Massachusetts's 5th Congressional District
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Massachusetts's 5th Congressional District

Massachusetts's 5th congressional district
Massachusetts US Congressional District 5 (since 2013).tif
Massachusetts's 5th congressional district since January 3, 2013
Representative
Population (2019)768,043
Median household
income
$106,311[1]
Ethnicity
Cook PVID+23[2]

Massachusetts's 5th congressional district is a congressional district in eastern Massachusetts. The district is represented by Katherine Clark. Massachusetts congressional redistricting after the 2010 census has changed the borders of the district starting with the elections of 2012, with the new 3rd district largely taking the place of the old 5th.[3] The 5th district covers many of the communities represented in the old 7th district. As of 2010, the population of the 5th congressional district was 727,515. On July 15, 2013, Ed Markey resigned from the seat to become the junior Senator from Massachusetts. On December 10, 2013, Democrat Katherine Clark won a special election to fill the seat for the remainder of the 113th Congress.[4] She was sworn into office on December 12, 2013 and serves as the Assistant Speaker of the United States House of Representatives for the 117th Congress.

Demographics

The district has been in Democratic hands without interruption since 1975. Before Paul Tsongas' victory that year, it had only elected three Democrats in its entire existence and had been in Republican hands since 1895.

It was one of the more moderate districts in heavily Democratic Massachusetts before redistricting in 2013. In state races, it supported Republican candidates for Governor William Weld, Paul Celluci, and Mitt Romney. In the 2007 special election to replace Marty Meehan, Republican candidate Jim Ogonowski ran an unexpectedly strong race, ultimately losing 51-45%.

Election results from presidential races

Year Office Result
2000 President Gore 57 - 36%
2004 President Kerry 57 - 41%
2008 President Obama 66.2 - 32%
2012 President Obama 65.2 - 33%
2016 President Clinton 69.3 - 25.7%
2020 President Biden 72.7 - 25.1%

Cities and towns in the district

Cities and towns in the district since 2013

Map of the 5th congressional district (in purple), from 2013 to 2023
Map of Cambridge, noting Wards, Precincts and congressional districts, including the 5th district (in green) and the 7th district (in orange), starting in 2013.[5]

In Middlesex County:

Arlington, Ashland, Belmont, Cambridge: Ward 3 Precinct 2A, Ward 4 Precincts 2 and 3, Wards 6, 7, 8, and 9, Ward 10 Precincts 1 and 2, Framingham, Holliston, Lexington, Lincoln, Malden, Medford, Melrose, Natick, Sherborn, Stoneham, Sudbury: Precincts 1A, 2, 3, 4, and 5, Waltham, Watertown, Wayland, Weston, Winchester and Woburn.

In Suffolk County:

Revere, and Winthrop.

In Worcester County:

Southborough.

Cities and towns in the district prior to 2013

1840s

"The towns of Ashburnham, Auburn, Barre, Brookfield, Charlton, Dana, Douglas, Dudley, Gardner, Grafton, Hardwick, Holden, Hubbardston, Leicester, Mendon, Milford, Millbury, New Braintree, North Brookfield, Northbridge, Oakham, Oxford, Paxton, Petersham, Phillipston, Princeton, Rutland, Southbridge, Spencer, Sturbridge, Sutton, Templeton, Upton, Uxbridge, Warren, Webster, West Boylston, Westminster, Winchendon, and Worcester, in the County of Worcester."[6]

1850s

"The wards numbered one, two, three, four, five, and six, in the city of Boston, and the towns of Chelsea and North Chelsea, and Winthrop, in the county of Suffolk; and the city of Cambridge, in the county of Middlesex."[7]

1870s

"Arlington, Belmont, Wards, 3, 4, and 5, Boston, Burlington, Everett, Lexington, Lynn, Malden, Medford, Melrose, Nahant, Saugus, Somerville, Stoneham, Swampscott, Wakefield, Waltham, Winchester, and Woburn."[8]

