malagasy as distinct languages. They have about a 70% (~2000 years) similarity in lexicon with the Merina dialect.

Eastern Malagasy

The Eastern dialects are:

Western Malagasy

The Western dialects are:

Additionally, Bushi (41,700 speakers) is spoken on the French overseas territory of Mayotte,[15] which is part of the Comoro island chain situated northwest of Madagascar.

Region specific variations

The two main dialects of Malagasy are easily distinguished by several phonological features.

Sakalava lost final nasal consonants, whereas Merina added a voiceless []:

  • *tañan 'hand' -> Sakalava ['ta?a], Merina ['tanan]

Final *t became -[tse] in the one but -[?] in the other:

  • *kulit 'skin' -> Sakalava ['hulitse], Merina ['hudi?]

Sakalava retains ancestral *li and *ti, whereas in Merina these become [di] (as in huditra 'skin' above) and [tsi]:

  • *putiq 'white' -> Sakalava ['futi], Merina ['futsi]

However, these last changes started in Borneo before the Malagasy arrived in Madagascar.

Writing system

Sorabe Malagasy Arabic script

The language has a written literature going back presumably to the 15th century. When the French established Fort-Dauphin in the 17th century, they found an Arabico-Malagasy script in use, known as Sorabe ("large writings"). This Arabic Ajami script was mainly used for astrological and magical texts. The oldest known manuscript in that script is a short Malagasy-Dutch vocabulary from the early 17th century, which was first published in 1908 by Gabriel Ferrand[16] though the script must have been introduced into the southeast area of Madagascar in the 15th century.[10]

The first bilingual renderings of religious texts are those by Étienne de Flacourt,[17] who also published the first dictionary of the language.[18]Radama I, the first literate representative of the Merina monarchy, though extensively versed in the Arabico-Malagasy tradition,[19] opted in 1823 for a Latin system derived by David Jones and invited the Protestant London Missionary Society to establish schools and churches. The first book to be printed in Malagasy using Latin characters was the Bible, which was translated into Malagasy in 1835 by British Protestant missionaries working in the highlands area of Madagascar.[20]

The current Malagasy alphabet consists of 21 letters: a, b, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, v, y, z. The orthography maps rather straightforwardly to the phonemic inventory. The letters i and y both represent the /i/ sound (y is used word-finally, and i elsewhere), while o is pronounced /u/. The affricates // and // are written tr and dr, respectively, while /ts/ and /dz/ are written ts and j. The letter h is often silent. All other letters have essentially their IPA values. The letters c, q, u, w and x are all not used in native Malagasy words.

Mp and occasionally nt may begin a word, but they are pronounced /p, t/.

@ is used informally as a short form for amin'ny, which is a preposition followed by the definite form, meaning for instance with the.

Sorabe script with the Latin equivalents
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ⟨?⟩‎ & ⟨?⟩ ? ⟨?⟩‎ & ⟨⟩ ⟨⟩‎ & ⟨⟩ ? ? ? ? ? ⟨⟩‎ & ⟨⟩ ? ?
a b d e f g, ng h i, y j k l m n o p r s t v z n? dr tr ts mp nt ai ao oa oi ia, ea io, eo ie


Diacritics are not obligatory in standard Malagasy, except in the case where its absence leads to an ambiguity: tanàna ("city") must have the diacritic to discriminate itself from tanana ("hand"). They may however be used in the following ways:

  • (grave accent) shows the stressed syllable in a word. It is frequently used for disambiguation. For instance in "tanàna" (town) and "tanana" (hand), where the word that is an exception to the usual pronunciation rules (tanàna) gets an accent. Using accent on the word that follows the pronunciation rules ("tànana") is less common, mainly in dictionaries. (This is very similar to the usage of the grave accent in Italian.)
  • (acute accent) may be used in
    • very old dictionaries, along with grave accent
    • dialects such as Bara
    • French (Tuléar) and French-spelled (Antsirabé) names. Malagasy versions are Toliara/Toliary and Antsirabe.
  • (circumflex) is used as follows:
    • ô shows that the letter is pronounced /o/ and not /u/, in Malagasified foreign words (hôpitaly) and dialects (Tôlan?aro). In standard Malagasy, "ao" or "oa" (as in "mivoaka") is used instead.
    • sometimes the single-letter words "a" and "e" are written "â" and "ê" but it does not change the pronunciation
  • (diaeresis) is used with n? in dialects for a velar nasal /?/. Examples are place names such as Tôlan?aro, Antsiran?ana, Iharan?a, Anantson?o. This can be seen in maps from FTM, the national institute of geodesy and cartography.
  • (tilde) is used in ñ sometimes, perhaps when the writer cannot produce an n? (although ng is also used in such cases). In Ellis' Bara dialect dictionary, it is used for velar nasal /?/ as well as palatal nasal /?/.



