Mari Language
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Mari Language
Mari
marii jõlme
RegionRussian Federation: autonomous republics Mari El, Bashkortostan, Tatarstan, Udmurtia; oblasti Nizhny Novgorod, Kirov, Sverdlovsk, Orenburg; Perm Krai
Ethnicity548,000 Mari (2010 census)[1]
Native speakers
510,000 (2012)[1]
Standard forms
Official status
Official language in
 Russia
Language codes
chm
chm - inclusive code
Individual codes:
mhr - Eastern and Meadow Mari (Eastern Mari)
mrj - Hill Mari (Western Mari)
Glottologmari1278[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

The Mari language (Mari: , marii jõlme; Russian: ?, marijskij jazyk), spoken by approximately 400,000 people, belongs to the Uralic language family. It is spoken primarily in the Mari Republic (Mari: , Marii El, i.e., 'Mari land') of the Russian Federation as well as in the area along the Vyatka river basin and eastwards to the Urals. Mari speakers, known as the Mari, are found also in the Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, and Perm regions.

Mari is the titular and official language of its republic, alongside Russian.

The Mari language today has two standard forms: Hill Mari and Meadow Mari. The latter is predominant and spans the continuum Meadow Mari to Eastern Mari from the Republic into the Ural dialects of Bashkortostan, Sverdlovsk Oblast and Udmurtia), whereas the former, Hill Mari, shares a stronger affiliation with the Northwestern dialect (spoken in the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast and parts of the Kirov Oblast). Both language forms use modified versions of Cyrillic script. For the non-native, Hill Mari, or Western Mari, can be recognized by its use of the special letters "?" and "?" in addition to the mutual letters "?" and "?", while Eastern and Meadow Mari utilize a special letter "?".

The use of two "variants", as opposed to two "languages", has been debated: Maris recognize the unity of the ethnic group, and the two forms are very close, but distinct enough to cause some problems with communication.[]

Ethnonym and glottonym

The Mari language and people were known as "Cheremis" (Russian: , ?, cheremisy, cheremisskiy yazyk). In medieval texts the variant forms Sarmys and Tsarmys are also found, as well as Tatar: Cyrillic , Latin Çirme?; and Chuvash: , ?arm?s before the Russian Revolution. The term Mari comes from the Maris' autonym (mari), which is thought to have been borrowed from the Indo-Aryan term *maryá- 'man', literally 'mortal, one who is bound to die' ( < PIE *mer- 'to die').

Sociolinguistic situation

Most Maris live in rural areas with slightly more than a quarter living in cities. In the republican capital, Yoshkar-Ola, the percentage of Maris is just over 23 percent. At the end of the 1980s (per the 1989 census) Maris numbered 670,868, of whom 80% (542,160) claimed Mari as their first language and 18.8% did not speak Mari. In the Mari Republic, 11.6% claimed Mari was not their first language. In a survey by the Mari Research Institute more than three quarters of Maris surveyed considered Mari language to be the most crucial marker of ethnic identity, followed by traditional culture (61%) and common historical past (22%), religion (16%), character and mentality (15%) and appearance (11%) (see Glukhov and Glukhov for details). A gradual downward trend towards assimilation to Russian has been noted for the Communist period: the 1926 census indicated more than 99% of Maris considered Mari their first language, declining to less than 81% in 1989. Some qualitative evidence of a reversal in recent years has been noted.

There was no state support for Mari language in Imperial Russia, and with the exception of some enthusiasts and numerous ecclesiastical texts by the Russian Orthodox Church, there was almost no education in Mari language. After the October Revolution, there was a period of support of all lesser national cultures in the Soviet Union, but eventually Russification returned. While the development of Mari literary language continued, still, only elementary-school education was available in Mari in the Soviet period, with this policy ending in village schools in the 1970-1980s. The period of glasnost and perestroika in the 1990s opened opportunities for a revival of efforts expand the use of Mari in education and the public sphere. In the 1990s, the Mari language, alongside Russian, was proclaimed in the republican constitution to be an official language of Mari El. By the beginning of the 21st century, Mari language and literature was taught in 226 schools. At the History and Philology Department of the Mari State University and the Krupskaya Teachers' Training Institute (Yoshkar-Ola), more than half of the subjects are taught in Mari.

