Manghut
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Manghut

The Mangghud, Manghud (Mongolian: , Mangud) were a Mongol tribe of the Urud-Manghud federation. They established the Nogai Horde in the 14th century and the Manghit Dynasty to rule the Emirate of Bukhara in 1785. They took the Islamic title of Emir instead of the title of Khan since they were not descendants of Genghis Khan and rather based their legitimacy to rule on Islam. The clan name was used for Mongol vanguards as well. Their descendants live in several regions of the former Mongol Empire.

Manghuds in the Mongol Empire

According to ancient sources, they were derived from the Khiyad Mongols. The Manghuds and the Uruuds were war-like people from the Mongolian plateau. Some notable Manghud warriors supported Genghis Khan (1162-1227), while a body of them resisted his rise to power. When the Mongol Empire began to expand westward, the Manghud people were spread westward into the Middle East along with many other Mongol tribes. In the Golden Horde, the Manghuds supported Nogai (d.1299) and established their own semi-independent horde from the khans in Sarai.[1]

After Nogai's death in 1299 AD, the majority of Manghud warriors joined the service of Tokhta Khan. Their chieftain Edigu, the powerful warlord of the Golden Horde, officially founded Nogai Horde or Manghit Horde in the 14th-15th century. Turkish historians would record their tribal name as Manghit or Nogais, as opposed to the original Manghud or Mangudai.

Military unit of the Mongols

The mangudai or mungadai were military units of the Mongol Empire, but sources differ wildly in their descriptions. One source states that references to Mongol light cavalry "suicide troops" date back to the 13th century.[2] However, a United States Army author believes that Mangudai was the name of a 13th-century Mongol warlord who created an arduous selection process to test potential leaders.[3] The term is used by element of the United States Army as a name for multi-day tests of Soldiers' endurance and warrior skills.[4]

The Travels of Marco Polo uses the word Meng-Gu-Dai as the name of a person: "The (Mongol) Emperor ordered Meng-Gu-Dai to invade Si-Fan with 6000 men."[5]

Nogai Horde

Some of the Manghuds assimilated into Turkic people and these Manghuds became Manghit (Mangit) tribe of the Turks. The Nogais protected the northern borders of Astrakhan and Crimean khanates, and through organized raids to the northern steppes prevented Russian and Lithuanian settlements. Many Nogais joined the service of Crimean khan. Settling there, they contributed to the formation of the Crimean Tatars. However, Nogais were not only good soldiers, they also had considerable agricultural skills. Their basic social unit was the semi-autonomous 'ulus' or band. But Nogais were proud of their nomadic traditions and independence, which they considered superior to settled agricultural life.

At the beginning of the 17th century, the Kalmyks or the Oirats, migrated from the steppes of southern Siberia on the banks of the Irtysh River to the Lower Volga region about 1630. The Kalmyks expelled the Nogais who fled to the plains of northern Caucasus and to the Crimea under the Ottoman Empire. A few part of them joined to Kazakh Khanate as part of Little jüz.

Manghit Dynasty

Alim Khan, the last Manghit khan in Bukhara, 1911.

In the 18th century the basins of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya passed under the control of three Uzbek khanates claiming legitimacy in their descent from Genghis Khan. These were, from west to east, the Qunggirats based on Khiva in Khw?rezm (1717-1920), the Mangits in Bukhara (1753-1920), and the Mings in Kokand (Q?qon; c. 1710-1876).

The Manghit dynasty was founded by a common Uzbek family that ruled the Emirate of Bukhara from 1785 to 1920. Man?it power in the Khanate of Bukhara began to grow in the early 18th century, due to the emirs position as ataliq to the khan. The family effectively came to power after Nader Shah's death in 1747, and the assassination of the ruling Abulfayz Khan and his young son Abdalmumin by the ataliq Muhammad Rahim Bi.[6]