Front Central Back
Close i, y
Mid e
ô, ao, oa
Open a

After a stressed syllable, as at the end of most words and in the final two syllables of some, /a, u, i/ are reduced to [?, ?, ?]. (/i/ is spelled ⟨y⟩ in such cases, though in monosyllabic words like ny and vy, ⟨y⟩ is pronounced as a full [i].) Final /a/, and sometimes final syllables, are devoiced at the end of an utterance. /e/ and /o/ are never reduced or devoiced. The large amounts of reduction of vowels and their effect on neighbouring consonants give Malagasy a phonological quality not unlike that of Portuguese.

/o/ is marginal in Merina dialect, found in interjections and loan words, though it is also found in place names from other dialectical areas. /ai, au/ are diphthongs [ai?, au?] in careful speech, [e, o] or [?, ?] in more casual speech. /ai/, whichever way it is pronounced, affects following /k, ?/ as /i/ does.


Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Retroflex Velar Glottal
Nasal m ⟨m⟩ n ⟨n⟩ ? ⟨n?⟩
voiceless p ⟨p⟩ t ⟨t⟩ ts ⟨ts⟩ ⟨tr⟩ k ⟨k⟩
voiceless prenasalized mp ⟨mp⟩ nt
nts ⟨nts⟩ ⟨ntr⟩ ?k ⟨nk⟩
voiced b ⟨b⟩ d ⟨d⟩ dz ⟨j⟩ ⟨dr⟩ ? ⟨g⟩
voiced prenasalized mb ⟨mb⟩ nd
ndz ⟨nj⟩ ⟨ndr⟩ ⟨ng⟩
Fricative voiceless f ⟨f⟩ s ⟨s⟩ h ⟨h⟩
voiced v ⟨v⟩ z ⟨z⟩
Lateral l ⟨l⟩
Trill r ⟨r⟩

The alveolars /s ts z dz l/ are slightly palatalized. /ts, dz, s, z/ vary between [ts, dz, s, z] and [t?, d?, ?, ?], and are especially likely to be the latter when followed by unstressed /i/: Thus French malgache [mal?a?] 'Malagasy'. The velars /k ? ?k h/ are palatalized after /i/ (e.g. alika /alik?a/ 'dog'). /h/ is frequently elided in casual speech.

The reported postalveolar trilled affricates / / are sometimes simple stops, [? ? ], but they often have a rhotic release, [? ?]. It is not clear if they are actually trilled, or are simply non-sibilant affricates [? ?]. However, in another Austronesian language with a claimed trilled affricate, Fijian, trilling occurs but is rare, and the primary distinguishing feature is that it is postalveolar.[21] The Malagasy sounds are frequently transcribed [ ], and that is the convention used in this article.

In reduplication, compounding, possessive and verbal constructions, and after nasals, fricatives and liquids ('spirants') become stops, as follows:

Malagasy sandhi
voiced voiceless
spirant stop spirant stop
v b f p
l d
z dz s ts
r ()
h k


Words are generally accented on the penultimate syllable, unless the word ends in ka, tra and often na, in which case they are stressed on the antepenultimate syllable. In many dialects, unstressed vowels (except /e/) are devoiced, and in some cases almost completely elided; thus fanorona is pronounced [f'nurn].