Dialects

The four main dialects of Mari.
  Hill Mari
  Northwestern Mari
  Meadow Mari
  Eastern Mari

The principal division between Mari varieties is the West and the East. According to the Soviet linguist Kovedyaeva (1976:9-15, 1993:163-164) the Mari macrolanguage is divided into four main dialects:

Each main dialect is divided into their own smaller local subdialects. Only Hill and Meadow Mari have their own literary written standard varieties, based on the dialects of Kozmodemyansk and Yoshkar-Ola respectively.

Eastern and Meadow Mari are often united as a Meadow-Eastern supra-dialect. Northwestern Mari is transitional between the Hill and Meadow dialects, and its phonology and morphology are closer to Hill Mari.

Orthography

Mari is mostly written with the Cyrillic script.

Phonology

Vowels

Front Central Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close /i/
?/i
/y/
?/ü
/u/
?/u
Mid /e/
?/e
/ø/
?/ö
/?/, //1

?/õ, ?/ÿ
/o/
?/o
Open /æ/1
ä/ä
/?/
?/a
  1. Only in Hill Mari

The schwa /?/ and its fronted counterpart are usually transcribed in Finno-Ugric transcription as (reduced mid unrounded vowel) and ? (reduced front unrounded vowel) respectively. The former has sometimes been transcribed in IPA as , but phonetically the vowel is most strongly distinguished by its short duration and reduced quality. Descriptions vary on the degree of backness and labialization.[3]

The mid vowels /e/, /ø/, /o/ have more reduced allophones [e?], [ø?], [o?] at the end of a word.

Word prosody

Stress is not phonemic in Mari, but a dynamic stress system is exhibited phonetically, the stressed syllable being higher in pitch and amplitude and greater in length than an unstressed syllable. Generally, there is one prominent syllable per word and prominence may be found in any syllable of the word. Post- and prefixes behave as clitics, i.e., they do not have their own stress. For example, (pört, "house") (g, "out of") (['pørt t]); or (muro, "song") ? (dene, "with") (['muro ðene]).

Consonants

Consonants are shown in Cyrillic, Latin, and the IPA:

Labial Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar
plain palatalized
Nasal /m/
?/m
/n/
?/n
/?/
?(?)/n(')2
/?/
?3/?
Plosive voiceless /p/
?/p
/t/
?/t
/t?/1
?(?)/t'2
/k/
?/k
voiced /b/
?/b
/d/
?/d
/?/
?/g
Affricate /ts/1
?/c
/t?/
?/?
Fricative voiceless /f/1
?/f
/s/
?/s
/?/
?/?
/x/1
?/h
voiced /z/
?/z
/?/
?/?
Rhotic /r/ (or /?/)
?/r
Approximant central /j/
?/j
lateral /l/
?/l
/?/
?(?)/l(?)2
  1. Only in Russian loanwords, in Hill Mari also onomatopoeia and Chuvashian loanwords.
  2. Palatalisation is marked in different ways. A ⟨?⟩ following a palatalised consonant is written as ⟨?⟩, and ⟨?⟩ following a palatalised consonant is written as ⟨?⟩. If the vowel following a palatalised consonant is an ? or an ?, palatalisation is not marked at all. In other cases, the soft sign ? is used to mark palatalisation.
  3. The modified Cyrillic letter for the velar nasal (?) combines the Cyrillic letter ⟨? ?⟩ with and ⟨? ?⟩, where the rightmost post of ? is conflated with the vertical post of ⟨?⟩: ⟨?, ?⟩. Although Hill Mari has this sound too, this character is only used in Meadow Mari.

