Mannlicher M1895
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Mannlicher M1895

Infanterie Repetier-Gewehr M.95
Gyalogsági Ismétl? Puska M95
(Infantry Repeating-Rifle M95)
Mannlicher M1895 from the Swedish Army Museum.jpg
Mannlicher M1895 Rifle. From the collections of the Swedish Army Museum.
TypeBolt-action rifle
Place of originAustria-Hungary
Service history
In service1895-1945
1895-1918 (Austria-Hungary)
Used bySee Users
WarsBoxer Rebellion
First Balkan War
Second Balkan War
World War I
Russian Civil War[1]
Austro-Slovene conflict in Carinthia
Revolutions and interventions in Hungary
Polish-Soviet War
Austrian Civil War
Second Italo-Ethiopian War
Spanish Civil War[2]
Sudeten German uprising 1938
World War II
Greek Civil War[3]
1948 Arab-Israeli War[3]
Production history
DesignerFerdinand Mannlicher
Designed1895
Manufacturer1896-1918: OE.W.G. in Steyr
1897-1918: F.G.GY. in Budapest
1918-1920: Zbrojovka Brno
Produced1896-1920
No. builtapprox. 3,500,000[4]
VariantsSee Variants
Specifications (M95 Long Rifle)
Mass3.78 kilograms (8.3 lb)
Length1,272 millimetres (50.1 in)
Barrel length765 millimetres (30.1 in)

CartridgeM95: 8×50mmR Mannlicher
M95/30 & 31.M: 8×56mmR
M95/24 & M95M: 8×57mm IS
ActionStraight-pull bolt action
Rate of fireapprox. 20-25 rounds/min
Muzzle velocityM93 (8×50mmR): 620 m/s (2,000 ft/s)
M30 (8×56mmR): 720 m/s (2,400 ft/s)
Feed system5-round en bloc clip (stripper clip in M95/24 and M95M), internal box magazine
SightsRear V-notch flip-up sight and front post (telescopic sight on sniper variant)

The Mannlicher M1895 (German: Infanterie Repetier-Gewehr M.95, Hungarian: Gyalogsági Ismétl? Puska M95; "Infantry Repeating-Rifle M95") is a straight pull bolt-action rifle, designed by Ferdinand Ritter von Mannlicher that used a refined version of his revolutionary straight-pull action bolt, much like the Mannlicher M1890 carbine. It was nicknamed the Ruck-Zuck-Gewehr by Austrian troops (ruck-zuck spoken as "roock-tsoock", in common language meaning "really fast rifle") and "Ta-Pum" by Italian troops who even wrote a song (it) about it during World War I. The primary producers were the OEWG in Steyr, and FÉG in Budapest.

Originally they were chambered for the round-nosed 8×50mmR cartridge, but almost all were rechambered to accept the more powerful spitzer 8×56mmR cartridge in the 1930s.

Method of Operation

The M1895 is unusual in employing a straight-pull bolt action, as opposed to the more common rotating bolt-handle of other rifles. It combines a two lug rotating bolt head, similar in construction to that found on a Mauser rifle with a pair of helical grooves cut in the bolt body to turn the back and forth movement of the bolt handle and body into the rotational movement of the bolt head. The extractor performs both the usual function, and also has a tail attached which interfaces with slots on the cam surfaces of the bolt head to prevent the bolt head from rotating as a result of the striker's spring pressure once it has been unlocked.[5]

The angle of the cam surfaces in the bolt and bolt body is different from the angle at which the locking recesses are cut in the receiver of the rifle, the result is that the first 20 mm of travel of the bolt body results in the rotation of the bolt head but only about 3 mm of rearward movement, this gives mechanical advantage to the system and accomplishes primary extraction.

The result of this is that the user can pull the bolt back and forth in two movements rather than the up-back-forward-down of conventional turn bolt rifles. It is consequently renowned for combining relatively high rate of fire (around 20-25 rounds per minute) with reliability and sturdiness, although this requires decent care and maintenance. During Austro-Hungarian trials in 1892, rifles survived torture testing of firing 50,000 rounds without any form of lubrication.[6]

The rifle is loaded by means of a five-round en-bloc clip, which when loaded with cartridges, is pressed into the magazine of the rifle, where it is retained and acts at the feed lips of the magazine. When the last of the five rounds has been chambered, there is no longer anything retaining the clip in the magazine and it falls out a port in the bottom due to gravity. [1] There is a button in the front of the trigger guard which allows the user to eject a partially or fully loaded clip from the magazine when the bolt is open to unload the weapon. The clip will be ejected from the weapon quite energetically as the full force of the follower spring will be pressing against it.

