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The Masovian dialect, also written Mazovian, is the dialect of Polish spoken in Mazovia and historically related regions, in northeastern Poland. It is the most distinct of the Polish dialects and the most expansive.
Masovian dialect (B3) among languages of Central Europe
Mazovian dialects may exhibit such features as mazurzenie, liaison (intervocalic voicing of obstruents on word boundaries), and asynchronous palatal pronunciation of labial consonants (so-called softening). The Kurpie region has some of the most distinctive phonetic features due to isolation. Characteristics include:
- Depalatalization of velars before /?/ and palatalization of velars before //; e.g. standard Polish r?k?, nog? ('arm', 'leg', in the accusative case) is rendered ['re?k?e], ['noe] respectively instead of ['rke], ['ne];
- /li/ sequences realized [l?] instead of [l?i];
- merger of the retroflex series sz, ?, cz, d? into the alveolar s, z, c, dz;
- /?/ > /i/ before certain consonants;
- the Old Polish dual number marker -wa continues to be attached to verbs;
- the open-mid vowels /?, ?/ are realized as close-mid [e, o];
- Standard Polish // and // merged with /u/ and /a/ respectively, in most situations;
- certain instances of a > e;
- [m?] > [?]
Masovian dialects also contain certain vocabulary that is distinct from the standard Polish language and shares common characteristics with the Kashubian language.
Mazovian dialects include but are not limited to subdialects of:
- Barbara Bartnicka (red.): Polszczyzna Mazowsza i Podlasia. ?om?a-Warszawa 1993.
- Anna Basara: Studia nad wokalizmem w gwarach Mazowsza. Wroc?aw-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.
- Anna Cegie?a: Polski S?ownik terminologii i gwary teatralnej. Wroc?aw 1992.
- Jadwiga Chludzi?ska-?wi?tecka: Ze studiów nad s?owotwórstwem gwar mazowieckich. Poradnik J?zykowy, z. 6, 1961, s. 253-258.
- Karol Dejna: Dialekty polskie. Ossolineum 1993.
- Barbara Fali?ska (red.): Gwary Mazowsza, Podlasia i Suwalszczyzny.? I. Filipów, pow. Suwa?ki, Bia?ystok, 2004.
- Województwo p?ockie. Uniwersytet ?ódzki, ?ód?-P?ock 1984.