Word order

Malagasy has a verb-object-subject (VOS) word order:

Mamaky boky ny mpianatra
(reads book the student)
"The student reads the book"

Nividy ronono ho an'ny zaza ny vehivavy
(bought milk for the child the woman)
"The woman bought milk for the child"

Within phrases, Malagasy order is typical of head-initial languages: Malagasy has prepositions rather than postpositions (ho an'ny zaza "for the child"). Determiners precede the noun, while quantifiers, modifying adjective phrases, and relative clauses follow the noun (ny boky "the book(s)", ny boky mena "the red book(s)", ny boky rehetra "all the books", ny boky novakin'ny mpianatra "the book(s) read by the student(s)").

Somewhat unusually, demonstrative determiners are repeated both before and after the noun ity boky ity "this book" (lit. "this book this").


Verbs have syntactically three productive "voice" forms according to the thematic role they play in the sentence: the basic "agent focus" forms of the majority of Malagasy verbs, the derived "patient focus" forms used in "passive" constructions, and the derived "goal focus" forms used in constructions with focus on instrumentality. Thus

  • (1) Manasa ny tanako amin'ny savony aho. ("I am washing my hands with soap.")
  • (2) Sasako amin'ny savony ny tanako. ("My hands are washed with soap by me.")
  • (3) Anasako ny tanako ny savony. ("It is with soap that my hands are washed by me.")

all mean "I wash my hands with soap" though focus is determined in each case by the sentence initial verb form and the sentence final (noun) argument: manasa "wash" and aho "I" in (1), sasako "wash" and ny tanako "my hands" in (2), anasako "wash" and ny savony "soap" in (3). There is no equivalent to the English preposition with in (3).

Verbs inflect for past, present, and future tense, where tense is marked by prefixes (e.g. mividy "buy", nividy "bought", hividy "will buy").

Nouns and pronouns

Malagasy has no grammatical gender, and nouns do not inflect for number. However, pronouns and demonstratives have distinct singular and plural forms (cf. io boky io "that book", ireto boky ireto "these books").

There is a complex series of personal and demonstrative pronouns, depending on the speaker's familiarity and closeness to the referent.


Malagasy has a complex system of deixis (these, those, here, there, etc.), with seven degrees of distance as well as evidentiality across all seven. The evidential dimension is prototypically visible vs. non-visible referents; however, the non-visible forms may be used for visible referents which are only vaguely identified or have unclear boundaries, whereas the visible forms are used for non-visible referents when these are topical to the conversation.[22]

Malagasy deixis
(here, there)
NVIS at? àto ào àtsy àny aròa* ar?
VIS et? èto èo ètsy èny eròa er?
(this, that)
(these, those)
NVIS izat?* izàto* izào izàtsy* izàny izaròa* izar?*
VIS it? ìto ìo ìtsy ìny iròa* ir?
VIS.PL irèto irèo irètsy irèny ireròa* irer?*


  • Diacritics in deixis are not mandatory in Malagasy.
  • Deixis marked by a * are rarely used.


Malagasy shares much of its basic vocabulary with the Ma'anyan language, a language from the region of the Barito River in southern Borneo. The Malagasy language also includes some borrowings from Arabic and Bantu languages (especially the Sabaki branch, from which most notably Swahili derives), and more recently from French and English.

The following samples are of the Merina dialect or Standard Malagasy, which is spoken in the capital of Madagascar and in the central highlands or "plateau", home of the Merina people.[23][24] It is generally understood throughout the island.