The rifle is not designed to be loaded by any other means but the en-bloc clip. Attempts to single feed the rifle in absence of proper clips may cause damage to the extractor as it is not designed with enough travel to overcome the large rims of the 8x50mmR and 8x56mmR cartridges used in the M1895 unless they are fed under the extractor from the clip.

History

Austro-Hungarian Stormtroopers armed with Mannlicher M95 Stutzens at the Isonzo front in 1917 (colorized).

It was initially adopted and employed by the Austro-Hungarian Army throughout World War I, and retained post-war by both the Austrian and Hungarian armies. The main foreign user was Bulgaria, which, starting in 1903, acquired large numbers and continued using them throughout both Balkan and World Wars. After Austria-Hungary's defeat in World War I, many were given to other Balkan states as war reparations. A number of these rifles also saw use in World War II, particularly by second line, reservist, and partisan units in Romania, Yugoslavia, Italy, and to lesser degree, Germany. Post war many were sold as cheap surplus, with some finding their way to the hands of African guerrillas in the 1970s[] and many more being exported to the United States as sporting and collectible firearms. The M1895 bolt also served as an almost exact template for the ill-fated Canadian M1905 Ross rifle, though the later M1910 used a complicated interrupted-thread instead of two solid lugs.

Ammunition

Round nosed 8×50mmR cartridges

Spitzer bullet 8×56mmR cartridges
Five cartridges in an en-bloc clip

The M1895 was originally chambered in the 8mm M.1893 scharfe Patrone (8×50mmR Mannlicher) cartridge. Between the world wars, both Austria and Hungary converted the majority of their rifles to fire the more powerful 8×56mmR round.
Yugoslavia[7] converted at least some of their captured M1895s to 7.92×57mm Mauser, fed by stripper clips instead of the original model's en bloc clip system. This conversion was designated M95/24 and M95M. The M95/24 is often mistakenly attributed to Bulgaria, but 8×57mm IS was never a standard cartridge of the Bulgarian military.[8] These conversions are prized by collectors for their relative scarcity and chambering in a commonly available round, but suffer from a fragile extractor and a lack of replacement parts.

Variants

For the post World War I conversions see Conversions.

Rifle

The "Infantry Repeating-Rifle M1895" (German: Infanterie Repetier-Gewehr M1895) was the basic variant. It was chambered for the 8×50mmR Mannlicher cartridge. Its iron sights were graduated 300-2600 paces (225-1950 m). It was used during World War I by the majority of the Austro-Hungarian Army troops.

Stutzen

This stutzen or short rifle (official designation German: Repetier-Stutzen M1895; "Repeating-Stutzen M1895") was mainly used by special troops (i.e. storm troops) during World War I. It chambered the 8×50mmR Mannlicher cartridge. Its sights were graduated 500-2400 paces (375-1800 m).

Weight: 3.09 kilograms (6.8 lb)
Length: 1,003 millimetres (39.5 in)
Barrel length: 500 millimetres (20 in)

Carbine

The carbine (official designation German: Kavalerie Repetier-Carabiner M1895; "Cavalry Repeating-Carbine M1895") was chambered 8×50mmR Mannlicher and used by cavalry units of the Austro-Hungarian Army as a replacement of the Mannlicher M1890 carbine. The sights were graduated 500-2400 paces (375-1800 m). Although it originally didn't have bayonet lugs, during World War I it was fitted with stutzen-like front barrel band with bayonet lugs after mounted cavalry units were found ineffective.

Sniper rifle

Sniper rifle variant.

The main difference from the standard rifle and sniper was the telescopic sight mount. The scope was mounted slightly to the left so the rifle could be fed by en bloc clip. Approximately 6,000 long and short barreled sniper rifles were made in the years 1915-1918.[9]

Conversions

The Mannlicher M95/30 conversion.