Phonological processes

Like several other Uralic languages, Mari has vowel harmony. In addition to front/back harmony, Mari also features round/unround harmony. If the stressed vowel in the word is rounded, then the suffix will contain a rounded vowel: for example, ([ky'ty] 'herd') becomes ([ky'ty?tø]], 'in the herd'); if the stressed vowel is unrounded, then the suffix will contain an unrounded vowel ([kid], 'hand') becomes (['kidte], 'in the hand'). If the stressed vowel is back, then the suffix will end in a back vowel? ([a'gur], 'whirlpool') becomes ([a'gurto], 'in the whirlpool'). [4]

Declension

Like other Uralic languages, Mari is an agglutinating language. It lacks grammatical gender, and does not use articles.

Case

Meadow Mari has 9 productive cases, of which 3 are locative cases. The usage of the latter ones is restricted to inanimate objects.

Many cases, aside from their basic function, are used in other situations, such as in expressions of time.

  • Nominative, used for subjects, predicatives and for other grammatical functions.
  • Genitive, is used for possessive constructions.
  • Dative, the indirect object's case.
  • Accusative, the direct object's case.
  • Comitative, used when a subject or an object can be split up into parts, or in adverbials expressing the involvement of an object in an action.
  • Comparative, used to express the likeness to something.
  • Inessive, used to state where something is.
  • Illative, used to state where something is going.
  • Lative, used to express into what something is going.
Case Name Suffix Question Words Example (animate) Example (inanimate)
Nominative - , (who, what) ? (a child; subject) (a village; subject)
Genitive -(?)? , (whose, what's) ?? (of a child) (of a village)
Dative - , (to whom, to what/why) ? (to a child) (to a village)
Accusative -(?)? , (whom, what) ?? (a child; object) (a village; object)
Comitative - ?, ? (with whom, with what) ? (with a child) (with a village)
Comparative - ?, ? (like who, like what) ? (like a child) (like a village)
Inessive -(?)/(?)/(?) (where) - (in a village)
Illative -(?)/(?)/(?), -(?)?1 / (where to) - / (to a village)
Lative -?// (where to) - (into a village)
  1. The illative has a short form, equivalent to the long form in meaning.

If a locative statement was to be made about an animate object, postpositions would be used.

Additionally, terms denoting family members have vocative forms. These are, however, not created with a specific paradigm, and only exist in a few pre-defined cases.

Hill Mari has these cases, plus the abessive case (of the form -), which is used to form adverbials stating without the involvement or influence of which an action happens.

Number

Mari, though an agglutinative language, does not have a separate morpheme to signify plurality. There are three particles, which are attached to the end of words with a hyphen, used to signify plural.

  • -? (-vlak) - Standard plural form.
  • - (-?amõ?) - Alternative standard plural, used in many dialects. There is no difference in meaning between these two
  • - (mõt) - Sociative plural. Used to signify a group of people: the members of a family, a person and his family and friends.

Possessive suffixes

Every grammatical person in Mari has its own possessive suffix.

Person Suffix Example
- - (face)
First-person singular -/ ? (my face)
Second-person singular -/ ? (your face)
Third-person singular -///// (his/her/its face)
First-person plural - (our face)
Second-person plural - (your face)
Third-person singular -/ (their face)

Additional suffixes

Additional particles, falling into none of the categories above, can be added to the very end of a word, giving it some additional meaning. For example, the suffix - (-at), means 'also' or 'too'.

Arrangement of suffixes

The arrangement of suffixes varies from case to case. Although the case suffixes are after the possessive suffixes in the genitive and the accusative, the opposite is the case for the locative cases. In the dative, both arrangements are possible.

Case Singular Example Plural
Nominative P - 'my house (subject)' -? - 'my houses (subject)'
Genitive P -> C - 'of my house' - - 'of my houses'
Accusative - 'my house (object)' - - 'my houses (object)'
Comitative - 'with my house' - - 'with my houses'
Dative P -> C, C -> P , - 'to my houses' -? - 'to my houses'
Comparative P -> C, C -> P , ? - 'like my house' - - 'like my houses'
Inessive C -> P - 'in my house' ?- - 'in my houses'
Illative - 'into my house' ?- - 'into my houses'
Lative - 'into my house' ?- - 'into my houses'

There are many other arrangements in the plural--the position of the plural particle is flexible. The arrangement here is one commonly used possibility.