1880s-1900s

1910s-1920s

"Essex County: Towns of Andover and Methuen. Middlesex County: Cities of Lowell and Woburn; towns of Acton, Ayer, Bedford, Billerica, Boxboro, Burlington, Carlisle, Chelmsford, Concord, Dracut, Dunstable, Groton, Hudson, Lincoln, Littleton, Maynard, Pepperell, Reading, Shirley, Stow, Tewksbury, Tyngsboro, Westford, and Wilmington. Worcester County: Towns of Berlin, Bolton, Harvard, and Northboro."[9][10]

1930s-1960s

1970s

"Essex County: City of Lawrence. Towns of Andover and Methuen. Middlesex County: City of Lowell. Towns of Acton, Ashby, Bedford, Billerica, Boxborough, Carlisle, Chelmsford, Concord, Dracut, Dunstable, Groton, Lexington, Littleton, North Reading, Pepperell, Tewksbury, Townsend, Tyngsborough, Westford, and Wilmington."[11]

2003-2013

The district from 2003 to 2013

In Essex County:

Andover, Haverhill, Lawrence, Methuen.

In Middlesex County:

Acton, Ayer, Billerica, Boxborough, Carlisle, Chelmsford, Concord, Dracut, Dunstable, Groton, Hudson, Littleton, Lowell, Maynard, Shirley, Stow, Sudbury, Tewksbury, Tyngsborough, Wayland (Precincts 1, 3, and 4), Westford.

In Worcester County:

Berlin, Bolton, Harvard, Lancaster.

Recent election results

1990 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Chester G. Atkins (incumbent) 110,232 49.85
Republican John MacGovern 101,017 45.68
Other 9,891 4.47
Turnout 221,140
Democratic hold Swing
1992 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Marty Meehan 133,844 52.17 +2.32
Republican Paul W. Cronin 96,206 37.50 -8.18
Independent Mary Farinelli 19,077 7.44 +7.44
Independent David E. Coleman 7,214 2.81 +2.81
Write-in 223 0.09 -4.38
Turnout 256,564
Democratic hold Swing +2.32
1994 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Marty Meehan (incumbent) 140,725 69.83 +17.66
Republican David E. Coleman 60,734 30.14 -7.36
Write-in 65 0.03 -0.06
Turnout 201,524
Democratic hold Swing +17.66
1996 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Marty Meehan (incumbent) 183,429 99.08 +29.25
Republican Unopposed -30.14
Write-in 1,708 0.92 +0.89
Turnout 185,137
Democratic hold Swing +29.25
1998 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Marty Meehan (incumbent) 127,418 70.70 -28.38
Republican David E. Coleman 52,725 29.25 +29.25
Write-in 87 0.05 -0.87
Turnout 180,230
Democratic hold Swing -28.38
2000 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Marty Meehan (incumbent) 199,601 98.02 +27.32
Republican Unopposed -29.25
Write-in 4,040 1.98 +1.93
Turnout 203,641
Democratic hold Swing +27.32
2002 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Marty Meehan (incumbent) 122,562 60.15 -37.87
Republican Charles McCarthy 69,337 34.03 +34.03
Libertarian Ilana Freedman 11,729 5.76 +5.76
Write-in 149 0.07 -1.91
Turnout 203,777
Democratic hold Swing -37.87
2004 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Marty Meehan (incumbent) 179,652 66.99 +6.84
Republican Thomas Tierney 88,232 32.90 -1.13
Write-in 305 0.11 +0.04
Turnout 268,189
Democratic hold Swing +6.84
2006 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Marty Meehan (incumbent) 159,120 98.98 +31.99
Republican Unopposed -32.90
Write-in 3,152 1.02 +0.91
Turnout 216,832
Democratic hold Swing +31.99
2007 Special election, 2007
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Niki Tsongas 54,363 51.32 -47.66
Republican Jim Ogonowski 47,770 45.10 +45.10
Independent Patrick Murphy 2,170 2.05 +2.05
Independent Kurt Hayes 1,125 1.06 +1.06
Constitution Kevin Thompson 494 0.47 +0.47
Turnout 105,922
Democratic hold Swing -47.66
2008 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Niki Tsongas (incumbent) 225,947 98.71 +37.39
Republican Unopposed -45.10
All Others 2,960 1.29 -2.29
Turnout 302,397
Democratic hold Swing +37.39
2010 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Niki Tsongas (incumbent) 122,858 54.84 -43.87
Republican Jonathan A. Golnik 94,646 42.25 +42.25
Independent Dale E. Brown 4,387 1.96 +1.96
Independent Robert M. Clark 1,991 0.89 +0.89
All Others 147 0.07 -1.22
Turnout 229,647
Democratic hold Swing -43.87
2012 election[12][13]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Ed Markey (incumbent) 257,490 75.5
Republican Tom Tierney 82,944 24.3
n/a Write-ins 675 0.2
Total votes 341,109 100.0
Democratic hold