The M95/30 was a conversion in the First Austrian Republic by Steyr-Mannlicher during 1930-1940. These rifles carry the letter S meaning Spitzer stamped on the barrel. Main modification was the rechambering to 8×56mmR cartridge. Other changes were the conversion of ladder sights from the older pace unit to meters and addition of a brass front sight protector. Many long rifles were cut down to Stutzen length. Most of M95/30s were sent to Bulgaria during 1938-40, where front sight protectors were removed.[10]

Various Mannlicher rifles and carbines. The long rifle on far left is an 1888 model and the carbine on the far left is an 1890 model. The rest are various 1895 models.

The 31.M or M95/31 was a conversion done in the Kingdom of Hungary. Rifles were converted 1931-1935 by FÉG in Budapest and carry the letter H meaning Hegyes Töltény (pointed bullet) stamped on top of the chamber. The conversion included rechambering to the new 8×56mmR pointed bullet cartridge, new metric ladder sights and the addition of a front-sight protector. Long rifles were cut down to carbine length and designated 31/a.M. They were not used for much time and were withdrawn to storage when the new 35M rifle was introduced. Some were reissued during World War II. A small number were rechambered but were not cut down for the Hungarian Governmental Guards; these had special long bayonets.[11]

The M95M or M95/24 was a conversion to 7.92×57mm cartridge by the Kragujevac Arsenal in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. These rifles feature Yugoslavian M24 Mauser barrels, sights, similar handguards and are fed by five-round stripper clips. Their extractors are prone to breakage when being fired single-shot. Some of these rifles were found in the Kingdom of Greece by the German forces during World War II and were mistakenly attributed Greek origin.[12][13]

Summary

Source:[14]

Cartridge Length Weight Sling Swivels Bayonet Lug Notes
Rifle Model 1895 8×50mmR 128.2 cm (50.5 in) 3.63 kg (8.0 lb) Under Yes
Carbine Model 1895 8×50mmR 100 cm (39 in) 2.95 kg (6.5 lb) Side No 7 in (18 cm) gap between front and rear barrel bands
Stutzen Model 1895 8×50mmR 100 cm (39 in) 3.13 kg (6.9 lb) Under Yes 5 in (13 cm) gap between front and rear barrel bands
Carbine Model 1895 with Stutzen lug 8×50mmR 100 cm (39 in) 3.18 kg (7.0 lb) Side Yes 7 in (18 cm) gap between front and rear barrel bands
Carbine-Stutzen Model 1895 8×50mmR 100 cm (39 in) 3.22 kg (7.1 lb) Either Yes 5 in (13 cm) gap between front and rear barrel bands
Stutzen-Carbine Model 1895 8×50mmR 100 cm (39 in) 3.27 kg (7.2 lb) Both Yes 7 in (18 cm) gap between front and rear barrel bands
Rifle Model 1895/30 8×56mmR 128.2 cm (50.5 in) 3.63 kg (8.0 lb) Under Yes
Stutzen Model 1895/30 8×56mmR 100 cm (39 in) 3.22 kg (7.1 lb) Either Yes
Stutzen Model 1895/30 from Long Rifle 8×56mmR 100 cm (39 in) 3.22 kg (7.1 lb) Either Yes Long rifle rear sight
Rifle M95M and M95/24 7.92×57mm 110 cm (43 in) 3.86 kg (8.5 lb) Both Yes

Accessories

Bayonet

NCO bayonet (top) and enlisted men bayonet (bottom).
Scabbard and frog.

There were two main variants of the bayonet; the first one was the standard bayonet, the second one was the NCO variant that featured a hooked quillion and a golden lanyard. The overall length was 360 millimetres (14 in) and the blade was 248 millimetres (9.8 in) long. The bayonet was unusual in that the edge faced upwards when mounted on the rifle. Majority of them were made by OE.W.G. and F.G.GY. Bayonets were originally not serial numbered.

Late in World War I resources were limited and they started manufacturing replacement (German: Ersatz) bayonets. These were fast to produce, cheap and made completely out of metal.[15]

Night sights

A set of rear and front Luminous Sights M.1916.

A number of Model 1916 night (Luminous) sights were issued during World War I.[16] The rear night sight is a small brass plate that is placed underneath the rear sight leaf. The front sight clamps around the rifle's front sight base.[17]

Wire destroyer

A Drahtzerstörer or "wire destroyer" device for Mannlicher type firearms was also sometimes issued with the rifle during World War I. During assaults, when soldiers would run into barbed wire obstacles, the "wire destroyer" would grab one of the wires and the soldier would shoot through it. It could only be used with a mounted bayonet.
Various other improvised wire destroyers existed, some originally designed for the Mosin-Nagant rifle that were captured on the Eastern front were easily modified to fit the M95. Some were also crafted by military blacksmiths.[18]

Users

Bulgarian soldier with a fallen comrade during the First Balkan War
Hungarian soldier with a Mannlicher 31.M in World War II.