Comparison

Comparison happens with adjectives and adverbs. The comparative is formed with the suffix - (-rak). The superlative is formed by adding the word (en) in front.

Comparative Superlative
? - 'big' ? - 'bigger' ? - 'biggest'

Conjugation

Morphologically, conjugation follows three tenses and three moods in Meadow Mari.

Conjugation types

In Meadow Mari, words can conjugate according to two conjugation types. These differ from each other in all forms but the infinitive and the third-person plural of the imperative. Unfortunately, the infinitive is the form denoted in dictionaries and word lists. It is, thus, necessary to either mark verb infinitives by their conjugation type in word lists, or to include a form in which the conjugation type is visible--usually, the first-person singular present, which ends in - (or -) for verbs in the first declination, and in - (or -) for second-declination verbs.

Tense

The three tenses of Mari verbs are:

The present tense is used for present and future actions, for states of being and for habitual actions, among others.

The first preterite is used to express observed, recent actions.

  • Second preterite

The second preterite is used for actions that are in the more-distant past.

Additional tenses can be formed through periphrasis.

  • First periphrastic imperfect
  • Second periphrastic imperfect
  • First periphrastic perfect
  • Second periphrastic perfect

Mood

The moods are:

The indicative is used to express facts and positive beliefs. All intentions that a particular language does not categorize as another mood are classified as indicative. It can be formed in all persons, in all times.

The imperative expresses direct commands, requests, and prohibitions. It only exists in the present tense, and exists in all persons but the first person singular.

The desiderative is used to express desires. It can be formed for all persons, in the present tense and in the two periphrastic imperfect.

Negation

Negation in Mari uses a 'negative verb', much like Finnish does. The negative verb is more versatile than the negative verb in Finnish (see Finnish grammar), existing in more grammatical tenses and moods. It has its own form in the present indicative, imperative and desiderative, and in the first preterite indicative. Other negations are periphrastic.

The negation verb in its corresponding form is put in front of the negated verb in its second-person singular (the stem-only form), much as it is in Finnish and Estonian.

Person Indicative present Imperative present Desiderative present Indicative first preterite
First-person singular (om) - ? (õnem) (?õm)
Second-person singular (ot) (it) ? (õnet) (sõ?)
Third-person singular ? (oge?) / (ok) ? (õn?e) ?(?) (õne?(e)) (õ?)
First-person plural (ogõna) / (ona) - (õnena) ? (õ?na)
Second-person plural (ogõda) / (oda) (ida) (õneda) ? (õ?da)
Third-person plural ? (ogõt) (õnõ?t) (õne?t) (õ?t)

The verb ? (ula?) - to be - has its own negated forms.

Person
First-person singular - 'I am not' ? (omõl)
Second-person singular - 'You are not' ? (otõl)
Third-person singular - 'He/she/it is not' ? (ogõl)
First-person plural - 'We are not' (ogõnal) / ? (onal)
Second-person plural - 'You are not' (ogõdal) / ? (odal)
Third-person plural - 'They are not' (ogõtõl)

Example

In order to illustrate the conjugation in the respective moods and times, one verb of the first declination ( - to go) and one verb of the second declination ( - to forget) will be used.