2016 election[14]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Katherine Clark (Incumbent) 285,606 98.6
n/a Write-ins 4,201 1.4
Total votes 289,807 100.0
Democratic hold
2018 election[15]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Katherine Clark (incumbent) 236,243 75.9
Republican John Hugo 74,856 24.0
Write-in 225 0.1
Total votes 311,324 100.0
Democratic hold
2020 election[16]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Katherine Clark (incumbent) 294,427 74.3
Republican Caroline Colarusso 101,351 25.6
Write-in 405 0.1
Total votes 396,183 100.0
Democratic hold

List of members representing the district

Member
(District home)
Party Years ? Cong
ress
Electoral history District location
George Partridge.jpg
George Partridge
(Duxbury)
Pro-Administration March 4, 1789 -
August 14, 1790
1st Elected in 1788.
Resigned.
1789-1793
Barnstable County and Plymouth County
Vacant August 15, 1790 -
March 3, 1791
Shearjashub Bourne
(Boston)
Pro-Administration March 4, 1791 -
March 3, 1793
2nd Elected in 1790.
Redistricted to the 3rd district.
District unused March 4, 1793 -
March 3, 1795
3rd
Nathaniel Freeman Jr.
(Sandwich)
Democratic-Republican March 4, 1795 -
March 3, 1799
4th
5th
Elected in 1794.
Re-elected in 1796.
Retired.
1795-1803
"1st Southern district"
Lemuel Williams
(New Bedford)
Federalist March 4, 1799 -
March 3, 1803
6th
7th
Elected in 1799.
Re-elected in 1800.
Redistricted to the 8th district.
Thomas Dwight
(Springfield)
Federalist March 4, 1803 -
March 3, 1805
8th Elected in 1802.
Retired.
1803-1823
"Hampshire South district"
William Ely
(Springfield)
Federalist March 4, 1805 -
March 3, 1815
9th
10th
11th
12th
13th
Elected in 1804.
Re-elected in 1806.
Re-elected in 1808.
Re-elected in 1810.
Re-elected in 1812.
Retired.
ElijahMills.jpg
Elijah H. Mills
(Northampton)
Federalist March 4, 1815 -
March 3, 1819
14th
15th
Elected in 1814.
Re-elected in 1816.
Lost re-election.
Samuel Lathrop
(West Springfield)
Federalist March 4, 1819 -
March 3, 1823
16th
17th
Elected in 1819 on the second ballot.
Re-elected in 1820.
Redistricted to the 8th district.
Jonas Sibley
(Sutton)
Democratic-Republican March 4, 1823 -
March 3, 1825
18th Elected in 1823 on the second ballot.
Lost re-election.
1823-1833
"Worcester South district"
John Davis daguerreotype by Mathew Brady 1849.jpg
John Davis
(Worcester)
Anti-Jacksonian March 4, 1825 -
January 14, 1834
19th
20th
21st
22nd
23rd
Elected in 1825.
Re-elected in 1826.
Re-elected in 1828.
Re-elected in 1830.
Re-elected in 1833.
Resigned to become Governor of Massachusetts.
1833-1843
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant January 15, 1834 -
February 16, 1834
23rd
LLincolnJr.jpg
Levi Lincoln Jr.
(Worcester)
Anti-Jacksonian February 17, 1834 -
March 3, 1837
23rd
24th
25th
26th
Elected to finish Davis's term.
Re-elected later in 1834.
Re-elected in 1836.
Re-elected in 1838.
Re-elected in 1840.
Resigned to become Collector of the Port of Boston.
Whig March 4, 1837 -
March 16, 1841
Vacant March 17, 1841 -
May 2, 1841
27th
Charles Hudson (Massachusetts).png
Charles Hudson
(Westminster)
Whig May 3, 1841 -
March 3, 1849
27th
28th
29th
30th
Elected to finish Lincoln's term.
Re-elected late in 1843.
Re-elected in 1844.
Re-elected in 1846.
Lost re-election.
1843-1853
[data unknown/missing]
Charles Allen (Massachusetts Congressman).jpg
Charles Allen
(Worcester)
Free Soil March 4, 1849 -
March 3, 1853
31st
32nd
Elected late in 1849.[17]