English Malagasy IPA
English Anglisy ã?'?li?
Yes Eny '?enj
No Tsia, (before a verb) Tsy tsi, ts?
Hello! / How are you? Manao ahoana! mana'?on/mana'on
Hello! (rural areas) Salama! sa'lam
I'm fine, thank you. Tsara fa misaotra. 'tsar fa m?'so:t
Goodbye! Veloma! ve'lum
Please Azafady aza'fad?
Thank you Misaotra m?'so:t?a
You're welcome Tsisy fisaorana. ts? 'mis? f?'so:ran
Excuse me Azafady (with arm and hand pointing to the ground) aza'fad?
Sorry Miala tsiny mjala 'tsin?
Who? Iza? 'i:za/'iza
What? Inona? in:a
When? Rahoviana?, (past tense) Oviana ro:'vin/raw'vin
Where? Aiza?, (past tense) Taiza ajz
Why? Fa maninona? fa manin:
How? Ahoana? a'?on
How many? Firy? 'fir?
How much? Ohatrinona? ?o't?in:
What's your name? Iza ny anaranao? iza njanara'naw
For Ho an'ny / Ho an'i wan:i
Because Satria sa't?i
I don't understand. Tsy mazava, Tsy azoko. ts? mazav
Yes, I understand. Eny, mazava, Eny, azoko ?en? mazav
Help! Vonjeo! vun'dzew
Go away! Mandehana! man di an?
Can you help me please? Afaka manampy ahy ve ianao azafady? afaka manap? a ve enaw azafad?
Where are the toilets? Aiza ny efitrano fivoahana?, Aiza ny V.C.?, Aiza ny toilet? ajza njefit?an? fi'vwa:n
Do you speak English? Mahay teny anglisy ve ianao? mi'ten? ã?'?li? ve e'naw
I do not speak Malagasy. Tsy mahay teny malagasy aho. ts? maaj ten? mala'?as? a
I do not speak French. Tsy mahay teny frantsay aho. ts? maaj ten? frantsaj a
I am thirsty. Mangetaheta aho. maeta'eta
I am hungry. Noana aho. no:na
I am sick. Marary aho.
I am tired. Vizaka aho, Reraka aho 'vizaka, rerakau
I need to pee. Poritra aho, Ny olombelona tsy akoho purt?a
I would like to go to Antsirabe. Te hankany Antsirabe aho. tiku ankan? anjantsirabe
That's expensive! Lafo be izany! laf?'be zan?
I'm hungry for some rice. Noana vary aho. no:na varja
What can I do for you? Inona no azoko atao ho anao? in:a ?az?kwata? wanaw
I like... Tiako... tik?
I love you. Tiako ianao. tikwena?
one isa/iray is
two roa ru
three telo tel?
four efatra 'efat
five dimy 'dim?
six enina en:
seven fito fit?
eight valo val?
nine sivy siv?
ten folo ful?
eleven iraika ambin'ny folo rajk?ambeful?
twelve roa ambin'ny folo rumbeful?
twenty roapolo ropul?
thirty telopolo telopul?
forty efapolo efapul?
fifty dimampolo dimapul?
sixty enim-polo empul?
seventy fitopolo fitupul?
eighty valopolo valupul?
ninety sivifolo sivful?
one hundred zato zat?
two hundred roan-jato rondzat?
one thousand arivo ariv?
ten thousand iray alina rajal
one hundred thousand iray hetsy rajets?
one million iray tapitrisa rajtapt?is
one billion iray lavitrisa rajlavt?is
3,568,942 roa amby efapolo sy sivin-jato sy valo arivo sy enina alina sy dimy hetsy sy telo tapitrisa rumbefapul? s?sivdzat? s?valoriv? s?en:al s?dimjets? s?telutapit?is


Malagasy lexicon (1773) (Collection BULAC Paris)

The first dictionary of the language is Étienne de Flacourt's Dictionnaire de la langue de Madagascar published in 1658 though earlier glossaries written in Arabico-Malagasy script exist. A later Vocabulaire Anglais-Malagasy was published in 1729. An 892-page Malagasy-English dictionary was published by James Richardson of the London Missionary Society in 1885, available as a reprint; however, this dictionary includes archaic terminology and definitions. Whereas later works have been of lesser size, several have been updated to reflect the evolution and progress of the language, including a more modern, bilingual frequency dictionary based on a corpus of over 5 million Malagasy words.[23]