Conjugation of the present indicative positive
Person 1st dec. pos. 2nd dec. pos.
1st singular (I go) (I forget)
2nd singular (You go) (You forget)
3rd singular (He/she/it goes) (He/she/it forgets)
1st plural ? (We go) ? (We forget)
2nd plural ? (You go) ? (You forget)
3rd plural (They go) (They forget)
Conjugation of the present indicative negative
Person 1st dec. neg. 2nd dec. neg.
1st singular 2 (I don't go) ??1 (I don't forget)
2nd singular 2 (You don't go) ??1 (You don't forget)
3rd singular ? 2 (He/she/it doesn't go) ? ??1 (He/she/it doesn't forget)
1st plural 2 (We don't go) ??1 (We don't forget)
2nd plural 2 (You don't go) ??1 (You don't forget)
3rd plural ? 2 (They don't go) ? ??1 (They don't forget)
  1. Bold letters are subject to vowel harmony--they can be ?/?/?, depending on the preceding full vowel.
  2. First-conjugation verb forms using the imperative second-person singular as their stem are subject to the same stem changes as the imperative - see imperative second-person singular.
Conjugation of the 1st preterite indicative positive
Person 1st dec. pos. 2nd dec. pos.
1st singular 3 (I went) (I forgot)
2nd singular 3 (You went) (You forgot)
3rd singular ??1, 3 (He/she/it went) (He/she/it forgot)
1st plural 2 (We went) (We forget)
2nd plural 2 (You went) (You forgot)
3rd plural 3 (They went) ? (They forgot)
  1. Bold letters are subject to vowel harmony--they can be ?/?/?, depending on the preceding full vowel.
  2. First-conjugation verb forms using the imperative second-person singular as their stem are subject to the same stem changes as the imperative - see imperative second-person singular.
  3. If the consonant prior to the ending can be palatalized--if it is ? (l) or ? (n)--it is palatalized in this position. Palatalization is not marked if the vowel following a consonant is an ?.
    -> , , ?, , , (to hear)
Conjugation of the 1st preterite indicative negative
Person 1st dec. neg. 2nd dec. neg.
1st singular 2 (I didn't go) ??1 (I didn't forget)
2nd singular 2 (You didn't go) ??1 (You didn't forget)
3rd singular 2 (He/she/it didn't go) ??1 (He/she/it didn't forget)
1st plural ? 2 (We didn't go) ? ??1 (We don't forget)
2nd plural ? 2 (You didn't go) ? ??1 (You didn't forget)
3rd plural 2 (They didn't go) ??1 (They didn't forget)
  1. Bold letters are subject to vowel harmony--they can be ?/?/?, depending on the preceding full vowel.
  2. First-conjugation verb forms using the imperative second-person singular as their stem are subject to the same stem changes as the imperative - see imperative second-person singular.
Conjugation of the 2nd preterite indicative positive
Person 1st dec. pos. 2nd dec. pos.
1st singular (I went) (I forgot)
2nd singular (You went) (You forgot)
3rd singular (He/she/it went) (He/she/it forgot)
1st plural (We went) (We forget)
2nd plural (You went) (You forgot)
3rd plural (They went) (They forgot)
Conjugation of the 2nd preterite indicative negative
Person 1st dec. neg. 2nd dec. neg.
1st singular ? (I didn't go) ? (I didn't forget)
2nd singular ? (You didn't go) ? (You didn't forget)
3rd singular ?(He/she/it didn't go) ?(He/she/it didn't forget)
1st plural (We didn't go) (We don't forget)
2nd plural (You didn't go) (You didn't forget)
3rd plural (They didn't go) (They didn't forget)
Conjugation of the imperative positive
Person 1st dec. pos. 2nd dec. pos.
1st singular - -
2nd singular 3 (Go!) ??1 (Forget!)
3rd singular 2 (He/She/It should go) ?1 (He/She/It should forget)