Re-elected late in 1851.[18]
Retired.
William Appleton by Southworth & Hawes c1852.png
William Appleton
(Boston)
Whig March 4, 1853 -
March 3, 1855
33rd Redistricted from the 1st district and re-elected in 1852.
Lost re-election.
1853-1863
[data unknown/missing]
Burlingame.gif
Anson Burlingame
(Boston)
American March 4, 1855 -
March 3, 1857
34th
35th
36th
Elected in 1854.
Re-elected in 1856.
Re-elected in 1858.
Lost re-election.
Republican March 4, 1857 -
March 3, 1861
William Appleton by Southworth & Hawes c1852.png
William Appleton
(Boston)
Constitutional Unionist March 4, 1861 -
September 27, 1861
37th Elected in 1860.
Resigned because of failing health.
Vacant September 28, 1861 -
December 1, 1861
Samuel Hooper from Mass.gif
Samuel Hooper[19]
(Boston)
Republican December 2, 1861 -
March 3, 1863
Elected to finish Appleton's term.
Redistricted to the 4th district.
JohnBAlley.jpg
John B. Alley
(Lynn)
Republican March 4, 1863 -
March 3, 1867
38th
39th
Redistricted from the 6th district and re-elected in 1862.
Re-elected in 1864.
[data unknown/missing]
1863-1873
[data unknown/missing]
Benjamin Franklin Butler Brady-Handy.jpg
Benjamin F. Butler[20]
(Lowell)
Republican March 4, 1867 -
March 3, 1873
40th
41st
42nd
Elected in 1866.
Re-elected in 1868.
Re-elected in 1870.
Redistricted to the 6th district.
Daniel W Gooch.png
Daniel W. Gooch
(Melrose)
Republican March 4, 1873 -
March 3, 1875
43rd Elected in 1872.
Lost re-election.
1873-1883
[data unknown/missing]
Nathaniel Prentice Banks.jpg
Nathaniel P. Banks[21]
(Waltham)
Independent March 4, 1875 -
March 3, 1877
44th
45th
Elected in 1874.
Re-elected in 1876.
Lost renomination.
Republican March 4, 1877 -
March 3, 1879
Selwyn Zadock Bowman.png
Selwyn Z. Bowman[22]
(Somerville)
Republican March 4, 1879 -
March 3, 1883
46th
47th
Elected in 1878.
Re-elected in 1880.
Lost re-election.
Leopold Morse.png
Leopold Morse
(Boston)
Democratic March 4, 1883 -
March 3, 1885
48th Redistricted from the 4th district and re-elected in 1882.
Retired.
1883-1893
[data unknown/missing]
Edward Daniel Hayden.png
Edward D. Hayden
(Woburn)
Republican March 4, 1885 -
March 3, 1889
49th
50th
Elected in 1884.
Re-elected in 1886.
Retired.
Nathaniel Prentice Banks.jpg
Nathaniel P. Banks
(Waltham)
Republican March 4, 1889 -
March 3, 1891
51st Elected in 1888.
Retired.
Sherman Hoar.png
Sherman Hoar
(Concord)
Democratic March 4, 1891 -
March 3, 1893
52nd Elected in 1890.
Declined renomination.
Moses T. Stevens.png
Moses T. Stevens
(North Andover)
Democratic March 4, 1893 -
March 3, 1895
53rd Redistricted from the 8th district and re-elected in 1892.
[data unknown/missing]
1893-1903
[data unknown/missing]
William S. Knox (Massachusetts Congressman).jpg
William S. Knox[23]
(Lawrence)
Republican March 4, 1895 -
March 3, 1903
54th
55th
56th
57th
Elected in 1894.
Re-elected in 1896.
Re-elected in 1898.
Re-elected in 1900.
Retired.
Butler Ames Massachusetts Congressman.png
Butler Ames[24]
(Lowell)
Republican March 4, 1903 -
March 3, 1913
58th
59th
60th
61st
62nd
Elected in 1902.
Re-elected in 1904.
Re-elected in 1906.
Re-elected in 1908.
Re-elected in 1910.
Retired.
1903-1913
[data unknown/missing]
John Jacob Rogers.png
John Jacob Rogers
(Lowell)
Republican March 4, 1913 -
March 28, 1925
63rd
64th
65th
66th
67th
68th
69th
Elected in 1912.
Re-elected in 1914.
Re-elected in 1916.
Re-elected in 1918.
Re-elected in 1920.
Re-elected in 1922.
Re-elected in 1924.
Died.
1913-1933
