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|Margaret of Savoy|
|Duchess consort of Mantua and Montferrat|
Margaret of Savoy, Duchess consort of Mantua and Montferrat (oil by Frans Pourbus)
|Vicereine of Portugal|
|Tenure||23 December 1634 - 1 December 1640|
|Predecessor||Count of Basto|
|Born||28 April 1589|
|Died||26 June 1655 (aged 66)|
Miranda de Ebro
(m. 1608; died 1612)
|Father||Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy|
|Mother||Catherine Micaela of Spain|
Margaret of Savoy (28 April 1589 - 26 June 1655) was the last Habsburg Vicereine of Portugal from 1634 to 1640. In Portuguese she is known as Duquesa de Mântua, being by marriage the Duchess of Mantua and Montferrat. She was also regent of Montferrat during the minority of her daughter from 1612.
She was born in Turin, as the fifth child of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy (1562-1630) and Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain, the daughter of Philip II of Spain. She was married to the future Francis IV, Duke of Mantua (1586-1612) and Montferrat on 19 February 1608. The wedding was celebrated in Turin. In 1612 Margaret's husband succeeded his father, Vincent I, as Duke of Mantua. Their marriage produced three children, but only one daughter, Maria, survived childhood. Francis died in 1612.
As the couple had no surviving male issue, Duke Francis' next brother succeeded him in the Duchy of Mantua, whereas in the Duchy of Montferrat he was succeeded by his three-year-old daughter Maria, because it had been historically inherited by females, as it was a margraviate. Indeed, it had been brought to the Mantuan princely dynasty (the House of Gonzaga) by the marriage of Margherita Paleologa, Margravine of Montferrat, in 1531. Accordingly, Maria's claims were asserted and Dowager Duchess Margaret required to be made her regent in Montferrat.
This was a contested inheritance - Maria was a minor for the next decade - and ultimately, Duke Francis' brothers failed to produce any legitimate issue, and the entire inheritance became subject to Mantuan War of Succession (1627-32).
Duchess Margaret's daughter Maria was in 1627 married to Charles, the eldest son of the distant Gonzaga heir-male (at that point Charles I, Duke of Mantua), in order to join two of the Mantuan claims. They had to wage war, but in the end their line prevailed and they commanded universal recognition as Dukes of Mantua and Montferrat.
Upon the death in 1633 of her maternal aunt, Archduchess Isabella Clara Eugenia, ruler of the Low Countries, her brother Victor Amadeus became heir to the rights of their maternal grandmother Elisabeth of Valois, eldest daughter and heiress of Henry II of France and Catherine of Medici.
In 1635, after the demise of the Count of Basto, she was named by her cousin Philip IV of Spain Vicereine of Portugal, at the time in a dynastic union with Spain, where she moved to in 1636. This nomination was the result of the efforts of Diogo Soares, member of the Council of Portugal at Madrid, a friend of the Count-Duke of Olivares and a relative of Miguel de Vasconcelos who, in 1635, would be named secretary of state of Portugal.
As a result of the Portuguese revolution (called the Restoration of Independence) of 1640, Vasconcelos was assassinated and the Duchess of Mantua tried to calm the Portuguese people during demonstrations in the Portuguese Terreiro do Paço (at the time Lisbon's main square). The Portuguese proclaimed the Duke of Braganza as their new king. Margaret was surrounded in her headquarters in Lisbon, and her support collapsing, the new potentate allowed her to depart to Spain.
She died in Miranda de Ebro in 1655, her daughter Duchess Maria of Rethel and Montferrat surviving her, with two grandchildren, of whom the daughter Eleanor had in 1651 become the Holy Roman Empress and the son Charles in 1637 the reigning duke of Mantua. At her death, both her grandchildren had already produced great-grandchildren for her.
Margaret had three children
|Margaret of Savoy||Father:
Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy
Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy
Charles III, Duke of Savoy
Beatrice, Infanta of Portugal
Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry
Francis I of France
Claude of France
Catherine Michelle of Spain
Philip II of Spain
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Isabella of Portugal
Elisabeth of Valois
Henry II of France
Catherine de' Medici