1st plural ? (Let's go) ? (Let's forget)
2nd plural 2 (Go!) ? (Forget!)
3rd plural ? (They should go) ? (They should forget)
  1. Bold letters are subject to vowel harmony--they can be ?/?/?, depending on the preceding full vowel.
  2. First-conjugation verb forms using the imperative second-person singular as their stem are subject to the same stem changes as the imperative.
  3. In the first conjugation, the imperative second-person singular is formed by removing the - ending from the infinitive. Four consonant combinations are not allowed at the end of an imperative, and are thus simplified--one consonant is lost.
    -> ?, -> ?, -> ?, -> ?
Conjugation of the imperative negative
Person 1st dec. neg. 2nd dec. neg.
1st singular - -
2nd singular 2 (Don't go!) ??1 (Don't forget!)
3rd singular ? 2 (He/She/It shouldn't go) ? ??1 (He/She/It shouldn't forget)
1st plural 2 (Let's not go) ??1 (Let's not forget)
2nd plural 2 (Don't go!) ??1 (Don't forget!)
3rd plural 2 (They shouldn't go) ??1 (They shouldn't forget)
  1. Bold letters are subject to vowel harmony--they can be ?/?/?, depending on the preceding full vowel.
  2. First-conjugation verb forms using the imperative second-person singular as their stem are subject to the same stem changes as the imperative - see imperative second-person singular.
Conjugation of the present desiderative positive
Person 1st dec. pos. 2nd dec. pos.
1st singular 2 (I want to go) (I want to forget)
2nd singular 2 (You want to go) (You want to forget)
3rd singular ?2 (He/she/it wants to go) (He/she/it wants to forget)
1st plural ?2 (We want to go) (We want to forget)
2nd plural ?2 (You want to go) (You want to forget)
3rd plural ?2 (They want to go) (They want to forget)
  1. First-conjugation verb forms using the imperative second-person singular as their stem are subject to the same stem changes as the imperative - see imperative second-person singular.
Conjugation of the present desiderative negative
Person 1st dec. neg. 2nd dec. neg.
1st singular ? 2 (I don't want to go) ? ??1 (I don't want to forget)
2nd singular ? 2 (You don't want to go) ? ??1 (You don't want to forget)
3rd singular 2 (He/she/it doesn't want to go) ??1 (He/she/it doesn't want to forget)
1st plural 2 (We don't want to go) ??1 (We don't want to forget)
2nd plural 2 (You don't want to go) ??1 (You don't want to forget)
3rd plural 2 (They don't want to go) ??1 (They don't want to forget)
  1. Bold letters are subject to vowel harmony--they can be ?/?/?, depending on the preceding full vowel.
  2. First-conjugation verb forms using the imperative second-person singular as their stem are subject to the same stem changes as the imperative - see imperative second-person singular.
Conjugation of ? - to be - in the indicative mood
Person Present (positive) Present (negative) 1st preterite (positive) 1st preterite (negative) 2nd preterite (positive) 2nd preterite (negative)
1st sing. ? (I am) ? (I am not) (I was) (I was not) (I was) ? (I was not)
2nd sing. ? (You are) ? (You are not) (You were) (You were not) (You were) ? (You were not)
3rd sing. (?) (He/she/it is) ? (He/she/it is not) (He/she/it was) (He/she/it was not) () (He/she/it was) ? (He/she/it was not)
1st pl. (We are) (We are not) (We were) ? (We were not) (We were) (We were not)
2nd pl. (You are) (You are not) (You were) ? (You were not) (You were) (You were not)
3rd pl. ? (They are) (They are not) (They were) (They were not) (They were) (They were not)