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant March 28, 1925 -
June 30, 1925
69th
Edith nourse rogers.jpg
Edith Nourse Rogers[25]
(Lowell)
Republican June 30, 1925 -
September 10, 1960
69th
70th
71st
72nd
73rd
74th
75th
76th
77th
78th
79th
80th
81st
82nd
83rd
84th
85th
86th
Elected to finish her husband's term.
Re-elected in 1926.
Re-elected in 1928.
Re-elected in 1930.
Re-elected in 1932.
Re-elected in 1934.
Re-elected in 1936.
Re-elected in 1938.
Re-elected in 1940.
Re-elected in 1942.
Re-elected in 1944.
Re-elected in 1946.
Re-elected in 1948.
Re-elected in 1950.
Re-elected in 1952.
Re-elected in 1954.
Re-elected in 1956.
Re-elected in 1958.
Died.
1933-1943
[data unknown/missing]
1943-1953
[data unknown/missing]
1953-1963
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant September 10, 1960 -
January 3, 1961
86th
Frank B. Morse.jpg
F. Bradford Morse[26]
(Lowell)
Republican January 3, 1961 -
May 1, 1972
87th
88th
89th
90th
91st
92nd
Elected in 1960.
Re-elected in 1962.
Re-elected in 1964.
Re-elected in 1966.
Re-elected in 1968.
Re-elected in 1970.
Resigned to become U.N. Under Secretary General for Political and General Assembly Affairs.
1963-1973
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant May 1, 1972 -
January 3, 1973
92nd
Paul W. Cronin.jpg
Paul W. Cronin
(Andover)
Republican January 3, 1973 -
January 3, 1975
93rd Elected in 1972.
Lost re-election.
1973-1983
[data unknown/missing]
Senator Paul Tsongas.jpg
Paul Tsongas
(Lowell)
Democratic January 3, 1975 -
January 3, 1979
94th
95th
Elected in 1974.
Re-elected in 1976.
Retired to run for U.S. senator.
James Shannon.jpg
James Shannon
(Lawrence)
Democratic January 3, 1979 -
January 3, 1983
96th
97th
98th
Elected in 1978.
Re-elected in 1980.
Re-elected in 1982.
Retired to run for U.S. senator.
January 3, 1983 -
January 3, 1985
1983-1993
[data unknown/missing]
ChesterGAtkins.jpg
Chester G. Atkins[27]
(Concord)
Democratic January 3, 1985 -
January 3, 1993
99th
100th
101st
102nd
Re-elected in 1984.
Re-elected in 1986.
Re-elected in 1988.
Re-elected in 1990.
Lost renomination.
Marty Meehan official portrait.jpg
Marty Meehan
(Lowell)
Democratic January 3, 1993 -
July 1, 2007
103rd
104th
105th
106th
107th
108th
109th
110th
Elected in 1992.
Re-elected in 1994.
Re-elected in 1996.
Re-elected in 1998.
Re-elected in 2000.
Re-elected in 2002.
Re-elected in 2004.
Re-elected in 2006.
Resigned to become Chancellor of University of Massachusetts Lowell.
1993-2003
[data unknown/missing]
2003-2013
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant July 1, 2007 -
October 16, 2007
110th
Niki Tsongas, official 110th Congress photo portrait.jpg
Niki Tsongas
(Lowell)
Democratic October 16, 2007 -
January 3, 2013
110th
111th
112th
Elected to finish Meehan's term.
Re-elected in 2008.
Re-elected in 2010.
Redistricted to the 3rd district.
Ed Markey, Official Portrait, 112th Congress 2.jpg
Ed Markey
(Malden)
Democratic January 3, 2013 -
July 15, 2013
113th Redistricted from the 7th district and re-elected in 2012.
Resigned when elected U.S. senator.
2013-present
[data unknown/missing]
Vacant July 15, 2013 -
December 10, 2013
Katherine Clark 2013.jpg
Katherine Clark
(Melrose)
Democratic December 10, 2013 -
Present
113th
114th
115th
116th
117th
Elected to finish Markey's term.
Re-elected in 2014.
Re-elected in 2016.
Re-elected in 2018.
Re-elected in 2020.
Member
(District home)
Party Years ? Cong
ress
Electoral history District location