See also

References

  1. ^ Scarlata, Paul (20 November 2014). "Russian rifles of the great war, revolution & civil war--part I". Shotgun News. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  2. ^ "spanishcivilwar1". Retrieved 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Moschetto M95 carbine postwar". wwiiafterwwii.wordpress.com. 20 May 2015.
  4. ^ John Walter (25 March 2006). Rifles of the World. Krause Publications. p. 265. ISBN 0-89689-241-7. Retrieved 2014.
  5. ^ "Steyr-Mannlicher Modell 1895 rifle - Arms of the First World War - Royal Armouries collections". Royal Armouries collections. Retrieved 2018.
  6. ^ "Mannlicher Model 1895 Infantry Rifle". MANOWAR'S HUNGARIAN WEAPONS & HISTORY.
  7. ^ "Yugoslavian Mannlicher M.95 Rifles and Carbines". Manowar's Hungarian Weapons & History. Retrieved 2012.
  8. ^ "Bulgarian Mannlicher M.95 Rifles and Carbines". Manowar's Hungarian Weapons & History. Retrieved 2012.
  9. ^ a b "[The Mannlicher family]". Revija Obramba (in Slovenian). 13 (12). December 2003. ISSN 0353-9628.
  10. ^ http://www.hungariae.com/Mann9530.htm
  11. ^ http://www.hungariae.com/Mann31.htm
  12. ^ http://www.hungariae.com/Mann95Se.htm
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 March 2015. Retrieved 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ "Austrian Ersatz Bayonets". Retrieved 2014.
  16. ^ Ortner, Mario Christian (2006). Storm Troops. Militaria Verlag.
  17. ^ "Mannlicher M95 Rifles and Carbines Accessories". hungariae.com. 2014. Retrieved 2015.
  18. ^ Ortner, Mario Christian (2006). Storm Troops. Militaria Verlag.
  19. ^ "Mannlicher M.95-type Rifles and Carbines, Albania". Retrieved 2014.
  20. ^ "Czech Mannlicher M.95-type Rifles and Carbines". Retrieved 2015.
  21. ^ Scarlata, Paul (August 2017). "Czechoslovak Weapons of World War II: part 1". Firearms News.
  22. ^ "Finnish Mannlicher M.95-type Rifles and Carbines". Retrieved 2014.
  23. ^ Scarlata, Paul (1 March 2009). "Ethiopian military rifle cartridges: Part 2: from Mauser to Kalashnikov". Shotgun News.
  24. ^ "German Mannlicher M.95 Stutzens & Carbines". Retrieved 2014.
  25. ^ "Greek Austro-Hungarian Mannlicher M.95 Rifles and Carbines". Retrieved 2014.
  26. ^ "Mannlicher M95-type Rifles and Carbines". Retrieved 2014.
  27. ^ "Rifle: Austro-Hungarian Steyr-Mannlicher M.95". C&Rsenal. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  28. ^ "Karabin i karabinek 8 mm wz.1895 "Mannlicher" - Kampania Wrze?niowa 1939.pl". Kampania Wrze?niowa 1939. Retrieved 2012.
  29. ^ "Mannlicher Yasnikov M.95-type Automatic Rifle Prototype". Retrieved 2014.
  30. ^ Jowett, Philip (20 November 2013). China's Wars: Rousing the Dragon 1894-1949. General Military. Osprey Publishing. p. 40. ISBN 9781782004073.
  31. ^ "Polish Austro Hungarian Mannlicher Rifles and Carbines". Retrieved 2014.
  32. ^ "WorldWar2.ro". Retrieved 2014.
  33. ^ ?. ?. . , , , -, . ?., - Voyenizdat, 2002, p. 587
  34. ^ "Mannlicher Yasnikov M.95-type Automatic Rifle Prototype". Retrieved 2014.
  35. ^ Small Arms Survey (2003). "Living with Weapons: Small Arms in Yemen" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2003: Development Denied. Oxford University Press. pp. 173-174.
  36. ^ "Rifle: Yugoslavian Mannlicher M95M and M95/24". C&Rsenal. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 2014.

External links


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