Infinitive forms

Verbs have two infinitive forms: the standard infinitive and the necessive infinitive, used when a person must do something. The person needing to do something is put in the dative in such a situation.

Participles

There are four participles in Meadow Mari:

  • Active participle
  • Passive participle
  • Negative participle
  • Future participle

Gerunds

There are five gerunds in Meadow Mari:

  • Affirmative instructive gerund
  • Negative instructive gerund
  • Gerund for prior actions I
  • Gerund for prior actions II
  • Gerund for simultaneous actions

Syntax

Word order in Mari is subject-object-verb.

Some common words and phrases

Note that the accent mark, which denotes the place of stress, is not used in actual Mari orthography.

  • /Póro ké?e - Good day
  • ?/Kúgu táu - Thank you (very much)
  • , , , , /ik, kok, kum, nõl, vi? - one, two, three, four, five
  • , , ?, , /kud, ?õm, kandá?, indé?, lu - six, seven, eight, nine, ten
  • /mut - word

Bibliography

  • Alhoniemi, Alho (2010) [1985], Marin kielioppi (PDF) (in Finnish) (2nd ed.), Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, retrieved (Hill and Meadow);
  • Alhoniemi, A., Marin kielen lukemisto sanastoineen, Helsinki, 1986 (Hill and Meadow);
  • Beke ?., Cseremisz nyelvtan, Budapest, 1911 (Hill and Meadow);
  • Budenz J., Erdéi és hegyi cseremisz szótár, Pest, 1866 (Mari [Hill and Meadow], Hungarian, Latin);
  • Castrén M. A., Elementa grammaticae tscheremissicae, Kuopio, 1845 (Hill);
  • Glukhov, N. and V. Glukhov, "Mari Men and Women as Bearers of the Mari Language and Identity," Wiener elektronische Beiträge des Instituts für Finno-Ugristik, 2003. Available, along with other papers on Finno-Ugric languages and cultures* Ingemann, F. J. and T. A. Sebeok, An Eastern Cheremis Manual: Phonology, Grammar, Texts and Glossary (= American Council of Learned Societies, Research and Studies in Uralic and Altaic languages, project nos. 6 and 31), Bloomington, 1961 (Meadow);
  • Klima, L. "The linguistic affinity of the Volgaic Finno-Ugrians and their ethnogenesis," 2004
  • Lewy E., Tscheremissische Grammatik, Leipzig, 1922 (Meadow);
  • Ramstedt G. J., Bergtscheremissische Sprachstudien, Helsinki, 1902 (Hill);
  • Räsänen M., Die tschuwassischen Lehnwörter im Tscheremissischen, Helsinki, 1920;
  • Räsänen M., Die tatarischen Lehnwörter im Tscheremissischen, Helsinki, 1923.
  • Sebeok, T. A. and A. Raun. (eds.), The First Cheremis Grammar (1775): A Facsimile Edition, Chicago, 1956.
  • Szilasi M., Cseremisz szótár, Budapest, 1901 (Mari [Hill and Meadow], Hungarian, German);
  • Wichmann Y., Tscheremissische Texte mit Wörterverzeichnis und grammatikalischem Abriss, Helsingfors, 1923 (Hill and Meadow);
  • Wiedemann F., Versuch einer Grammatik der tscheremissischen Sprache, Saint Petersburg, 1847 (Hill);
  • ?. ?., ? ? ?, Kazan', 1918 (Hill and Meadow);
  • ?. ?., , Moscow, 1929 (Hill and Meadow);
  • , ?. ?., ? ? , vol. I, II, Yoshkar-Ola, 1964, 1966;
  • , ?. ?., "? ? ? ", ?. - / . ? ? -?, Yoshkar-Ola, 2005: 43-46.
  • , ?. ?., ?. ?. ?, and ?. ?. ?. ? ?, ?. 1. -: ? , * ?. ?., ? ? , Krasnokokshajsk, 1925 (Meadow);
  • ?. ?., ? ? ? , Yoshkar-Ola, 1975;
  • ?. ?., ?, Yoshkar-Ola, 1981;
  • ?. ?., ? ? -? ?, Yoshkar-Ola, 1929 (Meadow);
  • ?. ?. " ?", - . ?.3. Moscow, 1976: 3-96.
  • ?. ?. " ?", ?: . Moscow, 1993: 148-164.
  • ?. ?. " ? ? ? ", ?: . Moscow, 1993: 164-173.
  • ?. ?., ?-? ? ? ?, Kazan', 1920 (Hill);
  • ?. ?., ?-? ?, Kazan', 1894 (Hill and Meadow);

1990;

References

  1. ^ a b Mari at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Eastern and Meadow Mari (Eastern Mari) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Hill Mari (Western Mari) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Mari". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Estill, Dennis (2012). "Revising the Meadow Mari vocalism". Linguistica Uralica. XLVIII/3.
  4. ^ , ?, ? 1990: 9

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