References

  1. ^ "My Congressional District".
  2. ^ "Partisan Voting Index -
    Introducing the 2021 Cook Political Report Partisan Voter Index"
    . The Cook Political Report. April 15, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  3. ^ http://www.sec.state.ma.us/spr/sprcat/catpdf2010/cong2010/CongressionalDistrict_2011State.pdf Access date: March 28, 2012.
  4. ^ "Elections: Special State Election". www.sec.state.ma.us. Archived from the original on March 16, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  5. ^ "pdf". cambridgema.gov. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  6. ^ "State Apportionment". Massachusetts Register ... for 1843. Boston: Loring. 1779.
  7. ^ "Congressional Districts". Massachusetts Register 1862. Boston: Adams, Sampson, & Co. 1862.
  8. ^ "Congressional Districts of Massachusetts". Massachusetts Register and Business Directory, 1878. Boston: Sampson, Davenport, and Co. 1874.
  9. ^ "Massachusetts". Official Congressional Directory: 64th Congress (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1916. hdl:2027/uc1.l0075858456.
  10. ^ "Massachusetts". Official Congressional Directory: 69th Congress. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1926. hdl:2027/nyp.33433081797379.
  11. ^ "Massachusetts", 1977 Official Congressional Directory: 95th Congress, Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977, hdl:2027/uc1.31158002391372
  12. ^ "PD43+ » Search Elections".
  13. ^ The totals do not include Blank/Scatterings Ballots although they were reported.
  14. ^ "Massachusetts Secretary of State General Election Results 2016". Massachusetts Secretary of State. November 8, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  15. ^ Johnson, Cheryl L. (February 28, 2019). "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 6, 2018". Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved 2019.
  16. ^ "2020 - US House - All General Election Results". Massachusetts Election Statistics. Retrieved 2020.
  17. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 5 - 2nd Trial Race - Jan 01, 1849".
  18. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 5 - 3rd Trial Race - Apr 07, 1851".
  19. ^ "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory for the Second Session of the Thirty-Seventh Congress. Washington DC: House of Representatives. 1861. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016.
  20. ^ Ben. Perley Poore (1869). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory for the First Session of the Forty-First Congress (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office. hdl:2027/nyp.33433081796686.
  21. ^ Ben. Perley Poore (1878). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory: 45th Congress (3rd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office. Archived from the original on March 17, 2016.
  22. ^ Ben. Perley Poore (1882). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory: 47th Congress (3rd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
  23. ^ L.A. Coolidge (1897). "Massachusetts". Official Congressional Directory: Fifty-Fifth Congress. Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
  24. ^ A.J. Halford (1909). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory: 60th Congress (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
  25. ^ "Massachusetts". Official Congressional Directory: 75th Congress (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1938.
  26. ^ "Massachusetts". Official Congressional Directory: 90th Congress. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1968.
  27. ^ "Massachusetts". 1991-1992 Official Congressional Directory: 102nd Congress. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1991.

Further reading

External links

Maps

Election results

Coordinates: 42°21?19?N 71°17?54?W / 42.35528°N 71.29833°W / 42.35528; -71.29833


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