From the 1750s to the 1780s, the Man?its ruled behind the scenes, until the emir Shah Murad declared himself the open ruler, establishing the Emirate of Bukhara. The last emir of the dynasty, Mohammed Alim Khan, was ousted by the Russian Red Army in September, 1920, and fled to Afghanistan. There is disagreement over whether the dynasty descends from simple Uzbeks[7] or of true Mongolian origin.[8] According to the Russian orientalist N.V. Khanykova, the Man?it dynasty was considered the oldest Uzbek family in the Bukhara Khanate descending from Timur Malik; from the division of which the tuk came the reigning dynasty, in addition, this clan enjoyed some special privileges.[9]

The Manghit dynasty issued coins from 1787 up until the Soviet takeover.[10]

Heads/Rulers of Manghit dynasty of Emirate of Bukhara

Titular Name Personal Name Reign
Ataliq

Khudayar Bey
?
Ataliq

Muhammad Hakim
? ?
? - 1747
Ataliq

Muhammad Rahim
? ?
1747-1753
Amir
?
Muhammad Rahim
? ?
1753-1756
Khan

Muhammad Rahim
? ?
1756-1758
Ataliq

Daniyal Bey
1758-1785
Amir Masum
?
Shah Murad bin Daniyal Bey
?
1785-1800
Amir
?
Haydar Tora bin Shah Murad
? ? ?
1800-1826
Amir
?
Hussain bin Haydar Tora
? ? ?
1826-1827
Amir
?
Umar bin Haydar Tora
? ?
1827
Amir
?
Nasr-Allah bin Haydar Tora
? ? ?
1827-1860
Amir
?
Muzaffar al-Din bin Nasr-Allah
? ?
1860-1885
Amir
?
Abdul-Ahad bin Muzaffar al-Din
? ?
1885-1910
Amir
?
Muhammad Alim Khan bin Abdul-Ahad
? ? ?
1910-1920
Overthrow of Emirate of Bukhara by Bukharan People's Soviet Republic which in turn was forcibly replaced by Bolsheviks.
  • Pink Rows Signifies progenitor chiefs serving as Tutors (Ataliqs) & Viziers to the Khans of Bukhara.
    • Green Rows Signifies chiefs who took over reign of government from the Janids and placed puppet Khans.

Descendants

The Manghuds live as parts of Khalkha of Mongolia and Baarin banner in Inner Mongolia now.

Their descendants Nogai and Karakalpak people live in Dagestan and Khorazm. And the Manghits are also found among the Tatars in Russia, the Bashkirs and the Kazakhs.

See also

References

  1. ^ A.V.Vernadsky - The Mongols and Russia
  2. ^ Chambers, James (2003). The Devil's Horsemen: The Mongol Invasion of Europe. Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books. ISBN 978-0-7858-1567-9.
  3. ^ Lt. Col. Edward F. Dorman III (Summer 2004). "Staff forges Warrior Ethos during Mangudai II". Blackjack Provider. 2: 4.
  4. ^ Pfc. Chris McCann (2005-09-22). "Mungadai challenges 2-71 Cav officers". Fort Drum Blizzard Online. Archived from the original on 2007-08-01. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Travel Asia - 'The (Mongol) Emperor Ordered Meng-Gu-Dai To - Page 133 of 1350
  6. ^ Soucek, Svat, A History of Inner Asia, (Cambridge University Press:2000), page 180.
  7. ^ Uzbek-Mangyts - Emir Shahmurad: "we are not a royal family, our ancestors are simple Uzbeks" about some events in Bukhara, Hokand and Kashgar, Notes of Mirza-Shems Bukhari, published in the text, with translation and notes, by V.V. Grigoriev. Kazan, 1861
  8. ^ -Grzhimailo G.E. Western Mongolia and the Uryanhay Territory . - Directmedia, 2013-03-13. - S. 531-533. - 907 p. - ISBN 9785446048205.
  9. ^ N.V. Khanykov. Description of the Bukhara Khanate. SPb. 1843, p.66
  10. ^ P. Donovan, The Coinage of the Mangit Dynasty of Bukhara The Coinage of the Mangit Dynasty of Bukhara Archived 2010-05-03 at the Wayback Machine, 'ANS Magazine' Vol. 6/1 (Spring 2007).

External links


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Manghut
 



 



 
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