  • Winterton, M. et al.: Malagasy-English, English-Malagasy Dictionary / Diksionera Malagasy-Anglisy, Anglisy-Malagasy. Raleigh, North Carolina. USA: Lulu Press 2011, 548 p.
  • Richardson: A New Malagasy-English Dictionary. Farnborough, England: Gregg Press 1967, 892 p. ISBN 0-576-11607-6 (Original edition, Antananarivo: The London Missionary Society, 1885).
  • Diksionera Malagasy-Englisy. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana 1973, 103 p.
  • An Elementary English-Malagasy Dictionary. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana 1969, 118 p.
  • English-Malagasy Phrase Book. Antananarivo: Editions Madprint 1973, 199 p. (Les Guides de Poche de Madagasikara.)
  • Paginton, K: English-Malagasy Vocabulary. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana 1970, 192 p.
  • Bergenholtz, H. et al.: Rakibolana Malagasy-Alemana. Antananarivo: Leximal/Moers: aragon. 1991.
  • Bergenholtz, H. et al.: Rakibolana Alemana-Malagasy. Antananarivo: Tsipika/Moers: aragon. 1994.
  • Rakibolana Malagasy. Fianarantsoa: Régis RAJEMISOA - RAOLISON 1995, 1061 p.

See also


  1. ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Malagasic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  4. ^ Malagasy's family tree on Ethnologue
  5. ^ Blench, Roger (2007). "New Palaeozoogeographical Evidence for the Settlement of Madagascar" (PDF). Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa. 42 (1): 69-82. doi:10.1080/00672700709480451. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-21.
  6. ^ In Kedukan Bukit inscription the numeral tlu ratus appears as three hundred, tlu as three, in the word telu is referred to as three in Malay, although the use of telu is very rare.
  7. ^ Ricaut, François-X; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Cox, Murray P; Dugoujon, Jean-M; Guitard, Evelyne; Sambo, Clement; Mormina, Maru; Mirazon-Lahr, Marta; Ludes, Bertrand; Crubézy, Eric (2009). "A new deep branch of eurasian mtDNA macrohaplogroup M reveals additional complexity regarding the settlement of Madagascar". BMC Genomics. 10 (1): 605. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-605. PMC 2808327. PMID 20003445.
  8. ^ Adelaar, K. Alexander; Himmelmann, Nikolaus, eds. (2005). The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-7007-1286-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  9. ^ Simon, Pierre R. (2006). Fitenin-drazana. L'Harmattan. ISBN 978-2-296-01108-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  10. ^ a b Ferrand, Gabriel (1905), "Les migrations musulmanes et juives à Madagascar", Revue de l'histoire des religions, Paris
  11. ^ Serva, Maurizio; Petroni, Filippo; Volchenkov, Dima; Wichmann, Søren. "Malagasy Dialects and the Peopling of Madagascar". arXiv:1102.2180.
  12. ^ "La traduction de la Bible malgache encore révisée" [The translation of the Malagasy Bible is still being revised]. (in French). 3 May 2007. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved .
  13. ^ "Antanosy in Madagascar". Joshua Project.
  14. ^ a b "Madagascar". Ethnologue. Retrieved .
  15. ^ "Bushi". Ethnologue. Retrieved .
  16. ^ Ferrand, Gabriel (1908). "Un vocabulaire malgache-hollandais." Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indië 61.673-677. The manuscript is now in the Arabico-Malagasy collection of the Bibliothèque nationale de France.
  17. ^ Flacourt, Étienne de (1657). Le Petit Catéchisme madécasse-français.Paris;(1661). Histoire de la grande isle Madagascar.Paris, pp.197-202.
  18. ^ Flacourt, Étienne de (1658). Dictionnaire de la langue de Madagascar. Paris.
  19. ^ Berthier, H.J. (1934). De l'usage de l'arabico=malgache en Imérina au début du XIXe siècle: Le cahier d'écriture de Radama Ier. Tananarive.
  20. ^ The translation is due to David Griffith of the London Missionary Society, with corrections in 1865-1866."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  22. ^ Janie Rasoloson and Carl Rubino, 2005, "Malagasy", in Adelaar & Himmelmann, eds, The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar
  23. ^ a b [1] Winterton, Matthew et al. (2011). Malagasy-English, English-Malagasy Dictionary / Diksionera Malagasy-Anglisy, Anglisy-Malagasy. Lulu Press.
  24. ^ Rasoloson, Janie (2001). Malagasy-English / English-Malagasy: Dictionary and Phrasebook. Hippocrene Books.


External links

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